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StJtna anil lt)e Useful ^rls. 


inl thnso by wlinm we nre mimt bemfitsi^dJJbli bejnraf 




Sib Humphry Davy, ia hia last work of charming philosophy, 
remarks : " The beginning of civilisation is the discovery of 
some useful arts, by which men acquire property, comforts, 
or luxuries. The necessity or desire of preserving them leads 
to laws and social institutions. The discovery of peculiar 
arts gives superiority to particular nations; and the love of 
power induces them to employ this superiority to subjugate 
Other nations, who learu their arts, and ultimately adopt their 
manners ; so that in reaUty the origin as well as the pro- 
gress and improvement of civil society is founded in mecha- 
mcal and c/iemical invenlioTiB."* Thia remark was made 
thirty years ago ; and the foresight of the author is proved 
by his words having since become still stronger evidence of 
his position than at the time they were written. You will 
not, therefore, be surprised to find the nmjority of these 
" Stories of Inventors and Discoverers" selected Jrom the 
recorded triumphs of Mechanics and Chemistry. 

Although the Siity Narratives which aie the staple of 
flie present volmne range through ages, — from Archimedes to 
Isambard Kingdom Brunei,- — they, for the most part, consist 

'- of modem instances. The earlier records have, however, 
proved rich in what may be termed the Cwioeilies of In- 
vention, among which it ia not difficult to find many a gersa^ 

I of later success. In many cases, too,'t}ie' rao'ie.n:!^ hav&repiid 
what they owed to Iheii predecessote'Tjj throwing new %ht 
upon some of the boasted wonders of ancient isgeiiiuty.;' ajid 
this mode of illustration has been specially' attended -to 'iv^ 
the present work. In each instance alfo ii'isi'i\/^.e^!xmgh% 

• Qwiwlnlawj in Travel/ or, lig Lirsl Dagaqfa PKV^aaihiT. B j RVt aMTK^Vll 

^^^ TO THE READES,, ^^^^^^| 

as iai as practicable, to bring the narrative down to ihe 
science of our own time. 

The antiquities of such subjects are curious, and Interest- 
ing tJ) a large class of readers ; as in the cases of Printing 
and Gunpowder; the Art of Navigating the Air and Living 
under Water; the marvels of Automata; and a host of "Secret 
JnvHitions" besides those of John Napier. 

Occasionollf it has been but Justice to set in their pro- 
per light the merits of old workers — as in " The True His- 
tory of Friar Bacon," who was a reformer of science cen- 
turies before his more illustrious namesake, Francis Lord 
Bacon. In the " Story of Paracelsus" too, a proper estimate 
is attempted of his discoveries, which have been, in some in- 
Btances, obscured by hia quackery. 

To the nest group of Inventors — of the times of the 
Civil War and the Restoration — a sort of romantic iiiterest 
attaches : whether in the philosophical pursuits of Prince 
Bupert beside his forge in the keep of Windsor Castle, or iu 
importing " Eupert's Drops ;" in the recreations of Sir Samuel 
Morland, " Master of Mechanics" to Chwles II. ; or in the 
Cenluiy of Inventions by the Marquis of Worcester, who 
by this rational means beguiled the captivity in the Tower 
of London to which his loyalty had consigned him. His 
"Water-commanding Engine" is believed to have been one 
of the results of that period. 

In " the separate, simultaneous, and yet mutually depend- 
ent progress of industiy" in the latter half of last century, 
,;S?Tejfll bifiaBces b^v.^ been gathered; at the head of which 
'ia tliat'oi " Wdte; wUiji^or in worldly wealth, but possessed 
of ■ntsptat p<ihea jpnchaaifed t« fevr, was then wishing to 
re^Us^ aa i'^(^. de'ftined to effect more surpriijing results is 
fi%.'t^tory;tiF-I^ritali than tbe wars, alliances, and legisla- 
tion' of centune^-^f,;" Then, what a series of sufferings and 


9 with jealousy and ignorance can 
^greas of the Cotton Manufacture, conaur 
(reat inventiun 1 

To a somewhat earlier period helong the perils of J 
jmbe in his furtive journey to Piedmont, to brmg ove 
Ik-throwing machinery ; and the story of Lee'a 
ffthe Stocking-frame, traceable to the tenderest feeling 
an — his sympathy for " the sole part of all hia joys." 

In another group of narratives we see how brilliant w 
6 TOCcess of Davy's Safety-Lamp, and how miserable the £a 
(poor Carcel ; and Low hard was the battle which the p 
B of Gaa-lighting had to fight with parliament-n 
an erf science, ere the new light broke forth upon Ihi 
Next we have the Era of Engineering, in which i 
lAnntry was improved by Canals, Lighthouses, and Harbour 
riches. Breakwaters, and Docks, — by Brindiey, Smeat© 

ibrd, and Rennie, whose fortunes, as here narrated, a 
my cheering lessons to striving genius. 

The Steam-boat yields a long and interesting chapter, — 
>m the records of nearly four centuries since to the fate of 
IjpniBgton, whose invention led to the earlier accomplish- 
Bnl of Steam Navigation in another country. 
The Eailway proved, however, a more i 
Imngb the genius of George Stephenson, "once a locomotii 
toker in the north of England, and afterwards t 
t distinguished engineers of ntoder 
1 not less distinguished son, Robert Stepher 
niiis matured the System which his father had originatei 
To this group also belong the Brunels, father and e 
T famed for his Railway Works and Iron Shipbuilding, 
The arch-chemic art of Photography, aidsd by the science " 
f&e Stereoscope, forms the next chapter; and the work con- 
ades with an account of the Electric Teiegra'^^i, \\& an' 
Htion and conswnmatioji, which is crowded wWn \i 

Thronghout the following pages acknowledgment is made 
of the respective authorities for the facts and etatementa in 
the several natratives, the choice of wliich has been dictated 
by impartiality and anxiety to be just. From the Museum 
of the Commissioners of Patents at South Kensington special 
service has been derived ; the maclmies, models, and other 
records in this valuable Collection* of Inventions rendering 
it one of the most valuable institutions iu the coimtTy. 

In tracing the fortunes of Inventors and Discoverers, it is 
ptunful to note how many have become " Martyrs of Science ;" 
a phrase sometimes misapplied, and which, there is reason 
to hope, will at no very distant time be inapplicable. A 
brighter era is at hand, " Thirty years ago, there was not a 
single literary or scientific man who enjoyed a pension from 
the Crown, or (wili one exception) was distinguished by any 
mark of honour from the Sovereign. This is happily no 
longer the case ; for since 1830 there have been conferred for 
intellectual services thirty titles of honour, and we now find 
on the Civil List the names of nearly fifty distinguished per- 
sona. These liberal reforms naturally led to others ; institu- 
tions as well as individuals now share in the generosity <rf 
the State :"+ and tliat scientific men may long continne to 
receive such honours from a country which so largely owes 
its preeminence to the applied sciences, is tie fervent hope of 


uipiil of Kdlnhurgli UoiKorsily, 188B. 

e^a&ineg in t^t pttsnt Velmt. 

Eiipart, in Ida Laboratory in Windsor Castle, Tisited by 
CharlBB II. Drawn by John Gilbsrt, (See p. B7.) FTontiipian 
First PraodcBl Steamboat VignttU 

■ FoUy," OifDrd 

of John Napier of Marobiston 

tnit of Edward, MBrquia of Woroester .... 
IMofDr. JtinnsrinTraralgar-Bqiiare .... 
portldii of Mr. Babbnge's Differeoce Eogino in the Muaoum 

Sing's College, London* 

m.'t Firet Kefieoling Telescope 

) of Newton nt Qratithflm 

[tosse'a Great Heflacting Telescope at Parsonstowii 

lit ofPalissytho Potter 

edgwood'a EiHt Pottery 

ilia, from Cromford Heights .... 
of Samuel Crompton, Inrantor of tho Spinning Mulof 

,.in-thB-Wood, near Boltont 

Silfc-throwing Uilt nt Derby 

tthirh Iximbe brought his Silk maaliinery from Piedmont 3 

aDaT/a Model Bafety-Ump 2, 

L. Winsor, Projector of Streat Qaa-Lighting , . . . 2 

Ttuunea-Tiuinoi ShieldJ 

at Wylam in which George Stophenaon was born 

SodtsI Priise Lccomotire 

nils of George ateiiheTiaon and Hobert Btepbenaon, M.P. 
i^la of Sir L M. Brunei and I. K. Brunei 
mils and Plants from the Atlantic Talagmpb Plateau 
Copl«i bj-pemitMlon of Mr. Bahbasa nni] Mt. Georna (.'lowes. 

: ^tn«a of the Proprietor of Brajley'a Iliilarn of Sumy. 


Tke EngraTinp at page 142 repreBonte tlia face of that small portion of 
Mr. Babbage'H Differenoe Engino wlueh iB now etanding in the Mosenm 
of King's CollegB. 

fn correction of the cloaing sentenoe of the £rst paragraph in pflgo 
1*2, it should be stated that the portion of tho Engine in King's Col- 
lage is in order, and is capable of calcniating to tWe figurex, and two 
ordera ot differenoes, at the rate of 12 or 14 arguments and correspond- 
ing tabolar nuinbora per minute ; and neither Che number of orders of 
diSerenoes, Dor the number of digits, would make any difference in it« 

Withont numcraua carefully lettered and fignred meohaninal dra^f 
ings, it would be impossihlo properly to describe the elaborate mDcha&l; 
Iim of this Engine ; it has, indeed, been found impossible for one eom^ , 
potent meohanic, who has Hilly mastered CTsry portion, to eitplnan tha I 
machine itself to another equally ooropeteot meebauio without the d»*'| 
TotioD of considerable time. - 1 

Tho best account we can refer to is that given in tbe Sdiahur^i 
Jinnfu for July IS^U ; and the Machine itself may be inspected at Eing'a' 
College. There is also a much shorter but well-written article in Oie | 
First Supplement of the Petiity Ci/clopadia ; article, "Calcniating 

There is a varj cominoDly ontertKined, and cerf^nly ; 

noidoD that Mr. Babbage's " Analytical Engine" (i 
provement (wo wcro going to say i 
ftrence Engine. " 

This la altogether a mistake, there being scarcely less 
between a clock anil a Btcam-engins : the two onUrely different Bnginca 
of Mr. Babbage merely follow one another in order of time ; though, si 
oourae, the mechanical eipBrience he acquired during the progress (/ 
the one miist hare been of the greatest assistaoco whilst contriring the 
■epamts pordons of the other. 

With regard to this maohine, namely, the "Analytio^ Engine," w« 
can only refer the property - qualiSed mathsmatician to the SmsUA 
(ronjialioB of a paper by L. F. Menebrea (Colonel. Boyal EngineerB) of 
Turin, printed in tho 3d Tolumo of the Sciniijic Memoiri. The traB^ 
lator was the noble and all-acoomplished lady, Augusta Ada CountMS' 
of LoTelace, daughter of Byron, — 

" Adm enJB dunghtsr nfmr hmiqe m& lieirt." 

the larger, and by 

ceri^nly a very nataral,' I 

"(see page 142) is an imij 
iroTBment) on his "Dift 

The profound, luminoui 

i, and elegant note 

&r tbe roost instnictire 

part of the work 

by that lamented lady. 


ID FkanaBo, Ata> Whkhb) 
m GviipowiikhI 


i Water : the Ditwo-bell . 
<D Speaxinq Hachxneb . 


d; the Air : AnvEiiniiiEf 

[E Balloon 

:btobt or Fhiar Bioos 


w Pabaoki^cb 


a " New Philobophy" . 
IF PaincB Rdpiski . 
?ebt'b Dbof s" 




toN, AND THE Losorroui Watch: . 

HaBYET, and the ClKCtTLATlOir OP TB 
■RS or Calodlatiob .... 


I Galileo :" Imtkbtiok op the TELEscorK . 


Herbcbei., akd aa Telescopes . 
RoeaE'B RmrLEOTiiia Teuxoofes . 

. . . - , 1 

^BMOKttMWf: 111 ■■■■!. Illl 

■VI ...'.' I i 

/■OVDAJUI^ AxasaLooa 

IM. FUsKUsr*aT^iBKlB«3inTovLaHiBut.iss Euc- 

CkBIBIVT or !■■ rnwr INWIWMI or Cbimx-dakp xxd 

as Bmnvn Davt, ajk hb SmBrr-uxp . . . . • 

OtMetL, ±3B HH L&XF ! 

O«B-U09TI>O ] 

JlXB BwmLET, ASD CaSAL KiVRaHOS . . . . i 

Joflv aMXAMjf : LiasTBOcsis im Habbocks . . . . i 

iBTBsnon or Joeepb Bbduh ] 

Tbovu Telfobd, asc ibe HBiiAt SrapciaoK-BtUDOE . . i 

JOBH EERinE : Docks akd Bbhwb 1 

"Thi FlBSt Pkaciic.ii. Stkam-boa^ 1 

HlB laAMBARD M. Bbunel : Block Hacrikeki, asd tbb 

Tbahcb Tobrei. J 

OlOBOB Stefhehsoii, tbe Railhat Ehsiheeb - . . , i 

BoBKBT S/cneazvson,* and Railwat Works .... J 
laAHBAHD K. Bbuael: Railway Wobks, abd Iboh Shif- 

wuiOtva S 




TBI Elrotrio Trleobaph 3 

), R. atephoaeai 





i is scarcely possible to view the vast steam-Ehips of our day, 
linUiout reflecting that to a great ntaetec of Mechanic 

wards of 2U(}U years eiuce, we in part owe the invention of the 
maehiiie by woioh theae mighty vessels are prujielled upon 
the wide world of waters. This power is an application of 
"the Screw of Archimedei," the most celebrated of the Greek 
geometricians. De was bom in Sicily, in the Corinthian 
buy of Byraciue, in the year 287 a .a., and, when a very young 
.Inkn, was fortunate ouough to enjoy (he patroiiage of his rela- 
a Hittro, the reigning prince of SyracuEe. 
Klhe ancients attribute to Archimedes more than forty 
UOttl inventions — among which are the endless screw ; 
bioatioQ of pulleys ; au hydraulic organ, aocordiug to L„. 
so ; a maahine called the hdi^r, or screw, for launching 
iii^t; aud a machine called loc'dm, which appears to have 
eoiuisted of forty pieces, by the putting together of which 1 
lious objects uoiild be framed, and which was used by boys 
jiyrt of artificial memory. 

' 'medes is said to have obtained the friendship a 

e of Hiero by tlie following incident. The kiog had 

a certain weight of gold to a workman, to be made 

:>WD. When the crowu was made and sent to the 

ft Baspicion arose in the royal mind that the gold had 

■ adulterated by the alloy of a liaser metal, and he 3.^^V\e& 

^imedes for his assistance in detecting the iia^at\n& '■ 

'" '' ~s to measufe the bulk of tbe crovin. mditwA 


V^V Hiero's Crow?i. 

melting it into a regular figure ; for silver being, weight fbr 
weight, of greater bulk thivii gold, any alloy of the former in 
place of an equal weight of the latter would ueceflsarily increaas 
the bulk of the crown ; and a.t that time there was no known 
means of testing the purity of metaL Archimedea, after man]> 
uusuccessfu! attempts, was about to abandon the object altoi- 
gether, when the following circumstance suggested to hia dit* 
oeming and prepared mind a train of thought which led to tlw 
solution of the difficulty. Stepping into his bath one day, i^i 
was hia custom, hia mind doubtless fixed on the oliject c^hiB-j 
research, he ahanced to observe that, the bath being full, ft 
quantity of water of the same balk as hia body must flow ovel!!' 
before he could immerse himself He probably perceived thai, 
any other body of the aame bulk would have raised the waf ~~ 
equally ; but that another body of the same weight, but ]< 
bulky, would not have produced ed great an effect. lo &e 
words of Vitruvius, " as soon as he had hit upon this mft- 
thod of detection, he did not wait a moment, hut jumped joy^ 
fully out of the bath, and running forthwith townrds hia owr^ 
house, called out with a loud voice that he had found wlUK— ^ 
he sought. For aa be ran he called out, in Greek, Eureter 
Eureka I 'I have found it outi I have found it out I' When 
his emotion had sobered down, he proceeded to investigate th« 
subject calmly. Be procured, two mos^s of metal, each of' 

aaal weight with the crown — one of gold, and the other of ■ 
ver; and liaving filled a vessel very accurately with wat^, 
he plunged iuto it the silver, and marked the exact qimutity 
of water that overflowed. He then treated the gold ia th« 
same manner, and observed that a less quantity of water ovR- 
flowed than before. He nest plunged the crown into the saiiM' 
vessel full of water, and observed that it displaced more of tbri 
fluid than the gold had done, and less than the silver; hf 
which he inferred that the crown waa neither pure gold nao 
pure silver, but a mixture of both, Hiero was so gratified'' 
with this result, as to declare that from that moment he oouU 
never refuse to believe any thing Archimedes told h 

Travelling into Egypt, and olaerving the neoesaity of raisic^ 
the water of the Kile to points which the river did not reach, 
as well aa the difficulty of clearing the land from the pe- 
riodical overflowings of the Nile, Archimedea invented for totB 

hit Eafi»r on the Hjdraat.lE; BsHinc.?, in wl™li i^° ' ' 
of (he Infitrument, and Iho method by -lilch A. i 
coiDmrtted by the Jewellrr In tha CDSipiMiliim 

DybiBmeehtiTlealiuLdmAtliematlcal ^cquii-eiLn'iii- 


The Screw of j4rckmedes 

% tlie Screw wbicli bears his name. It waa likewise ui 
Bpump to clear water from tlie holda of vessels; i. 
e of Archimedes was held ia great Teiieratiou by 
tiis account. The screw maj be brieflj descrilxid us a long 
tlwith its lower extremity immersed in the water, which, 
g along the chanDela by the revolution of the maohine ou 
as, IB discharged at the upper extremity. When applied 
S propul^on of steam-vesselB, the screw is horizontal ; and, 
- put la motion by a steam-engine, drives the water back- 
I, when itsreactioa, or return, propels the vessel. 
^ba mechnniuol ingenuity of Archimedes was next displayed 
' « Vtirions machines which he constructed for the defeuoe 
le during a three-years' siege by the Romans. Among 
B iBTentions were cata,pults for throwing arrows, aud ha- 1 
B for thruwing masses of Btone ; und iron hands or books | 
jhed to chains, thrown to catch tlie prows of the enemy's 
■■-, aud then overturn them. He is likewise stated to 


i set their vessels on Are by burning-glasses ; this, how- 
3StB upon modem anthoritj, and Aruhimedes is rather 
d to have set the ships ou fire by niaclitues fur throwing 
d materials. 

ET the storming of Syracuse, Archimedes was killed by 
1 soldier, who did not kuow who he was. The soldiep^ 
ed ; but the philosopher, being intent upoti a problem;; 
.^^^ d that his diagram might not be disturbed ; upon whicli 
tke soldier put him to death. At his own request, expressed 
during his life, a sphere inscribed in a cylinder was sculptured 
oa his tomb, iu memory of his discovery that the solid couteutfi 
of a sphere is exactly two-thirds of that of the cii'cumEcribiii^^.^ 
cylinder ; and by this means the memorial was afterwards iden- 
^ed. One hundred and fifty years after the death of Archi- 
medes, when Cicero was residing in Sicily, he paid homage toil 
hia forgotten tomb. " During my quKstotship," says thiB,| 
illilstriuus Roman, " I diligently sought to discover the se- 
pulchre of Archimedes, which the Syracusans had totally ne- 
glected, and suffered to be growu over with thorns and briers. 
AKoUectiug some verses, said to be inscribed ou the tomb, 
\ mentioned that on the top was placed a sphere with a 
ler, I looked round me upon every object at the Agragen- 
■ date, the common receptacle of the dead. At last 1 ob- 
d & little colutim which just rose above the thorns, 
tl was placed the figure of a sphere and cylinder. 
I to the Syracusan nobles who were with me, this must, 
' *^ be what I am seeking. Several persons were imme- 
mployed to clear away tbe weei^, and La^ o^en. \h» 
. _j Boou as s passage was opened, we drew Tveat, «* 
A ou the opposite base tbe inscription, wilb. liaatV^ \a\i 

ist^ |H 

^^1^ Hiero's Galley, i^^^^^H 

Ifttter part of the verses worn aw3j. Thus would this moet 
famous, and formerly most learned, city of Greece have re- 
maiued a stranger to the tomb of one of its must ingenioui 
ddzena. had it not been discovered by a man of Arpinuia." 

To Archimedes U attributed the apopthegm : " Give mo a 
lever long enough, and a. prop strong enough, and nith mj 
own weight I will move the world." Tbia arose from his 
knowledge □( the poBsible effects of machinery ; but however it 
might astonish a Greek of his day, it would now be admitted to 
be as theoretically possible as it is praoticaJlj impossible. Ar- 
chimedes would have required to move with the velocity of K 
oannon-ball for millions of ages to alter the poaCiou of the 
earth by the smallest part of an inch. In mathematical truth, 
however, the feat is performed by every man who leaps from 
the ground ; for he kicka the world away when he rises, and 
attracts it again when he falls back.* 

Uuder the superintendence of Archimedes was also built the 
renowned Galley for Hiero. It was constructed to half its 
height, by 3I.M) master workmen and their servants, in six 
months. Htero then directed that the vessel should be per- 
footed afloat; but how to get the vast pile into the water the 
builders knew not, till Archimedes invented his engine called 
the Helix, by which, with the assistance of very few hands, he 
drew the ship into the sea., where it was completed in sis 
months. The ship consumed wood enough to build sixty larae 
gcdleys j it bad twenty tiers of bars, and three decks : ue 
mid(fie deck had on each side fifteen dining apartments, be- 
sides other chambers, luxuriously furnished, and iloors paved 
with mosaics of the story of the Jliad. On the upper deck were 
gardens, with arbours of ivy audvinesj and here was a temple 
of Venus, paved with acates, and roofed with Cyprus wood; 
it was richly adorned with pictures and statues, and furnished 
with coaches and drinking vessels. Adjoining was an apart- 
ment of box-wood, with a clock in the ceiling, in imitation of ' 
the great dial of Syracuse ; and here was a huge bath set with ' 
gems called Tauromenites. There were also, on each side of i 
this deck, cabins for the marine soldiers, and twenty stablet 
for horses ; in the forecastle was a fresh-water cistern, which ' 
hold S53 hogsheads ; and near it was a huge tank of sea- ' 
water,in which fish were kept. From the chip's sides projected 
OveUE, kitchens, mills, and other offices, built upon beams, 
each supported by a carved image nine foet high. Around the ^ 
deck were eight wooden towers, from each of which was raised 
a breastwork full of loopholes, whence an enemy might be an- | 
noyed with stones ; eaim tower being guarded by four armed I 

^ Archimedes, the Homer of Geometry. 51 

ira and two archers. On this upper dcrk was also placed 
nacbine invented b? Archimedes to fliug atouea of3(M) 
ds weight, and darts eighteeu feet long, to t)ie distance of 
,iacee ; while each of the three masta had two engines for 
throwing stoaes. The ship was fumiahed with four anohora of 
wood, and eight of iron ; and " ihe Water- Screw" of Archi- 
medes, already mentioned, was U9«d inatead of a pump for the 
■met ship j " bj the help of which one man might eaaily and 
•edilj drain out the water, though it were very deep." The 
H>Ie ahip's company cooaiated of an immenae multitude, 
e being in the forecastle alone 600 seamen. There were 
ad on board her 60,000 buahels of com, 10,000 barrets of 
&h, and 20,000 barrels of flesh, besides the provisions for 
r company. Bhe waa first called the Syracuse, but afterwards 
i Alexandria. The biulder was Archiaa, the Corinthian ahip' 
ighf. The vessel appeara to have been armed for war, and 
aptoooaly fitted for a pleasure-yacht, yet waa ultimately 
Id to carry oom. The timber tor the mainmast, after being 
Vtdn sought for in Italy, waa brought &om Eugland. The 
innons are not recorded ; but they must have exceeded 
B of any ship of the present day : indeed, Hiero, flndintf ■ 
none of the auiroundjng harbours sufficed to receive i— -^ 
t ship, loaded it with corn, and preaented the vessel w 
eargo to Ptolemy, king of Egypt ; and on arriving at Alex-* 

s hauled ashore, and nothing more is recorded 
,_ ^ A most elaborate description of this vast ahip 
I been preserved to us by Atheaseua, and translated into 
gliflh by Burchett, in his Naval Trangactiime, 
Archimedes has been styled the Homer of Geometry; yet 
i&aat not he concealed that he fell into the prevailing error J 
"'le ancient philosophera— that geometry was degraded h 
^^_g employed to produce any thing uaeful. " It was wit.. _ 
loulty," says Lord Macaulay, " that he was induced to stoop | 
D Bpeoulation to practice. He waa half ashamed of those 
mtions which were the wond«r of hostile nations, and al- 
1 Bpoke of them alightingly, as mere amusements, as trifles 
trbioh a mathuniatioian might be auflered to rebx his mind 
e application to the higher parts oE his st 




fsi vast service of which Magnetism is to man, maj be eaU 
to have commenced by supplying him with that invaiuable in- 
strnment, the Mariner'n Compass. Mr. Ballam chnracterises it 
as " a property of a natural substniice, which, long overlooked 
even though it attracted obaervation l>y a different peculiarity, 
has influenced by its accidentai diaeovery the fortunes of man- 
kind more than atl the dednctioue of phiioaophj." 

Before we describe the discovery of the Compase, we ahall 
briefly explain the source from which its power and usefulnea 
are derived. The Magnet is a metallic body, poseessing the 
remarkable property of attracting iron and some other metabk. 
It is said to have been found abundantly at Magnesia, iu Lydin; 
from which circumatanoe its nsime may liavc been derived. The 
term iintire mnii-ifi is applied to the load-stoTie, which appears 
to be derived from an Icelandic term, kider-nfein, signilyinK 
the leadiiiif-glone, bo designated from the atony particles fbimd 
connected with it. India and Ethiopia formerly furnished great 
qoantitiea of this native magnet. Tiger Island, at the mouth 
of the Canton River, in China, is in great measure made up 
of this ore, as mariners infer from the circumstance of the 
needles of their oompassea being much affected hy their prmd- 
■nitf to the island. In the earliest times there were repntaS 
o t>e five distinct kinds of loadstone, — the Ethiopian, the Hw- 
neaian, the Breotic, the Alexandrian, aud the Natolian. Itn 
also found abimdantly in the iron mines of Sweden, in AmV 
ricB, and sometimes, though rarely, among the iron ores ^ 
England. The ancients also helieved the loadstone to be of 
. two species, male and female. " We read," says Tomlinaon, 
" of its being used in the Middle Ages medicinally,— to core 
sore eyes and to procure purgation. Even in modem time*, 
plaisters have been made from thia ore ; and much otlier quack- 
ery has been perpetrated by its means."* 

The attracting power of the Magnet was known at a very . 
early period, as references are made to it by Aristotle, and 

Traditwiin of the Magnet, 7^ 

B pwticularly by PUny, who states that igiiorant persons 
1 it ftrrma ■, or quick iron, a name somcvFhat auaio- 
03 to our loadstone. Tlie same author sppeni'S to have beeu 
juaiiit«d with the power of the ma,g]iet to communicate pro- 
rties similar to its own to other bodies. The polarity of 
e Magnetic Needle, that is, the power of taking a particular 
rectiou when freely suspended, escaped the notice of the 
«kB and Komaus of antiquity ; but the Chinese appeitr to 
_ 'a been acquainted with it froni a veiy early date. 
We are not surprised to find sa mysterious an agency hb the 
jignet exercises, to have been referred to eccideutal origin, 
e ftnoient Greeks represent one Maguca, a shepherd, lea£ng 
I flocks to MoQut Ida : he stretched himself upon the green 
)rd to take repose, aud left iiis crook, the upper part of 
£oh was made of iron, leaning against a large stoue. When 
>woke and arose to depart, he found, on attempting to take 
hu crook, that the iron adhered to the stone. He coinmu- 
■ied this fact to some philosophers of the time ; aud they 
jd the atone, after the name of the shepherd, Magnes, the 
jnet; which it retains to the present day. It is, however, 
omiuated amoug many nations the loee-it<nu, from its ap- 

Emt affection for iron. 
A. tradition of very aucient date still exiata among the 
aese respecting a mountain of magnetic ore,' rising in the 
lat of the sea, whose intensity of attraction is so great as to 
w the nulla aud iron bauds, with which the planks of the 
1 are fiisteued together, from their places with great force, 
[ uuse the ship to fali to pieces. This tradition is very 
£rtll throughout Asia ; and the Cliinese historians place the 
ontaiu in Tcbang-hui, the southern sea, between TnnkL 
E Oootaiu China, Ptolemy also, in a remarkable passage S 
Qeogruphy, places this mouutain in the Chinese seas, ' 
ft attributed to St. Ambrose, there is an account of on 
) islands of tlie Persian Oulf, called Mammoles, in w 
the magnet is fouud ; aud the precaution necessary to be ti 
(of building ahi|S without iron) to navigate in that vicinity t| 
distinctly specified. It should also be added, that the Ohineti' 
writers place this magnetic mountain in precisely the sami 
geographical region that the autlior of the voyages of Sinbs{ 
tha Sailor does i which is to be I'egarded as a cuiiiirmatian i 
&e oriental origin of a great number of tales, — half fictio^ 
hftLf fact, — which are so universally diffused amongst the IsgenjT 
Ktj literature of every language a£ to seem indigenous it ~ ' 

■^ Magnetic Cars. 

It ia extremely probable (says Humboldt) tba.t Europe 4 
the knowledge of the northern and aouthem directing p 
of the Magnetic Needle — the use of the Mariner's Compas 
the Arabs ; and that these people were, in turn, indebted fi 
to the Chinese. In the Chinese historical Sziiki of 8euii 
I, who lived in the earlier balf of the second century b 
era, we meet with an allusion to the "maguetio o 
which the emperor had given, more than 900 years earlier S 
the ambaesadorB from Tuukin and Cochin China, that thef 
might not miss their way on their return home.* In tlia 
fourth centur; of our era, Chioese ships employed the magnet 
t« guide their course safely across the open sea ; and it was hj 
means of these vessels that the knowledge of the compass iraa 
oarried to India, and from thenoe to the eastern coasts of Africa. . 
The Arabic designations Zoron and Aphnm (south and north), 
which TinoeniiuB of Beauyaia gives, in hia Mirror afifatwvi 
to the two ends of the Magnetic Needle, indicate, like manr 
Arabic names of stars which we still employ, the channel and. 
the people from vthoni western countries received the elements 
of their knowledge. In Christian Europe, the first mention of 
the use of the Magnetic Needle occurs in the politico-satirical 

■ poem called Ln BiUe, by Gujot of Provence, in 1190 ; and in 
the desoription of Palestine, by Jacobus of Vittr, Bishop of 
Ftolemais, >)etween 1204 and 1215. Dante (in his Par. xii. 
29) refers, in a simile, to the needle {igo) " which points to thB 
star." Navarrete quotes a remarkable passage in the Spanish 
Zm/e» de las Partii/iis of the middle of the thirteenth century; 
" The needle which guides ths seaman in the dark night, and 
shows him, both in good and in bad weather, how to direct big 
rse, is the intermediate agent (medianera) between the load- 
elone (la piedra) and the north star." 

Humboldt considers it striking that the use of the south 

' direction of the Needle shanldhave been first appUedin eastern. 
Asia, not to navigation, but to land travelling. In the anterior 
part of the Magnetic Wagon, a freely-floating needle moved the 
arm and hand of a small figure, which pointed towards the 
south. Klaproth, whose researches upon this curious subject - 
have been confirmed by Biot a.nd Stanislas Julien, adduces an 
old tradition, according to which the Magnetic Wagon w«h 
already in use in the reign of the Emperor Honngti, presumed 
to have lived 8600 years before our eta ; but no ailuaiou to this 
tradition can be found in any vrriters prior to the early Chris- 
tian ages. 

The Mimetic Wagon was used as late as the fifteenth 

iAJj day denoiultiace the Marlnei-'s CoiapoAi^ 

Use of the Mariner's Compass, ^^^1 

tottniy. Several of tiieee cam ages were carefullj preserved 
i the Chinese imperinl palnce, and were employed in the 
Bilding of Buddhist monaBtpries in Bxing the poiuta towards 
diich Uie main eides of the edifice should be directed. 

As the escesBive mobility of the Chinese Fecdles floating 

Kn water rendered it difficult to note down the indications 
oh they afforded, another arrangement was adopted in tlieir 
ce as early as the twelfth century of our era, in which the 
edle, which was freely suspended in the air, was attached to 
ine cotton or silken thread; and by means of this more 
feet apparatus, the Chinese, aa early us the begimiiiig of the 
Felfth century, determined the amount of the western varia- 
m of the needle. From its use on land, the Compass was 
tally adapted to maritime purposes. When it had become 
toenl throughout the Indian Ocean, along the shores of Per- 
[ md Arabia, it was introduced into the West, in the twelfth 
itnry, either directly through the influence of the Arabs, or 
ougn the agency of the Crusaders, who, since 109R, had 
in brought in contact with Egypt and the true oriental 

Bions. The most essential share in its use seems to have 
ongcd to the Moorish pilots, the Genoese, Venetians, Ma- 
■cans, and Catalans. The old story, that Marco Polo first 
imgfat the Compass into Europe, has long been disproved : 
he travelled from 1271 to 1295, it is evident, from the testi- 
we have quoted, that the Compass was, at aU eventSj. ■ 

n European seas from eisrty to seventy years before Man» J 

do set forth on his journey inga. 
Dr. Gilbert, who was physician in ordinary to Que' 
th, Btal«s that P. VenutuB brought a Compass from China iL 
BO. OUliert bestowed much attention upon magnetism, anfl 
some extent inculcated the doctrine of gravitation, by conw 
^ng the earth to a great magnet. The term "poles of 3 
niet" arose from his theory, which ia remarkably & 
a tile notions of the present day. 
The discovery of the Compass was long ascribed to FlavitM 

, of Positano, in 1302, not far from the lovely town 
, fi, on the coast of Calabria, iind which town was renderei. 
XEdshrated bj its widely-extended maritime laws. The Com- 
^ was then a rude and simple instrument, being only an iron 
Bdle magnetised, and stuck in a bit of wood, floating io a 
-f water; in which artificial and inconvenient form it 
a have remained till abont the beginning of the four- 
mth century, when Flavio Giqja made the great improve- 
nt of suspending the needle on a centre, and enclosing it in 
■OS. The advantages of this were bo great, thti.t,\t,\<TA'v»a- 
rsnlly adopted, and the instrument ia its o\4 ani saoi^ft 
tn hid aside and forgotten ; heiice Qioja in aitBv \wn«B aai« 

10 Variation of the Needle. ^H 

to be considered as the inrentor of the Mariner's OompaES, ot 
which he was ouly the improver. He lived in the reign of 
Charles of Atijuu, who died king of Naples in 1509. It was in 
compliment to this Eavereigii (for Amiilli is in the dominion of 
Kaples) that Gioja distinguiehed the north poiut by a fleor- 
de-lia ; and thia was one of the ciroumstauces by which, in 
FiHDce, til later days, it WEia endeavoured to prove that the 
Mariner's Compass was a French discovery, 

Quyot of Provence, the Prenoh poet, who lived a ceutuiy 
earlier than Flavio Gioja, or, at the latest, under 8t. LouisL 
describes the pokrity of the Magnet in the most unequivoou 
language. Evidence of the earlier use of the Compass in Ba- 
Topean seas than at the begiuning of the fourteenth century, 
is also furnished by a nautical treatise of Raymond Lully, rf 
Majorca, who was at once a philosophical systematiser and an 
analytic chemist, a skilful mrtriner and a successful propagatof 
of Ohristianity ; in l£S(i he remarked that the seamen of hii 
time employed " instruments of measurement, sea-charts, and 
the magnetic needle, " 

The application of the Compass to the purposes of tiavig;&? 
tion, doubtless, speedily led to the dieoovery of the TariatioB 
of the Ifeedle. It must have been known to the Chinese as ^ 
back as the beginning of the twelfth centiuy, as it is men- 
tioned in a work published by a Chinese philosopher, named 
Keon-tsoung-chy, who wrote about the year IIH (Sir Snow,^ 
Harris's RudimeTitary Mafftietiim). In the Life of Columbtu.' 
written by hia son, it is distinctly assigned to that oelebratea 
man ; and though its amount at this period must have been 
small in France, Spain, &a,, yet it was doubtless a very ob- 
servable quantity in many ol the regions visited by ColurabnB. 

It is reinai'kable that Columbus noticed the Variation of 
the Needle for the fii'st time when sailing across the Atlando 
ocean, in hia attempt to find a new world. It was on the 
14th of September 1482 ; he was perltaps 200 leagues frnn' 
land, and the variation was e. little to the west at London. Xt 
appears that Columbus perceived, about nightfall, that the 
needle, instead of pointing to the north-star, varied about halt | 
a, point, or between five and six degrees to the north-west, and,, 
still more on the following morning. Struck with this circum- 
stance, he observed it attentively for three days, and found 
that the variation increased as he advanced. He at first madfrt 
no mention of this phenomenon, knowing how ready hia people 
were to take alarm ; but it soon filled with consternation hie. 
pilots and mariners, who had leisure on the wide ocean for 
anxiety and curious wonder. It seemed as if the very laws lA 
natare were changing aa they advanced, and that they were 
eoteriDg ajiotber worJd, subject to lA.utaiu'NW vufliwuces. They 

Observation of Columbus. 

rajiprelieDded that the compaea vras about to lose its mystcriouB 
Tirtuee ; and nithuut this guide, wbat was to become of them 
in a vast aud trucklcBs ocean t But Columbus was prepared 
with a theory to account for this deviation of tbe lawB of na- 
ture, as the terrified aailora de«med it to be. The oeedle waa 
not at &ult, he said ; for it did not teud to the polar-star, but 
to Eome fixed and unseen point. The Variation, therefore, was 
) not caused by any fallacy in the Compass, but hy the move- 
ment of tbe polar-star itself; which, like the other heavenly 
bodies, had its changes and revolutions, aud every day de- 
Bcribed a circle rouud the pole. The high opiuiuu that the 
pilots entertained of Columbus as a profound astronomer gave 
weight to his theory, and their alarm subsided. As yet the 
' solur system of Copernicus was unknown ; the esplanation of 
Columbus was therefore highly plausible and ingenious, and 
it shows, and we admire, the perapioaoity of the mau who, 
with £0 little means, could traue up so fearful an effect to a. 
cause founded partly in truth, aud thus meet tbe emergency of 
the moiueut. The theoty.may at first have been advanced 
I merely to satisfy the minds of others; but Columbus appeals 

mbsequently to have been satisfied with it himself. 
L The discovery of a magnetic line without variation is due 

I to Columbus, In a letter vfritten ia 1498, he says : " Each 
I time that I saU from Spain to the Indies, I find, as soon as I 
' arriviB u hundred miles to the west of the Azores, an extra- 
ordinary alteration in the movements of the lieaveuly bodies, 
in the temperature of the air, aud in the character of the 
, ocean ; I have observed these alterations with particular care, 
and have recognised that tbe needle of the Mariner's Compass, 

I the deviation of which had been nortk-eaet, itiyw tarned to the 
nortii-ioeat. " 
An eloquent writer thus picturesquely illustrates the bene- 
fits of this great discovery ; '' In the development of the com- 
mercial Hpirit of the Crusades, Providence is seen in its most 
I manifest footsteps. Sitting upon the floods, it opens to new 
enterprises. The Compass twinkling on its card was a beam 
from heaven; that tiny magnet was given as a seniory of earth 
"" ' ' Like a new revelation, the mysteries of an unknown 
ere unveiled ; like a new illapse, the bold and noble 
; inspired to lead the way. Diaa doubles the Cape of 
■ De Gama finds his course to the East Indies ; Colum- 
ads the Bahamas : and twelve y 


The inquirers into the origin and historf of thia almost 
libiquUoua " noble craft and myatery," would eeem to have 
arrived at this conclusion — that it is difficult to saj at what 
period of time the art of Printing did not esist. The simplest 
and tnoBt natural mode of conveTinc; an idea ishjthe reprodao- 
tion of similar appenrauees from nn impression of the same stir- 
&ce ; and whether thia be by a hand or foot npoo snow, or bj 
the pressure of wood or metal upon paper or vellum, it is alike 
printi-Nff. Accordingly, we fiod evidence that near! j four thou- i 
sand years since a nide and imperfect method of printing was 
oe^inlj practised. First, seals wore impresiied upon a plastic 
material; next, symbols or characters were stamped upon clay 
in forming bricks (as practised in Babylon), cylinders, and tha 
walla of ediSces. Of thia art, Wilkinson and others have brought 
examples from Egypt ; and Bawliuaou and Layard from the niina 
of the buried cities of Asia, tTot only have the inecribed brickg 
been found, but the wooden stamps with which they were 
impressed ; of these numerous specimens are in the British 
Museum. Here also may be seen several instruments pre- 
senting a singular instance how very nearly we may approach 
to an important discovery, and yet misa it. These are brass 01 
bronze stamps, having on their faces inscriptions in raised oha- 
raoters reversed. To the back has been fastened a handle, a 
loop, a boss, or a, ring. One use of these stamps has evidently 
been to print the inscription ou surfaces, by aid of colour, upon 
papyrus, linen, or parchment ; and, as the inscriptions afaow 
these stamps to have been of the period when literature had 
become one of the pursuits of the great, and the copying of 
books was a slow and espensi-ve process, it is strange that the 
Romans, by whom these siguets were used, should not have 
improved upon them by engiaving whole sentences and com- 
positions upon blocks, and thence transferring them to paper. 
The Chinese printing from blocks at thia day closely resemble* 
the old Roman ; and they assert that it was used by them several 
centuriea before it was known in Europe, — in fact, fifty years 
before the Christian era. 

1 mt^ interval elapses between the b.\»i\& ftttemptfi and | 

V Printing from Movable Types. ^^^^| 

Bbo next odvanae — CDgrtkviujt pictures upoD wocNieu blocks ^^| 
Krented towards the end of the thirteenth century bj a twia ^H 
j^fcother und siator of the illustrious fatnil; of Cuuio, lords of ^H 
Ttalf: these cousisted of nine engravings of the "Heroic Ao-^H 
tions" of Alexander the Great, an.1, as B'bited in the title-p&ge^ ^H 
"first reduced, imagined, and attempted to he executed >n^H 
relief, with a small knife, on blocks of wood ;" " all this wu ^H 
done ftud Hnished by us when only aixteiiu years of age." This ^^ 
title, if genuine, presents us at once with the origin, execution, 
and design of the first attempts at block-printing. The next 
Barliest evidence is a decree found among the ai'chiveH of the 
i^Gompanj^ of Printers at Venice, dated 1441, relating to playiug- 
tdS) printed from wood blocks, the impressions oeing taken 
meaDB of a iiuniisher. Then, instead of a single block, a. 
lies of blocks was employed, in engravings oithe BiUiaPau- 
ntM, the text being printt^i from movable types. 
We have now reached the practice of pnnUitg, in the pre- 
'-t sense of the term. The uivention of tlie moiniUe tifj>ea is 
puted by many cities, but only three have the slightest 
um^-Hartem, Strasburg, and Mentz : Harlem for Lawrence 
tllier, who, when "walking in a. suburban grove, began first 
fitflhioa beech-bark into letters, which being impressed upon 
wr, reversed in the manner of a seal, produced one verse, 
p another, as his fancy pleased, to be for copies for ths 
Idren of his son-in-law." Hext, he, with his son-in-law, dft-^ 
ad " a more glutinous and tenacious species of writing-iiik^ 
ieh he had commonly used to draw letters ; thence he elH 
iBSed entire figured pictures, with characters added," onM 
■opposite pages, not printed on both sides. Afterwards hcB 
aged beech-blocks for lead, aud then for tin. The traditiouiB 
Is that an unfaithful servant, having fled with the secret, sefrfl 
£6r himself at Strasburg or Mentz ; but the whole storjf,! 
'vii. claims tjie substitution of movable for fiiced letters a ' 
If M 1430, cannot be traced beyond the middle of the sis 
9Xti oeutury, aud is generally dificredited as a romantic fictioD 
Mrtheleas some have believed that a book called Specvivn 
Mnuff^jnifiaim, of very rude wooden characters, proceeded 
n the Harlem press before any other that is generally re- 
lUBed. Whether movable wooden characters were ever em- 
fed in any entire work is very questionable ; they appear, 
rever, in the capital letters of some early printed books. 
ItU^" says Hallam, "no expedient of this kind could have 
EUed the greut (jui'|.oses of this invention, until it was per- 
ted by founding metal types in a matrix or mould; the 
mtial characteristic of printing, as distiuguislied. ftoio. o'C&Bt 
g that bear some analog to it." 
Tie iawntion la uow uuhesitatingly aBm\)ci to ScJas^ 

W^ Gutenberg and his Partners. 

Gutenberg, & native of Mentz ; the evidence of which does not 
reat upon guesses from dateless woodcuts, but upon a legal 
document, dated 1439, by which it is proved that Guteobe%, 
being engaged "in a wonderful and unknown art," admitted 
Oertctin persona into partnership, one of whom dying, his bro- 
ther claimed to be admitted ss his Bucceesor ; and on Gateo- 
berg's refuBal, tbej brought un action f^ntinst him as prinoipd 
partner. From the evidence produced on the trial, it wai 
proved that one of the wittieSiSes had been instructed by Qtiten- 
berg to " take the ttiicte (paf^s) from the presaes, and, by le- 
moving two screws, thoroughly separate them from one an- 
other, so that no man may know what it is." Prom thb 
oorioua document (says the latest investigator of the subject*) 
may be learnt that sepnmte types were used ; for if they wers 
block, arranged so as to print four pages (as stated in the evi- 
dence), how could they be so pulled to pieoes that no one 
■honld know what they were, or now could the abstraction of 
two screws cause them to fall to pieces 1 We are here reminded 
that within comparatively few years screws have been substi- 
tuted for quoins, or weageB, in locking-up the type in the 
chases, or iron fi-ames ; which may be a revival of Guteuberg's 
lerew Tnetkad of 400 ymn nnce. 

It seems that some sort of presses were now used, and tbs 
transfers no longer taken by a burnisher or roller ; and lastly, 
that the art was still a great secret at the time when Eoster 
vras at the point of death. Hence it is manifest that the in- 
genuity of Gutenberg had mode a vast advance from the ruds 
methods of the time, and had in fact invented a new and 
hitherto unknown art. 

All this took place at Strasburg, where Gutenberg reuded 
many years ; but it did not lead to any practical result, and 
the first book was printed at Mentz, near which the inventor 
was bom. Thither Gutenberg returned about the year 14B0j 
with all bis materials. His former partnership had expiMd^ 
and at Meut£ he associated himself with John Fust, a wealthf 
goldsmith and citizen, who, upon agreement of being tao^n 
the secrets of the art, and admitted into the participation <d ,, 
the profits, advanced the necessary funds, 2020 fiorins. The i 
new partnership then hired a house called Zum Jungen, and 
took into their employ Peter Sohceffer and otliers. A law-suit 
arose between the partners in 1465 ; and from a document in 
existence we learn that, having expended the whole of his con- 
siderable private fortune in his experiments, Gutenberg hod 
mortgaged his printing materials to Fust, which is proved by 
the initial letters used by Gutenberg and his partr"-= ' ="*■- 

Ltd. Yai\^ {EtK^tlapix^ia B 

rs in print^ j 
I. eiKlitli.^H| 

r Statue of Gutenberg. ^^^^^^B 

ing works between 1450 and 14S5, being likewise used bj FuBt 
and Scliceffer in tbe Psalter of 1437 and 1459. Giiteiiberg did 
not, bonevei', a,))a,iidon the unprolitable pursuit, but starting 
anew &t Mentz, carried on the bnainess for ton years ; but in 
146A, on becoming one of tbe band of geutlenieu-pensi oners of 
I the Elector Adulplius of Nassau, " lie finally Hbatidoned tbe 
noit of an art, which, tbougb it cnuBed him infinite trouble 
d vexation, baa been more effectual in preserving his uatne 
ind the memory of bis acts than all tbe warlike deeds and 
p«tit acbievemeuts of bis reuowited master and all his bouse" 
^Sanaani). Guttenberg died on tbe 24tb day of February 
PWB. His printing-office and materials were eventually sold 
Nicholas Beohtermuuze of Enfield, whose works are greatly 
i^t after by the curious, as they afford much proof, by col- 
ion, of the genuineness of tbe works attributea to his great 

Glatenberg appears to have had a troubled life. When young, 
B became implicated in an inaurrectiuu at Mentz, and was 
mpelled to fly to Strosburg ; there necessity oompelled him 
imploy himself iu mechanical pursuits, wben be made his 
Lt discoveiy. On his return, to Mentz, when in partnership 
iiith Fust, and Scbceffer bis son-in-law, be experienced tbe 
d &.te that all great inventors have to endure from tbe mis- 
lions and ingratitude of mankind. The Guild of Writers 
e priests persecuted him, and even his partners joined 
is enemies against bim ; and only bis last few years 
« passed in peace. Posterity has endeavoured, in some de- 
B, to make amends for the ingratitude of the discoverer's con- 
laporaries. In 1837, a statue of Gutenberg, by Tborwaldaen, 
WjttU erected at Mentz, and inaugurated witb great ceremony ; 
[ ^idnt high mass, in the fine old cathedral, was displayed the 
~ t Bible printed by Gutenberg, Tbe statue was erected by 
lexieial subscription, to which all Europe was invited to 
tribute : one who witnessed tbe ceremouy writes, witb hon- 
C indignation ; " Eudund literally gave nothing towards the 
' oe (rf a man who luis done as much as any other single 
le to make England what she is."* The Gutenberg Society, 
p'whicb all the writei's uf the Rhenish provinces belong, hold 
meeting also in Mente, to honour the memory of tbe 
A pinter, and to celebrate his discovery. 
It is bard to apportion tbe share of honour to which each of 
p {Mrtners — Gutenberg, Fust, and Schceffer — is entitled in 
mnciliK their art. Gutenberg would readily eusgest a new 
i expeditious method of mauu&cturing types j tlie practical 
m o f Fust as a worker in metals, and his large pftciuxvuc^ 
iBj would readii/ provide the necessary app^ucea-, wal. 

16 Caxton brings Priniing into England, ^H 

the entire coDoeption and eseoQtioa of the eastinif of type ii 
mven to Sohceffer. Tbe oiil; evideuce ehowB that the piuliaets 
oad for some time taken casLs of t^es in moulds of plaster; 
for the typoB of Guteuberg'a enrlier eEFurtG, both at StroBbiutt 
and &C Mentz, were cut out of single pieces of wood or mstM 
with infinite labour and imporfection. Schoeffer has there- 
fore (Mr. Hansard allows) an undoubted clalu) to be considered 
as one of the three inventors of printing; for he it was who 
first suggested the cuttiug of punches, nherebj beautiful form 
QOuld be stamped upou the matrix, and the liighost shaip- 
nesB and finish given to the face. Lambluet, who thinks " toe 
essence of the art of printing is in the engraved puach," natu- 
rall; gives the chief credit to Schoeffer; this is nut the gene- 
lallj-received opinion; but he is entitled to a place on the right 
band of Gutenberg. It Bhould be uoted, that there is no book 
known which bears the conjoint names of Quteuburg, Fust, and 
SchceOer, nor any which has the imprint of Guteuliei^ alone ; 
but there are several books which, &om iutenial evidence, ara 
unanimously attributed by the literati of all parties and opiui(Hll 
to Qutenberg's press. 

It is curious to observe that War was the means of quicken^ 

ing the growth and esctensiou of Printing. lu 1462, the storming 
ofMentK dispersed the workmen, and ^ave the secret to thA 
world. In 1465, it appeared in Italy;* ml4(i9, in France; in 
1474, Caxtou brought it to England ; and in 1477 it was intro- 
duced into Spaui. 

It is generally believed that William Caston was born in 
the Weald of Kent; about 1412, he wa^ put apprentice to & 
mercer or merchant of Loudon, became a travelling agent of 
&ctor ia the Low Countries, aud there bought manuscripts ani 
books, with other merchandiise. He there also learned the new 
art of Printing; and, securing one of Fust and Schoaffet'sfugitiTO 
workmen from Mentz, he established a printing-office at Co- 
logne, and there printed the French original and his own tranv 
lation of the Becuydl of the HUtonju of Trou, He afterwordft 
transferred his materials to England, and brought over with 
^Jsi3[i,Wynkyn de Wurde, who probably was the first Buperin-» 
tendent of Caxtou's printing-eatabliahmeut. He set up his first 
press at W^tminster, perhaps in uue of the chapels attached to 
the Abbey, and certainly under the protection of the Abbot jt 

sr^t pratt 

a, fortr-fDUT niileB frani Same, on a hill &b 


loB, lliil tlif cup of thfl IjTidt was striioli 
of dl(tklng, .nd tha Ubie ovortSrown by 1 

ly llBlilnrng whflh 

f Sanu Swlulis^/ 

P br the OennWi 

Bim and P«Mru: a cop? of Iheir Bdftlan o 

LacUntiuB, ^a 

2'he frel Printing-prets, 

the there produced the firtt bank printed in Etigland, 
^ cf Vheaae, completed oti the last Aay ot March 1474. 
ipitol work" was a Boo{- of tht NoUe Hiaoraa of Kf/ng Ar- 
} in 1466, the moat beOiUtifiil production of his prcBa. He 
I in 1491, being about fourscore years of age: his induatiy 
I devotedneas ia recorded iu the fact that he fiuiabed his 
ttion of the Vita Patrum, from Freuch iuto English, on 
, <i day t>f his lift. 
Oaxtoii was buned in the old church of St. Margaret, built 
a the reign of Edward I., aud o>f which few traces remaia. 
?lie pariah books contain an eutrj of the expenae " for iiij 
orohea" atid " tlie belle" at the old printer's " bureying ;" and 
eoine books record the churcbwardeua' aelling for 6(. Sd. 
of the boolcB bequeathed to the church by Caxton ! In the 
lod a tablet to his memory was raised in I82U by the Rojt- 
^ Club. Thie tablet (a chaste work by Westmacott) was 
InaUv intended to have been placed in Westmitister Abbey ; 
(he fees for its erection were aa great, that application was 
B to the churchwardens of St. Margaret's, who, as a mark 
ispect to their parishioner's memory, allowed it to be placed 
le church without any of the cuatomary fees. It was pro- 
i, several years since, to ereot at Weatminster a memo- 
statue of Caxtoii, but the fund raised for that purpose 
enlarges Che Printers' Fensiou Society's sphere of beue- 

e must say a few worda as to the first Prctm. Gutenberg 
iought to have felt the want of a machine of aufficient 
er to take the impressions of the types or blocks which he 
lojed ; iior is it supposed that, with cutting type, forming 
TO, making and inventing ink, he could have had tinje to 

Bmet a press, eveu had he possesned the requisite niecha- 
|k>U> His junction with Fust and SchcefTer is tliought t( 
supplied the defect. 

e earliest form of priuting-press very closely resembled I 
launon screw-press, as the cheese or napkin press, with I 
) oontrivance for running the form of types, when inked, 1 
laa Collage, Oiford. shows thnt ha prtiilBi 



■ l@Oi Oth^ improTOBraU were from time to 
ed ; box tbej trcre ail npsseded about the com- 
>f the prtjcn t centnij, when ihe old vooden pre» 
' gsn war to E>ri Staabope'a inventioit of the iron press 
which b^rs his name. lie noTcltj consisted ia an improved 
application of the power to the gptndle and SCTew, whereby il 
s grestij' increased. Lord Stanhope also mnde some in- 
Tanents iti tbe process of eteTeotr|utig,and in the constnu- 
B of toeb for canals ; he inTcnted an ingenious machine 
r perfuming arithnetieal opetations ; during great part rf i 
jgfife he (tndied the actitm of the deetric fluid ; and in 1779 
'i public his theory of what is called " the returning 
f lightning." Lord Stanhope hequeathed 50fV. to thft 
. DCietT, of which he had been a Fellow fifty -one yean- 
a principle of the Stanhope press has been followed oat 
eral subsequent inventors ; and improvements of mechii-i 
nlcal detail introdnced, tending to the economy of time and 
labour, and to precision of workmanship. The printing-preo. 
however, proved inadequate to ■ rate of production equal to iJi€ 
demand ; and as early as 1 790, even before the Stanhope presi 
was generally known. Mr. W. Nicholson patented a pbintisu- 
KAcmys, of which the chief points were the following : " The 
type, being rubbed or cciapei narrower towards the bottom, 
was to be fixed upon a cylitider. in order, as it were, to radiate 
from the centre of it. This cylinder, with its type, was to te- 
TOlve in gear with another cylinder covered with soft leathfli 
(the impression cylinder), and the type reodved its ink fr<a^ 
another cylinder, to which the inking apparatus was applied. 
The paper was impressed by passing between the type and im^ 
pression cylinders" (//an»ini). Such was the first printisgi 
■■ machine : it was never brought into use, although most d 
Nicholson's plans were, when modified, adopted by after-cOK 

KOnig, a, conceived nearly the same idea; andmeet 
ing with the encouragement in England which he &iled to n 
ceive on the Continent, constructed a printing-machine for M* 
Walter: and on the 28th of November 1814, the readers of tl 
Timet were informed that they were then, for the first tim 
reading a newspaper printed by machinery driven by steaiU' 
power, and working at the rate of 1100 impressions per hoOTi 
Jh tbia machine the ordiuatj type was ub^. oni. XiiA -o.-^itisv* 
■t aurfaae, the impression being gwcQ \>s '^^'^ ^o™*- ^«®»'' 

The Printing-machine. 

tinder a cylinder of great size. This raaohine was, howeve ^ 
verj complicated, and was soon Buperaeded hj t)iat of MeBBTB.i 
Applegath ami Cowper, the novel features of whicli were, accu.- 
racy in the regiaUr (that is, one page falling precisely upon 
the back of the other), the method of inking the types, and 
the HimpliGcation of very cumplica-tcd parts ; and thia machine, 
with numerous modifications by different makers, is now in 
general use ; so that the foremost improver of the priuting- 
fflachine is Augustus Applegath, The simplicity of the opera- 
tion ie admirable : the whole machine is put in motion by 
means of a strap, which pasaes over a wheel under the frame, 
and ia mostly worked by steam ; it requiring only two boys, 
one to lay on, and the other to tafce off the sheets. 

The next great improvement was the construction of the- 
Vertical Machine by Mr. Applegath, in which he abandoned; 
the reciprocating motion (occasioning a great waste of motive^ 
power), and instead of placing the type on a plane table, placed! 
it on a cylinder of large dimensio'ns, which revolves on a ver- 
tical asis, with a continuous rotatory motion. " No descrip- 
taoD," says Mr, Ilansard, " can give any adequate idea of tne 
scene presented by one of these machines in full work, — the 
moKe of wheels and rollers, tiie intricate lines of swift-moving 
tap«s, the flight of sheets, and i^he din of machinery. The 
central drum moves at the rate of six feet per second, or one 
revolution in three seconds^ the impression cyhnders makft 
five revolutions in the same time, 'fhe layer-ou delivers two 
sheets every five seconds, consequently sixteen sheets arai 
printed in that brief space. The diameter of an eight-feeder,, 
including the galleries for the layers-on, is twenty-five feet. 
The Timet employs two of these eight-cylinder machines, each 
of which averages 1 2,0(KI impressions per hour ; and one nine- 
cylinder, which prints 16,000," Messrs. Hoe, of New Yort, 
bave constructed machines differing from Applegath's Vw- 
tical chiefly in the drum and impression cylinders being hori- 
lontal : one of these machines has been constructed with ten 
cylinders for working the Times at 20,000 impressions pet 
libar. Another American machine has been constructed to 
3,000 dotihle impressions per hour. 

knild Outenbei^, if he were to rise from the dead, ima- 

lat at the present day there would be more than 4000 

in Europe, each house being designated by its press ; 

" le, 600 in the city of London alone,^ant' 

les in England, supplying the printing n 

icale as this, for her populations !" — Ltct 

i InitiCulion, bu Mr. Hewy Brndbury, ! 

ion 1 


" Fbok the eaiiiest dawmngs of policj to tliis daj," j 
Burke, " ihe inventioa of men h&a beeu sharpeniug B.aAl 
pToviog the mystarr of murder, from the first rude easaj of tt 
uid stones to the present perftxtiun of gnunerj, cannonee 
bombarding, mining." The imputed universality of tb 
of ittTeution mav account for the difficultj of traciug ti 
cial practice of it in the compoution of Gunpowder ' 
taintj to anj period or nation. The evidence is a 
and it ranges from several centuries before the comn 
of our era to the claim of the German monk of the foui 
oentury, of whom a commemorative statue tvas erected s( 
as the year 1853. 

The earliest account eitaat on the subjeot of G 
eiiBts in a, code of Oentoo laws, where it is mentioned ■ 
pUed to firearms; this document, beiug of some fiftf 
ries before Christ, is thought by many to have been o 
the time of Moses 1 The uotice occurs in the Sanscrit p 
translated by Halhed, andis as follows: "The magistrata a 
not make war with any deceitful machiue, nor with po' 
weapons, nor with cannon and guns, nor any kind of fire 
ttJhed observes : "Tlie reader, no doubt, will wondi 
a prohibition of firearms in records of such remote a 
and he will probably hence renew the suBpicion which h 
been deemed absurd, that Alexander the Great did abs 
meet with some weapons of this kind in India, i 
in Quintua Curtiua seems to ascert^n. Gunpowder b 
known in China as well as in Hindoatan far beyoiid all p 
of investigation. The word ' firearms' is literally trans' ' 
the Sanscrit a^nee-asier {agni/aatra), a weapon of fire, 
earliest form they are described to have been a kind o 
tipped with fire, and discharged by some sort of expl 
pound from a tamboo. Among several extraordlnaiy pi 
ties of this weapon, one was, that after it had taken its fl 
it divided into several separate streams of flame, each o~ 
took effect, and which, when onceteoileA, coaWnot h 
gaialied; bat this kind of agnee-afitet iainiw\os(i." 
J^Utena iias selected many passages Itova Qm^ h 

Gunpowder in China. 

Btors fiiTourable to the opinion that Gunpowder was knoim 
^e ancients. He mentions the attempt of 9altnoiieue to 
nate thunder, and of the Brahmius to do the same thing ; 
i his most remiirkable quotation ie from the life of Apollo- 
IB of Tjana, written b; Fhilostratus, showing that Alexander 
M preTented from extending his couqueetB in India because 
Sttie use of Gunpowder by a people called Oxydrac^, who 
Meed the enemy " with Btonne of lightning and thunder- 
lls, hurled upon them from above." Philoatratus is not 
pftrkaible for Teracity ; but t^ing into consideration the re- 
MBOf Oriental history, and the fact of pyroteohiiy having been 
ivated from time unmemorial iu India and China, his as- 
toa docs not seem improbable. In India and m^y other 
■ of Asia, nitre occurs in great quantity, spread over the 
ice of the earth. Dr. Seoffem, the experienced writer oa 
subject, supposes a fire lighted on such a spot : the most 
l«ea observer must have noticed the effect of the Htltpetra 
ingmenting the flame j if then, attention having been 
bted to this phenomenon, charcoal and saltpetre had been 
ed together purposely, Gunpowder would have been formed. 
(ttlird ingr^ent, sulphur, is not absolutely necessary ; iu- 
, Tei7 good Gunpowder, chemically speaking, can be made 
tnit it. Solphar tends to increase the plasticity of the 
I, Hud better enables it to be made into and to retdn the 
' of grains. 
—Jl baa been said that Gunpowder was used in China as early 
te year *.n, 85. Sir George Staunton observes that " the 
Irlralge of Gunpowder in China and India seemed coeval 
[ Ifae most distant historic events. Among the Cbinese it 
Est all times been applied to useful purposes, as blasting 
~ &o., and in the making of fireworks ; although it has 
en directed through strong metallic tubes, as the Euro- 
did Boun after they had discovered it." In abort, there 
I BO doubt that a sort of QTinpowder was at an early 
JA lued in China, and in other parts of Asia ; and Barrow^ 
ae&t that the Chinese soldiery make their Gunpowder, and 
soldier prepares his own, is highly characteristic of the' 
e. Against the claim of the Chines to the invention, it 
Bed that the silence of Marco Polo respecting GunpowdeV 
be considered us at least a negative proof that it was 
to the Chinese in the time of Kublai-Khan. 
is nothing in the history of these people, nor in their 
Dtiouary of Arts and Sciences," that liears any allusion to 
knowledge of cannon before the invasion of Ghengis-Khan, 
1 (in the year 1211)) mention is made of Ao-pao, ws "" 
I, the name of cannon, which are said to \iave Wiiii " 
Ici set Sre to hiffitiamuble substances ; they ate BB.\i,\.a'i,^ 


GunpowdeT in Europe. 

bave hecn used hy the Tartars, not bj the Chinese, and 
prohabtj DOthiog more thaii the enormous rockets known iu 
India at tlie time of the Mohammedan invasion (Quartertv 
'• mem. No. 41). 

Numerous documents, however, show that Gunpowder was 
known in the East at periods of great antiquity ; whence it 
might haye been introduced into Europe, either through the 
medium of the Byzantine Greeks, or by the Saracens into 
Spain. In a paper read about iifty-hve years since, before the 
French Institute, M. langlcs maintained tliat the use of (iiin- 

EDwder was conveyed to us by the Crusaders, who are stated to 
ave employed it at the siege of Mecca in ^90: be contended 
thnt they had derived it from the Indians. 

Mr. Uallam considers it nearly certain that Gunpowder 
1 brought by the Saracena into Europe. Its use in engines 
war, though they may seem to have been rather like ov 
fireworks than artillery, is mentioned by an Arabic writer in 
the Escurial collection, about the year 1249. The words whi<^ 
are thought to mean gunpowder are translated /iuIdis nUratiu. 
The Moors or Arabs, in Spain, appear to have used gunpowder 
and cannon as early as 1312 ; and in 1331, when the King of 
Oranada laid siege to Alicant, he battered its walls with iron 
b'uUet9, diach^i^d bj fire from machines} which uovel modi 
of warfare (says the chronicle) inspired great terror. And 
when Alonw) XI., king of Gwtile, besieged Algeeiraa iu 1342-3, 
the Moorish garrison, in defending the place, employed traeTWt 
(titerally thunders) ; which a passage in the chronicle provM 
to have been a species of cannon, fired with powder. Aiii 
Petrarch, iuapoBsage written before 1344. and quoted byMiirt- 
tori, speaks of the art of mating Gunpowder as iiuper rara, 

Another authority traces Gunpowder to the Arabs, but at 
earlier date than hitherto mentioned ; and at the same time 
■eeks to identify it with an invention of much earlier antiquity. 
The celebrated Oriental scholar, M. Beinaud, has discovered ui 
Anbic Ms. of the thirteenth cental?, which proves that coni' 
positions identical with gunpowder in all but the granulations 
were, and had been for along time previously, in the posEesaion 
of the Arabs ; and that there is every probability they had ob- 
tained them from the Chinese, in the ninth century. Many of 
these were called " Greek fire ;" and compariug the account of 
Joinville, of the wars on the Nile in the time of St, Luuis^ with 
the Arabic recipes, there can be little doubt that we are now in 
osiesaion of what was then termed "Greek fire." Mr, Qrove, 
AS., who Ash investigated the ewVijcct ex^erimeutally »a 
Uaa bistOTioailj, concludes that the ma.w e\enieii\. (A >iTwSf 
aa coa tratlistinguiehed from other m&-iBimab\e KoJua^asiisa, 

It of 

ivith 1 

Witt I 

ove, I 

v W ' 

^^B Gunpowder in England, 

kS nitre, or a. Eolb coDtaiiiiDg inucb oxygen ; that Greek fire 
id Gunpowder were Hubstaiitiu-Uy the same thing ; Hud tliut 
e deirulopineut of the iuventiou liad been very bIow aud gra- 
ral, and had takeu place loDg autecedunt to the date of 
Icdmartz, the mouk of Cologne, a.d. ISiJU, to whom the in- 
^^mtiou of Gunpowder is geuerally attributed : thus adding to 
le imiumeriible if not uuesceptionable cases in which dis- 
iverieB commonly attributed to acaideDt, and to a single mind, 
e found upou iuvestit'ation to hare been progressive, and tlie 
BEult of the continually-impraving luiowledge of successive 

It was loug the custoin to attribute the invention of Gun- 
owder to our philosopher, Roger Bacon ; but a passage iu hia 
|ptM Majja, written in 1267, proves that instead of claiming 
■9 merit of the discovery, he mentions Gunpowder as a sub- 
mce well kuown ia his time, and even eiaployed by the 
ikers of fireworks ; and he miuutely describes a common 
M^er. In his treatise Be Secrelu Operiiui Ai-tii et Naturm, 
t> Bays, that from " saltpetre iit«f otiier ingredients we are able 
tt make a tire that shall buru at any distance." In another 
jMBBge he indicutes two ingredients, saltpetre and sulphur, and 
'Z-ura nope cum ubre," which is a truuspositiou of the words 
^carbouum pulvore" (charcoal in powder). At the period 
jrfaen. Saoon lived, Spain was tbe favourite seat of literature 
""" rt. Beicou is kuowii to have travelled through Spain, 
) have huun couversant with Arabic, so that he might 
seen the itianuBcript iu the Escurial coUectiou, which is 
,t leaEt as probable a suppoattiou as that he saw the treatise of 
[arcuB Gneous. Some fifty years iater, 1320, ia the date 
'med by the Geriuaus for the invention due to tiieir monk, 
tfaoldus Schwartz, in whose honour a stoue statue has been 
d in the town of Freiburg, where he was buru ; and iu 
Ijdy to earlier claims to the inveution, it is maintaiued that 
» Schwartz is due the merit, because he did not learn the 
W^t fiom any one else. 

Nearly two hundred years before this date, Humboldt states 
Wt a species of Gunpowder waa used to blast the rock in the 
amtnelsberg, in the Hartz mountains. 
Authorised statements negative the assertion by Camden, 
t, and oilier writers, that no Gunpowder was manu&c- 
1 England until the reigu of Elizabeth. Its firat appli- 
lou to the firing of artillery has been commonly aacril)ed to 
English at tbe battle of Cresiy, in Aug. 134() ; bi;t hitherto 
&Ctiuis depended almost solely on the evidence of a single 
_iaD writer, and the word " gunners" havii\a\ie6Q."ttie,t'«iSa 
_»ome public accounts of the reign of Edward. \\1. 'S\ift?A"(- 
Meph Hunter has, however, from records oi t\xepti\oi,^'i^^ 

£4 Gunpowder fiml made in England. 

the names of the personB employed in the manufooture of Gku- 
powder (uut of saltpetre KoA " quick sulphur," without Ujr 
mentioii af cliarcoal), with the quaiititieB supplied to the king 
just previously to his espeditioD to France la June or Jul? 
1346. Id the records it is tenned pvlvin pro iiigeniit; ana 
they estahlish that n coiistderable weight hsd been supplied tO 
the English armj subsequently to its landing at La Hogue, 
and previously ti> the battle of Cressy; audihat before Edwwd 
III. engaged in the siege of Calais, he issued au order to the 
proper officers iu England, requiring them topuruhaseas mueh 
sal^etre and sulphur as they could procure. Sharon Turaw, 
in his HUtary of Enfflii'iil, has also showo, from an order<<if 
Richard III. inthoEarleianMss,, that Qunponder was made ia 
Bngland in 14S;3 ; and Mr. Eccieston {Engliak Antiqailtee) states 
that the Buglish both rande and exported it as early as 14I1. 
Nevertheless, Gunpowder long remained a costly article ; ind 
even, in the reign of Charles L, on account of its deames*, 
" the trained bands are much disoonraged in their excrciung." 
In 168(i, it appears from the Clarendon Corregpondeii/^, that u» 
wholesale price ranged from about 2;. lOi. to 3^. a barrel. 

John Evelyn, of Wotton, Surrey, asserts that his-atiaeston 
were the first who manufactured Gunpowder iu England ; but 
this must be regarded as the reintroductiou. His grand&ther 
transferred the patent to Sir John Evelyn's grandfather, of 
Godatone, in whose family it continued till the Civil War. 
As we stroll along the valley in which lies Wotton Place, Wfl 
are reminded that upon the rivulet which winds through tUe 
peaceful region was once mode the " warlike contriv&nw." 
Evelyn, in a letter to John Aubrey, dated Feb. 8, 1675, sajs 
that on this stream, near his house, formerly stood many pow- 
der-mills, erected by his ancestors, who were the very first that 
brought that invention into EugUnd ; before which we had ^ 
OuF powder from Flanders. He also describes the blowiug>up 
. , of oue of these mills, when a beam, fifteen inches iu diameter, 
at Wotton Place, was broken; and on the blowing-up of another 
mill lower down, towards Sheire, there was shot through a 
cottage a piece of timber, " which took off a poor woman's 
head as she was spinning." 

Th» JVanM/ortufB of Ovapweder me,y ^le dBaoribed from a visit by 
Dr. Sooffem to one of her Majoatj's niillg at WnJtham, i- " " - 

First, us to tbe iitn^dieabi. The SHltpetre (prinaipally In 
pOTLaa irom BBn^ol) is boiled in lonfe pans, evaporateil, and crysta 
liHeil; and the oharcoai is prepared from the alder ar 

nbouiid in the neighbuurhuud. These prooosBoa ore conducted in 

baHdingii at some dietnuee from the Gimniwdsr Milla. whither [he I 

materiali ajQ esrried, by water, in oovered boats, to the worltH. There i 

" -'■--- 1 Imatooo, and charcoal, atfl ground BepamtHlyin niills. 

^ Noit 

Manufacture of Gunpowder. ^W 

Noit the ingradiBnts ora oonreyed to " tho Miriog-hoiise," 

Virttora wear OTer-shoea. Here, ic bins, ore the Baltpettti, brim- 
— J _!.__. ji^l_ weighed in tha eia<;t proportions: saltpetre 16, 
d charooal 15, in evary 100 porta. Of tho thrao in- 
iro pln-oed in a bellow drum, whioh revolrea rapidly, 
it^Uns-a fly-fan, whioh rotates in an opposite direotion ; in about 
impleto miituro is effected, and tho charge is reonred 
^ )r tho lower oriflee of the drum. 

I " campoeltiim" ia neiC taken lo ■' the InoorporBtiug Mills," i 
bustihie oomi>ound, to obtain ite oxploslvo power )yj 
img thoroughly incorporated. The null oonaiatsofaf 
nes ("runnorw"), weip^hiuij about ajtons Each, and slowly 
le nowder which \ti placed on the atone bed of the mill, 
uge wooden b&fliiL. The powder is preTioualy damped, 


f grindiog;. To msure this with p 
of any irregularity in a olOBk, the «ator-wheel whioh wi 
a mills in one bouse also Tonrks iCa reyoludoos on a dial 
Bndant con never be mistaken in iie time tbe ebiuTfe hns boeti 

■ might ottuaa it to explode. Sometimoa, a portion of the wood- 
if tho root, or mill, beooreiing dolathBd,— auoh m a oug of the 
—and Billing into the pan, acta as a skid on ono of tho runners, 
1 friction produces heat enough to cause a mass of powder to 
^ As a proteetion, over each hiviiso centaining a pair of milJs 
mded a flat board, whii:h, in case of an explosion, ia firat blown 

I, and being comiected by wires —'■'- - ' '" ■ 

tbe fellow mill, upsets Uic sami 
3 as little OS poaaible i 

M hazftrdoua processes, however, 

)ted is in hard flat lumps, and h „ ... 

"Braaking-doKii House," liy cotiveying it down an inoUnad 
Bmragh rdlera, whioh crush nearly 5001b, m the hour. T' 
'< is then lakoQ to "the Prass-liouse," and there, between g1_ 
pbtaa, is pressed in thin oakes to ono tiiird its hulk, hy a. power 
»ona 111 a hjdraulio press. Tbe eaken are roughly broken uii, 

4 in baajieta to "the Granidating-mLU," where t,ha powder is a 

down iiiuo (grains, the size being rugulntod by sieves. The 
red with bi'lcs foatened down with eop[ior naila, and the mil! 
started lor atojuied by a rope pa^-itng throueh the ' 
"" - •'V', po«dor Is then dried, by heat, in "tho" StoviUE- 
f Hanked estomaliy by " traversers" (mounds ofeardi 
Ed oriufine explosion, ahould it happen, as much as pos- 
ouee. Lastly, the powdor in aiftisd in " the Duaung- 
"-- '—with great velocity; tho dust 


The inventioQ uf the fia,raineter is one of the most d 
eveutfl iu the history of philosophy. No uew diaoove^ 
even those aubstnntiated by the telescope, eve 
hard at the door of u received aysteio, or in a ma 
imperiouslj demauded admissiou. The circtuustances ^ 
ing it are briefly tbese : 

The phenomena of the common Pump haii 
for mure than a century at least before the Christian ei 
mode of explanation was ainipiy the well-knovai mi 
"Sature abhors a vacuum;" hut no attempt had b 
to discover why. Sir John Herschel observes,- f" ' 
such abhorrence existed, and had the force of ai 
which could urge water a single foot into a pipe, there it 
reason why the same principle should not carry it up ( 
three, or any number of feet; none why it should sudde]]^{| 
stop at a certain height, aud refuse to rise higher, howevrt I 
violent the suction might be, nay, even fal! back, if purpoBE^ 
forced up too high." 

It is related that the engineers of Cosmo de Medicie, wisll' | 
iug to raise water higher than thii'ty-tno feet by means tin 
BUCking-pump, they found it imposBible to take it higher tbiS' 
thirty-one feot. Galileo, the Itahau sage, was applied to. inj 

n for a solution of the difficulty. Ithadl 
ail ages, that the water followed the piston no 
which nature had of a vacuum ; and GaJJleo 
dogma* by telling the engineers that this hori'ur 
or at least not shown, beyoud heights of thirty-^ 
his desire, however, his disciple, Torricelli, iiiv 
subjeat. He found that when the fluid raised - 
the horror of a vacuum did not extend beyond ( 
because the mercury would not rise to a greater 
hence lie concluded, that a. column of water thi 
liigli, and one of mercury thirty inches, exerted the ^ 

belief «( 

r Pascal and the Barometer. H 

sure upon the eame baee, and that the antagoiiigtic force which 
couuterbalOiUced them must in both cases bu the same ; and 
having learned from GaJileo that the air was o. hca^vy fluid, he 
concluded, aud published the uooduaion in IMS, that tie 
weight of the air was the cause of the vise of water to thirty- 
one feet, and of niereurj to thirty inuhes. He theu filled a 
tube, more than three feet long, and open at one end only, 
with mercury ; and theu, stopping the open end with the fin- 
ger, he placed the tube in an open vessel of mercury, with the 
open end downwards. On remcivinff the finger, the mercury 
in the tube sank until it stood in tne tube at about twenty- 
eight inches higher than the mercury in the vessel. He thus 
conetructed what is at this time considered the best form of 
the barometer. 

In 164e, Pascal, the youn^ philosopher of Clermont, re- 
peated these experiments at Rcjuen, before more than 600 per- 
sons, among whom were five or six Jesuits of the college ; and 
he obtained precisely the same results as Torricelli, with whose 
explanation, however, he did not became acquainted uiitU the 
followiug year ; when, assuming that the mercury in the Torri- 
cellian tube was suspended by the weight or pressure of the 
air, be suggested that it would necessarily fall in ascending 
a high uiountatu, by tlie diminutiou of the superincumbent 
column of air. At his request, his relative, M. Ferier, tried 
the barometer at the summit and the base of the mountain of 
Puy de Dome, in Auvergne; the result was, that the mercury, 
wmch, at the base, stood tw«nty-six and a quarter inches 
(French), was only twenty-three and a sixth iuuhes at the 
eummit. Pascal afterwards found the same result sensibly 
ebown in the usoeut of a ahurch-towe'r, aud of a private house. 
After this important experiment was made, Pascal inti- 
mated that different states of the weather would occasion dif- 
fereuces in the barometer, according as it was cold, hot, dry, 
or moist; and M. Perier tested this opinion by observations 
mftde at Clermont from 1649 to IGBl. Corresponding observa- 
tions were made at the same time at Paris and at Stockholm ; 
aud from these it appeared that the mercury rises in cold, 
cloudy, and damp weather, and falls wheu the weather is hot 
and dry, aod during rain and snow ; but still with suah irre- 
^larittes, that no general rule could be establiKhed. At Cler- 
%(oul, the differeuce between the highest and lowest state of 
* ' s mercury was one inch thiee and a half Hues ; at Paris, the 
jibi 3Uid at Stockholm, two inches two and a quarter lines. 
The discovery was, however, at first much uiiscouceived, 
veil disputed, till the queetion was finally decided \i-j va 
i to a oruciol imtaiice; one of the first, il not 'Cl\eNftrs 
u recordiu physiaa. "It was then aeeu," bbssSasS ' "■■ 


Youth o/Patcal 

HerMhel, "»a h;& glarinij iaatance, thftt the maintenanee o 
the meroiir/ in the tube was the eSeot of a perfectly delinite 
external cause ; while its fluctuatioiia from day to day, with 
the varying at»te of the atmosphere, BtroDgly corroborated the 
notion of its being due to the pressai^ of the eztemal air on 
the eurfooe of the mercury iu the reservoir." 

The truth of the thhig is ju9t this : air, though compua- 
tively light, is positively heavy, having a weight of its own. 
The above experiments showed that a square inch uf it, carried 
up from the surface of the earth to the top of the atmnspher^ 
is DO legs than fifteen pounds iu weight. It Is this weight M 
the atmosphere, fifteen pounds on every e([uare inch, thai 
poahes water into the void left by the up-drawn piston of a 
pump ; and there is, of course, a limit beyond which it cannot 
push the water, namely, the point of height at which the 
column of water in the pump-tube is einctLy bahtiiced by the 
weight of the ntmoanhere. It ia just a question of balance ; 
fifteen pounds can only support fifteen pounds, — a thing whiiA 
every body now understands, thauka to Galileo, Torricelli, ud 
Blaise Pascal, the seer, the discoverer, and verifier of the &ot 

Pascal evinced such early sagacity, that, at the age ofelevei^ 
a WH£ ambitious of teaching as well as learning; and he then 
-imposed a little treatise on the refractioua ofaounds of vibrat- 
ing bodies when touched by the finger. 0ns day he was found 
alone iu his chamber, tracing with charcoal geometrical figures 
on the wall ; and ou another occasion, he was surprised by hi» 
father, just when he had succeeded in obtaining a demonstm- 
tion of the 32d proposition of the first boot of EucUd — that 
the three angles of a triangle are equal to two right auglen 
AHtonished and oveijoye'S, his father rushed to nis friend* 
M. Bnilleur, to announce the extraordinary fact ; and tba 
young geometerwas instantly permitted to study, unrestiained, 
the ElementB of Euclid, of which be soon made himself master 
without any extrinsic aid. From the geometry of planes and \ 
solids he passed to the higher branches of the science ; i 
before be was sixteen years of age he composed a treatise 
the Conic Sections, which evinced the most extraordinary Ba_ 
city. When scarcely nineteen years of age, too, Pascal cOaJ i 
trived a machine to assist bis father in making the numerioE 
oaleulatioua which his official duties in Upper Normaudy n-' 

In later life, Pascal found researches in geometry an ocott- 
pation well fitted to give serenity to a heart bleeding froi ""' 
wounds of his beloved assoaiatea. He had for some tin 
nouuced the stiid^of the acienceSjWhen, during a violent attwik 
of toothache, which deprived him of sleep, the subject of the 
.peloid forced itself upon his thoughla. 'Eevm'si,?jaWvil, and 

Pascal weif/lis the Alviosphei 

Hurs, had trodden the Bame ground before him ; 
^tav eight days, and under suvure eufieriug, lie diEOOvei'ed a 
Eoeral method of solving this class of problems b; the s 
Illation of certain series ; and as there wa« only one etep f 
this discovery to that ofFluxions, Pascal might, with mor^fl 
leiBure aud better health, have won from Hewton and frontfl 
Leibnitz the gloi-y of that great in^ 
. Pascal's treatise on the weight of the whole mass of a: 
e the basis of the modem soieDce of Pueumntics, In ord 

e that the mass of air presses bj its weight on all the 
s which it surrounds, and also that it is elastic and com- 
asible, Pascal carried a balloon half filled with air to the top 
e Fuy deBoine. It gradually inflated itself as it ascended; 
3 wheu it reached the summit it was quite fuil and swollen, 
l^jf fresh air had been blown into it, or, what ia the Eame 
it swelled in proportion as the weight of the column of 
issed upon it was diminished. When agaiu brought 
ni, it became more and more flaccid ; and when it reached 
i bottom, it resumed its original couditiou. In the above 
Jitise, Pascal shows that all the phenomena and effects 
^erto ascribed to the horror af a vacuum, arise from the 
[ht of a maM of air; and— after explaining the vari- 
e of the atmosphere in diSereut localities and 
FftB different states, and the rise of water in pumps — he 
Uoulates that the whole mass of air round our globe weighs 
8,963,880,440,000,WK1,000 French pounds. 

Seeing that little more than two centuries have elapsed 
^ce the exposition of this great principle of Hydrostatics was 
clearly established, we are not surprised to find that the scieuos 
in the dark ages enabled the ancie'nt magicians to impose upoaj 
their dupes with unimpeachable oertaiuty. To name a few 
the most celebrated instances : the magic cup of Tantalus 
Mrhich he could never drink though the beverage rose to hf_ 
; the fountain in the island of Andros, which disuhargedfl 
en days, and water for the rest of the year ; thftfl 
(itain of oil, which burnt out to welcome the return off 

atuB from the Sicilian war; the eiapty urns, which, : 
t ftnnual feast of Saechus, tilled themselves n 
utonishment of the assembled strangers ; the glass tomb 
elos, which, after being emptied by Xerxes, could never 
□ be filled ; the weeping statues of the ancients, and the 
jing virgin of modern liinea, whose tears were uucourte- 
_ir stopped by Peter the Great when he discovered the trick; , 
Elbe perpetual lamps of the ancient temples ;■ — were nil the J 
a^ects of hydrostaCical pre^ure. 


Ikkediatslt after the diacaver]' of the principle of the Ba- 
rometer by Torricelli, in the pressure of the air on the gene- 
nl aarface, fulluwed that of Otto von Guericke, whose aim 
teems to have been to decide the question, whether a -vacuum 
QDuld or could not exiat, by endeavouring to make one.* The 
first Air-purop ooiistruoted by Querieke was eihibited by him 
at the Impennl Diet of Ratisbon in 16S4. It was an exbanat- 
ing syringe, attached underneath a spherical glass-receiver, and 
worked somewhat like a common pump. The syringe vrm en- 
tirely immersed in water, to reader it air-tight. The impe^ 
fectiou of his mechanism, however, enabled Guericke only to 
diminish the aerial conleuta of his receiver, not entirely to 
empty them ; but the curious effects produced by even a partial 
exhaustion of air speediiy escited attention, and induced our 
illustrioua countryman, Robert Boyle, to construct an air-pump, 
in which the syringe was so far improved that the water could be 
dispensed with ; he also first applied rack-work to the syrinp. 
In the Journals of the RoyaJ Society, Jan, 2d, 1660, we find 
Boyle's air-pump referred to as his Cylinder, and " that Mi. 
Boyle he desired to show bis Experiments of the Air," whidi 
are printed in the Society's Tramaetionn, The Air-pump con- 
structed by Boyle was presented to the Society by him in 106^ 
and it is now in the museum at Burlington House : the pump 
consists of two barrels. 

We have the testimony of a French aavnjil of the nineti. 
century, M. Sibes, that the Air-pump iu Boyle'a hands becaau 
a new machine ; and ProfesBOr Baden Powell considers tha> 
* he reduced it nearly t ts present oonstruotion." It ia trU8 
that the second s} rii ^e and the barometer gauge were sftec- 
wards added I v Hawksl ee and aevenl mmor improvement! 

iirv, in Ul» niWMJ 

cpflrimnttf ^ 

fefemdlohj he ame of the eipertmoBti 
' D/'oziiuitfii/a TeiHai af iu contilnsd ill b] tlu 

^ J/h^fdffAurfi Hemitpftera Gocrtckc Iuwpv« l ^fnardd adopted thQ 

pertmoBtll * 

■ Effects of the Air-pump. 31 ^H 

were made by Hoote, Mariotte, Graveaande, and Smeaton. All 
the alteratious which have been made siriue the time of the 
invetitioii. however important, relate to the mechanism ontj, I 

and not to the principle on which the pump acts. ^^B 

Dr. HuttoD has f^ouped these effects aud phenomena of tfa^^^^ 
Air-pump, In the exhausted receiver, heavy and hght bodie^^^^ 
(all eqntilly swiftly ; so, a guinea and a feather fall from the to|)^^| 
of a tall receiver to the bottom exactly together. Moat auimals'^^ 
die in a minute or two ; however, vipers and frogs, although , 
they swell much, Uve an hour or two, and after being aeemingly 
quite dead, revive in. the open air. Snails survive about ten 
hours ; efts, two or three daya ; leeches, five or six. Oyatera 
live for twenty-four hours. The heart of an eel, taken out of the 
body, continues toheat for great part of an hour, and that more 
briskly than in the air. Warm blood, milk, gall, &c,, undergo 
Koonaiderahle intcmesceDce and ebullition. Eggs of sillcworms 
tch in vacuo. Vegetation atope. Fire ia extinguished ; the 
ne of a candle usually going out in one niituite, and charcoal 
ftbout five minutea. Red-hot iron aeems, however, not to be 
sd; sulphur and guupowder are not lighted by it, only 
A match, after lying seemingly extinct for a long while, 
iveeon re-admitting theair. A flint and steel strike sparks of 
1 88 ooptously aa in air. Magnets and magnetised needles act 
in air. Heat may be produced by attrition. Camphor will 
t take fire ; and gunpowder, though some of the grains of a 
ip of it be kindled by a burning-glaBs, will not give fire to the 
ptiguoiis grains. Olow-womis lose their light in proportion 
the air is exhausted ; hut on re-admitting the air they pre- 
itly recover. A bell, on being struck, is not heard to ring, 
■eiy feintly. Water freezes, A syphon will not run ; and 
tridty appears like the Aurora, fiorealis. 
De la Croix relates the following instance of aagacity in a 
(, who, even under the receiver of an Air-pump, discovered 
) means of escaping a death which appeared to all present 
iritable. " I once saw," he relatea, " a lecturer upon experi- 
ntftl philosophy place a cat under the glasa-i'eceiver of an 
^pamp, for the purpose of demonstrating that life cannot be 
"orted without air and respiration. The lecturer had already 
B several atrokea with the piston, in order to exhaust the 
iver of ita air, when the cat, who began to feel herself veiy 
jmfbrtablein the rarefied atmosphere, was fortunate enough 
discover the source from whence her uneasineBs proceeded. 
a plaoed her paw upon the hole through which the air 
aped, and thus prevented any more from passing out of the 
eirer. All the exertions of the philosopher were qo'r 'on.- 
tlliiig: in vain he drew the piston; the cat's ^-w ^Set- 
tHy prereaied ila operation. Hoping to effect ^iapvw^ow. 

3S Theory of the Air-jun. 

lie again let air iuta the receiver, wLich, as goon as the cat pa^ 
oeived, she withdrew her paw frum the aperture ; liut when- 
ever be attempted to exhausL the receiver, she applied her paw 
as before. The spectaturs clapped their hands iu admiration of 
the cat's sagacity ; aiid the lecturer was compelled to remove | 
her, and Bul«titut« another cat that possessed less penetratioii 
for the cruel expert meut." 

Although the Air-pump is scarcely two centuries old, vet 
the Air-gun, which is so nearly allied to it in the constnictiui 
of its TsTve and condensing syringe, existed long antecedent to 
it ; for it is recorded that an Air-gun was made for Henry IV., 
b; Marim, of Lisseau, in Nurmaudy, as carlj as 1408; and 
another was preserved in the armory at Schmetau, liearing ^ 
date of HT4. The Air-gun of the present day is different 
Bishop Wilkius mentions " the Wind Ouu" as a late iiigeuioua 
invention, which discluu^ea witli force " almost equal to ooi 
powder guns." 

Professor HeUnholtz, one of the latest illustrators of thisio- 
Btrumeut, thus lucidly explains its theory ; " Into the chamber 
of au Air-gun we squeeze, by means of a condensing air-pun^, 
a great quantity of air. When we afterwards open the cock of 
the gun, and admit tlie compressed air into the barrel, the bill 
is driven out of the latter with a force similar to that exerted 
by ignited powder. Now we may determine the work con- 
sumed in the pumping-in of the air, and the living force wM^ 
upon firing, is communicated to the ball; but we shall never find 
the latter greater than the former. The compressed air haa 
generated no working force, but simply gives to the bullet that 
which has been previously communicated to it. And while ve 
have pumped for perhaps a quai'ter of an hour to charge tba 

Sun, the force is expended in a few seconds when the bullet iS 
isdiaT^ed ; hut bc<^use the action is compressed iuto bo fdiort 
a time, a much greater velocity is imparted to the boll tlwi 
would be possible Co conimuuicate to it by the unaided effort 
of the arm in throwing it." 

We may here relate a carious wager, which Sir Robot 
Moray, at the request of Charles II., brought forward at \ 
meeting of the Royal Society in 1671. It was— tliat th» 
king wagered 5lli. to 5i. " for the compression of air by watw." 
It was accordingly resolved that Mr. Huoke should prepsrt 
the necessary apjiaiittus for the experiment, which Sir RoWt 
Moray said "might be done by a cane, so contrived that it 
should take iu more and more water, according as it should ix 
sunk deeper and deeper into it." The minutes of a subsequent 
meeting record the successful norformanoe pf the experimt ' 
and Omt it " was acknowledged his majesty had woi 


»EB we consider the vast amount of treasure which has b 
1 time to time lost in tlie depths of the sea, we shall v 
jurpriaed at the variety of the means which have been de^T 
led for the recovery of the hidden wealth. The principal of 
e contrivanoGB is the Diving-beil, with tlie operations of 
;h the pnblic have become ^miliar bj the exhi bition of an 
jitoved bell at our Polytechnic Institution ;* but the history 
tbe iuventioD, as well as the primitive means by which it 
IB preceded, present many interesting instances of ingenuity 
i6cted to humane and praiseworthy purposes. 
In remote ages (says Professor Beckmaim), divers were 
' ' 'i ships to assist in raising anchors, and goods thrown 
rd in times of danger ; and, by the laws of the Rhodi'' J 
y were allowed a share of the wreck proportioned tStfl 
e depth in which they had gone in search of it. In war^J 
^ were often employed to destroy the works and ships of^ 
f enemy ; divers also £shed far pearls. The statements oj 
rir remaining under water imasaisted by apparatus for pro 
ting air are, however, greatly exaggerated ; they speak a^ 
i hours, whereas six minutes is the longest time of eubm^ 
Id recorded in modem times. 

' Dr. Halley, in a paper in th« Philoiophical Tramactio; 
" the Art of Living under Water," describes the divers E 

tcU li Bbont 01 

Street hJion, a diving-bell, »1 
manafacturBd by Cf.t Um and H.I 
weiaiin a oms; S feat in height, a 
Wllhln Is afllxed ii knocker, unde 

t ths Polrlaehnie In*M 
vbicblapaiDtadi g 


Pull np/kTiMklhrea [imea.' 


8-Ui1rd open al the bottom, haa 
»B openliiBs of ibicH plate-glM 

and wovltlne Into a well beiieal 

a Beat alt nond for ths 
cmbi'uiB''"h»in hmfng 

Living aitder Water, ^^^^^^1 

sponges iu the Archipelago taking dnvrn iii their mouths a 

S'ece of BpoQge aoaked iu oil, b; which they were eoahled to 
ve for a iotiger period than without it. As tlie hulk of tlie 
Sponge must dimiuiBh the quantitj of lur which the diver could 
contain in his moiith, it aoes not appear probable that this 
practice could assiat respiration. 

In connection with Diving by the un^aisted powers of the 
bod)', Proftissor Faraday relates this curious fact : The lungs 
are, in their natural state, charged with gi large quantity of 
impure air; this being a portion of the carbonic-acid gas whiiji 
is formed during respiration, hut which, after such expiration, 
remains lodged in the involved passages of the pulmonary ves- 
sels. By breathing hard for a short time, as a person does 
after violent exercise, this impure air is expelled, and its place 
is supplied by pure atmospheric air, by which a person will bft 
enabled to hold his breath much less longer than without soak 

ErecautioQ. Dr. Faraday states tliat, although he could only 
old his breath, after breathing in the ordinaiy way, for ahoot 
three-quarters of a minute, and that with great difficulty, he 
felt no incouvenience, after making eight or ten forced respirl- 
tions to clear the lungs, until the mouth and nostrils had beai 
closed more than a minute and a half ; and that he continued 
to bold breath to the end of the second minute. A knowledge 
of this feet may enable a diver to remain under water at least 
twice as long as he otherwise could do. Possibly the exertion 
of swimming may have the effect of clearing the lungs, so thst 
persons accustomed to diving may unconsciously avail theiU' 
selves of this preparatory meaeure. 

The advantage of breathing condensed air, and thereby ob- 
taining a larger supply of oxygen in the same bulk than witk 
air of the ordinary pressure, is shown also iu the following fact 1 
After one of the disastrous occurrences at the works of tba 
Thames Tunnel, Mr. Bruuel, the engineer, descended in a diving> 
bell to esaroine the breach made by the irruption of the river 
into the tunnel. Tliehell was lowered to the mouth of the open- 
ing, a depth of about thirty feet ; hut the breach was too narrolT 
to allow it to go lower, in order that the shield and othflf, 
works, which lay eight or ten feet deeper, might be examined 
from the bell. Mr. Brunei, therefore, took hold of the rope, and 
dived below the bell for the purDose. After he had remained 
under water about two minut-es, his companion in the bell be* 
came alarmed, aud gave a signal which caused Brunei to rise. Oa 
doing BO, he was surprised to find how much time had elapsed: 
and, on repeating the experiment, he ascerbiiiied that he could' 
with ease remain fully two minutes under water ; a 
stance accounted for by the condensation of the air in ( 
/him which bia lungs were sapplied \(j tW ■jtwiwwe of 


}f aj^H 

The earliest Diving-bell, i^H 

I [umii of water nenrly tbirt; feet high, which would condense 
"le air into httle more than one-half of its usuiU hulk. 

PlSiDS for enabling persona to remain for a. louder period 

tender water thau is pussthle bj the natural powers of the body, 

« of very old date. Aristotla is supposed to intimate that in 

is time divers used a Icuid of kettle to enable them to con- 

inae longer under water; but this interpretation is dieputed. 

leckraanu states that the oldest information we have respecting 

tiie nee of the Diving-bell in Europe is that of John Taisnier, 

fluoted in Schott's Technica Cnriosa, Nuremberg, lG(i4, in which 

. ^niier relates ; " Were the ignorant vulgar told that one 

Looold descend to the bottom of the Rhine, in the midst of the 

BMer, without wetting one's clothes, or any part of one's body, 

ind even carry a lighted candle to the bottom of the water, 

^ey would consider it altogether as ridiculous and iinpossibie. 

JfliiB, however, I Ea,w done at Toledo in Spain, in the year 

Bfi38, before the Kmperor Charles Y. and almost ten thousand 

' 'ors. The eiperiment was made by two Greeks, who, 

„ a very large kettle suspended by ropea with the mouth 

lownwards, Sxed beams and planks in the middle of its con- 

. Mvity, upon which they placed themselves, together with a 

B«Kadle. I'he kettle was equipoised by means of lead fised 

KKDUnd its mouth, ao that, when let down towards the water, 

Koo port of its circumference should touch the water sooner 

Ptban another, else the water might easily have overcome the 

■ Air included in it, and have converted it into moist vapourj 

^bnt if the vessel were gently drawn up, the men continue dry, 

Kand the candle is found burning.'' Schott calls the machine 

■"an aquatic kettle;" he also describes "an aquatic armour," 

Ktrbich would enable those who were covered with it to walk 

■under water; and the former apparatus is represented show- 

Kng a man walking into the water with a covericg like a small 

dinng-bell ovur his head, deecendiug nearly to his feet. 

In England, besides the supposed contrivance of a Diving- 
iohiue by Roger Bacon, it is evident that the Diving-bell was 
Lown at a very early period. It is described more than onoe 
B the works of Lord Sacon, as a, machine used to assist per- 
B labouring under water upon wrecks, by affording a reaer- 
r of air to which they might resort whenever they required 
1 take breath. " A hollow vessel was made of metal, which 
B let down equally to the surface of the water, and thus car- 
_jdwith it to tlie bottom of the sea the whole air it contained. 
it stood upon three feet like a tripod, which were in length 
[lewhat less than the height of a man ; so tliat the diver, 
en he was no longer able to contain his breath, could. "fvA 
iafaead into the vessel, and, having breathed, teiliim a^uv^ft 
ia work" (A'ffi'ii'a Organwm, Jib. ii. p. 850). J^H 

Phipis Diving-hell. ^^^^^B 

The next uw of the bell occurred in America, where, ii 
1642, it was used by one Edward Bedall, of Boetoii, to wdgl 
the Miiiy Row, which had sunk the previous year. Beda] 
made use of two tubs, "upon which were hanged so mun; 
weights (COOlba.) as would sink them to the ground." Tin 
experiment succeeded, and the guns, hallust, goods, hull, bn 
were bII tniiiaponed into shaal-wster, and recovered. 

Some curious information ou Biibmarine operations wai 

Enblished in 1 68S, by Professor Sinclair, of Glasgow, showinj 
ow " to buoy up ft ship of any burden from the ground o 
the sea;" and stating that the late Marquia of Arg^e, "bar 
ing obtained a patent of the king on one of the Spanish Ar 
mada, which was sunk near the Isle of Mull, anno 1S8S, em 
ployed Jaines Colqiihoun, of Glasgow," who, " not knowiltf 
the diving-bell, went down several times, the air from abOTi 
being communicated to his lungs by a long pipe of leather.' 
The Armada ships sunk near Mull, according to the acoounti 
of the Spanish prisoners, contained great riches ; and this ia 
formation excited from time to time the avarice of specuiatoiti 
and gave rise to several attempts to procure part of the lost tnt 
sure. About 1C64, an ingenious gentleman, the laird of Mel^D 
" went down with a Diving-bell, and got up three guns." ffin 
clair also proposed to raim wrecks by the buoyancy of arks cn 
boxes, open at the bottom, which were to be sunk full of w»t« 
and then filled with air, either by sending down casks of air 
by bellows and a long tube, or otherwise. He alludes to till 
occasional use of casks for the purpose of raising vessels, ani 
explains why, when at a great depth, they are liable bo hi 
crushed by the pressure of the water ; showing that, by allow 
ing the water to enter by a hole in the lower part of the ca^ 
it would BO compress the air as to produce an equilibrium o 
pressure, and thereby preserve it from fracture. 

About twenty years after this, William Phips, the son of i 
blacksmith of Pemaquid, in the United States, and who hndbeei 
brought up as a ship-carpenter at Boston, formed a project fa 
searoning and unloading a rich Spanish wreck near the &h» 
mas, when Cliarles II. gave him a frigate to obtain the trat 
sure. He sailed in 1683 ; but being unsuccessful, returned it 
Ereat poverty, though with a firm conviction of the practist 
bility of his scheme. He then endeavoured to procure a vew 
from James IL, failing in which, he opened a Bubscriptiffli 
At first he was laughed at ; but at length the Duke of Albe 
marie, son of the celebrated General Monk, advanced Phips) 
considerable sum towards the second outfit; and having DCil 
leoted the remainder, he set sail in 1687, in a ship of 200 tan 
harden, nnd reaching the wreck, when nearly worn out witi 
&mC/ess labour, he orouglit up, Jvoto six. ani ?*c-ism felham 

Diving jipparatun. ^1 

(pth, treasure of 300,000?., of wliich Phips received for his 
lare 16,00(W., tbe Duke of Albemarle 90, OOOi., aud the Bub- 
sibera received the remainder. Some envious persoaa then 
ideavoured to persmide the king to seize both the ship and 
le cargo, uuder a pretence tliat Pliipe, wheu he solicited 
B majesty^ permission, had uot given accurate infurniatiou 
spectia^ the buaiuesa ; but James nohlj replied, that he 
Jew PhipH to be an honest man, and that lie and hia friends 
lould share the treasure among them i the king afterwards 
pighted Phipa, who had previouelj been made high-aherifiF of 
ew Euglaiid. lu 1G91, he was made governor of his nalive 
^doay. He was uueducated, and knew not how to read or 
rite until he had grown to manhood j hnt, by strong native 
nlities and restless enterprise, he rose to distinction. He ia 
nmeouEly said to have been the founder of the Mulgrave 
niilj, of which the present head is the Marquis of Noi'manby; 
[licfi miHtake has, doubtless, arisen from one of tlie early 
embers of that f^ily. Captain Gonstantine John Phippa, 
Onmander of the unsuccessful Arctic Ejtpedition in 1773, 

r' ring been raised to the British Peerage as Baron Mulgrave, 
Mulgrave, CO. York, in 1790. 

Among the oldest representations of Diving apparatna, 
Bctanann mentions a print iu editions of Vegetins on War, 
iblished in 1611 and 1532, repTeseuting a diver with a cap, 
^^m which rises a long leathern pipe, terminating in an opeo- 
l which floats upon the surface of the water. Becfcmaun 
10 names a figure, in Lorini's work on Fortification, 1607, 
bich nearlj resembles tbe modem diving-heU, and consists 
^^ a aquare box, bound with iron, which is furuished with 
idows, and a scat for the diver. Loriiii, who was an Italian, 
tea uot lay claim to the invention of this apparatus. 
In 1617, Francis Kessler described his Water-armour, in- 
1 for diving, but which Beckmann states to have been 
In 1671, Witsen tauglkt, better than any of his pre- 
I, the construction and use of the Diviiig-bel! ; which, 
J he erruneuusly says, was invented at Amsterdam, 
t 1679, Borelli, the celebrated physician of Najjles, in- 
d an apparatus by wiiich pei-Bons might go a considerable 
1 under water, remain thei'e, move from place to place, 
)d ^nk or rise at pleasure ; and also a boat in which two or 
)re persona might row themselves under water : but the 
Wticability of these machinc-s has been much contTOverted. 
Dr. Halley, in the paper iu the PkUosopliical Traiaaetioiu 
idy quoted, describes the defects of the Diving-bell aa pre- 
aly used, and suggests a remedy for them. This ^'^«t 
e would be sufficient, although it does not euW 'n^Ui 'C&& 
■Axhiatorj of the luaohme, to contradict the bytowsom* ' ' ''" 


38 The Diving-heU. »■ 

meet which has been made, thnt Hallej was the 
the Diving-bell. 

In ita simplest fonn, the Diving-bell is n strong, heavy vee- 
sel of wood or metal, made perfectly air and water tight at the 
lop «nd sides, but open at the bottom. If simh a vessel Iw 
gradually lowered into the water in a perfectly horizontal po- 
Bition, the air which it contains cannot escape, and therefore 
the vessel cannot become full of water. This may be readily 
illustrated by plunging a glass tumbler in an inverted poBitiou 
into a vessel oivAier, and placing a bit of cork under the glafS. 
If a bit of burning matter be laid upon the cork float, it will con- 
tinue to bum, although the glass and all that it uontains be 
plunged far beneath the water, thereby proving that the upper 
part of the cavity of the glass is occupied by air, and not by 
water. In this experiment, however, it will be observed that 
the water does fill a gmali part of the cavity of the glass, and 
that it rises more into it when it is plunged to a considerable 
depth than when the rim is only just immersed beneath the 
gorface. This is occasioned Idy the condensation of the air 
contained in the glass, which, being very elastic and compres- 
aible, is condensed into a smaller space than it would occupy 
under the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere. 

We have now illustrated the principle of the Diving-ball: 
let us proceed to its application. When the bell is used for 
deacending to a very small depth, as the pressure of the water 
is small, it will not rise in the bell to a sufficient height to be 
inconvenient ; but at the depth of thirty feet the pressure is 
so great as to compress the air iuto one-half its original vo- 
lume, so that the bell will become half full of water ; and at a 
greater depth the air will be still more compressed, and th« 
water will rise proportionally higher in the bell. This con- 
densation of the air does not materially interfere with respira- 
Uon, provided the descent of the bell be very gradual, as the 
air then insinuates itself into tbe cavities of the body, and bal- 
ances the pressure from without. The principal effect oftha 
increased pressure ia a pain in the ears, since the Eustachian 
tube does not allow the condensed air immediately to find its 
way into the cavities of the ear, so that the pressure on the 
outside of the tympanum is for a time unbalanced by a ooi> 
responding pressure from within, and occasions a sensation 
lUce that of haying qoills thrust into the ears. This continues 
until the pressure of the air in the mouth, whiah at first has a 
tendency to keep the aperture of the Euetachian tube closed, 
forces it open ; an action which is accompanied by a noise like 
a slight explosion. The condensed air then enters the interior 
oaritiea of the ear, and by restoring the equilibrium of presanrt 
W7 each side the tympanum, removes the^in ■, ViitJo-BiiVte- 

Halleij's Diving-hell. |^| 

Finro, and be remedied in the same mautier, if the bell should 
I descend to a greater dejitii. But while the mere ooudenBation 
of the air iti the bell does not render it unfit for respiration, it 
would Eoon become eo if no means were provided for I'enewing 
it from time to time, as it becomefl vitiated bj repeated respi- 
ration. Dr. Halley provided a remedy for the iuconvenieuoe 
by auppljiug the bell with freah air without raising it to the 
. surface. The air was conveyed in two thirty-gallon barrels, 
L wedghted with lead to make them sink readily. Each had au 
Kopea bung-hole in the lower end, to allow water to enter 
tduring their deeceut, EO aa to condense the air. There was 
a hole in the upper end of each barrel, to which was fitted 
ir-tight leathern hose. These air-barrels were attached 
^ tackle, by which they were hy two meu let down aud raised 
Utematelj, like two buakete iu a well ; and, by Ihiea attached 
) the lower edge of the liell, they were so guided in their 
scent that the month of the hose always came directly to 
e hand of a man who stood upon the stage suspeuded from 
'lell. As the apertures of the hose were, during the de- 
. . , always below the level of the barrels, no air oould 

rfrom them ; and when they were turned up by the at- 
t, so as to be above the level of the water iu the barrels, 

1 air rushed out with great force into the bell, the barrels 

Mining at the same time full of water. 
By sending down the air-barrels in rapid succession, the air 
as kept in so pure a state, that Halley and four other peraons 
remained iu the bell, at a depth of uiue or ten fathoms, for 
more than an hour and a half at a time, without injurious 
consequeoces ; and Hatley states that he could have I'emained 
there as long as he pleased for any thiug that appeared to the 
contrary. Ualley observed that it was necessary to be set down 
gradually at first, and to pause at about the depth of twelve 
feet, to drive out, by the admission of a supply of air, the 
water which had entered the bell. When the Diving-bell was 
at the required depth, he lot out, by a cock in the top of the 
bell, a quantity uf hot impure air equal to the quantity of 
fresh air admitted from the barrels. This foul air rushed up 
from the valve with such force as to cover the surface of the 
sea witli a white foam. So perfeut was the action of this ap- 
paratus, that Hatley says he could, by renioviug the hanging 
stage, lay the bottom of the sea so far diy, within the circuit 
of tlie bell, that the sand or mud did not rise above his shoes. 
Through the strong glass window in the top, wlien the sea was 
dear, and especially wheu the sun shone, sufficient light was 
transmitted to allow a person in the bell to write or iea.d.-, wiA 
when the sea was troubled or thick, whic\i occaawwei \,\wi\ySi 
■-to be «a dark m night, a candle was burnt in it. llo.Vvft'j 


Improved Dwing-bells, 

timea Bent up orders with the emptj ur-bairek, vnitdng than 

with an iron pen ou plates of lead. 

Hallcy, having by these iogtitiiouB contrivances removed 
the priucipul difficulties atttrndiug the use of the Diving-bell, 
foresaw its extensive application : ae fishing; for pearl, diving 
for coral, sponges, and the like, in far greater depths thau bud 
hitherto lievu thought possible ; also, for laying the founda- 
tions of moleB, bridges. &e. upon ruclcy bottoms ^ aud for the 
^e&Diug and scruhbiu)^ of ships' bottoms when foul, in calm 
weather at sea ; to which purposes the Diving-bell lias, since 
the dste of Hallej's paper (1717), been applied. 

The next improver of the Diving-bell was Martin Triewald, 
" oaptain of iiiechauicB, and lailitarj architect to his Swedish 

. mi^estf," who had the sole privilege of diving upon the coasts 
of the Baltic belonging to the King of Sweden. His bell was 
of copper, tinned inside, smaUer tmm that of Dr. Halley, and 
managed by two men. A stage for the diver to stand upon 
was suspended at such a depth below it, that the man's head 
would be hut little above the level of the water, where the air 
is cooler and fitter for respiration than in the upper purt of tiie 
bell ; and a spiral tube was attached to the inside of the belt, 
with a wide aperture at the bottom, and a flexible tube and 
mouth-piece at the top, so thut when the diver was up in the 
hell he might inhale cool air from the lower part, eshaliug the 
foul air by his nostrils. lu lieu of windows of flat glass, Trie- 
wald used convex lenses, such &b are employed to tiiia day,* to 
admit light to the bell. 

In 1775, Mr. Spalding, a grocer of Edinbui^h, made oer- 
tlun improvements upon Halley's hell, in recovering part of the 
cargo of a vessel lost on the Fern Islands. Spalding's hell was 
of wood ; and to sink it he used, in addition to the weights 
attached to the rim, a large balance -weight suspended by k 
rope from the centre, aud which, by pulleys, the divers em- 

' ployed to anchor the hell at any required level ; and by hauling 
in the rope while the weight was at the bottom, the persons 
in the beii might lower themselves at pleasure. Another im- 
provement was a horizontal partition near the top of the heU, 
which divided off a chamber, with valves, to be filled either 
with water or with air from the lower part of the bell, so as to 
alter the specific gravity of the whole maohiue, and tberebr 
cause it to ascend or descend at pleasure. This ball also had 

hesx convex eUafea hflVfl tee 

^^^^W Waiiing under Water. 

ail air apparatus like HaJley 's ; ropes were ueed inEtend of se 
in the bell, bo that the divers could raise themselves to 1 
Burfiice uuasaisted from above ; the bell could he removed at^ 
will from the point at which it descended, and a long-boat 
carried the Btgnal-linea and the ta-clcle for working the air-bor- 
relB. Mr. John Farey, jun,, has improved upon Spalding's 
apparatus, by making tjia upper chamber of the bell without 
TOlves, and used it as a reservoir of condensed air, to he filled 
by forciiie-pumpB in the partition, besides other provisions. 

Smeatou lirst employed the Diving-bell in civil engineering 
(werationB, in repairing the foundations of Hexham bridge ia , 
1779. His bell was an oblong box of wood, and supplied with 
a galluii of air a miimte by a forcing-pump fixed at the top, 
which was not covered with water, the river being shallow. 
176B Smeaton lued a cast-iron bell iu repairing Bamsgate h 
hour, the air being supplied through a flexible tube from tft 
forcing'pump iu a Doat. Rennie improved the apparatus fori 
moving the bell in any direction ; aud iu 1817 the wreck <rf 1 
the Roi/ol Oeorge at Spithead was first surveyed by the aid of \ 
the Diving-bell. 

Many plans have been proposed for enabling a man to walk 
beneath the suiface of the water, by means of water-proof 
coverings for the head and upper part of the body, or of strong 
vessels iu which evei^ part hut th« arms should be encased; a 
supply of air being either transmitted from above by a flexible 

?ipe, or contained iu the cavities of the protecting armour. 
his apparatus may be conveniently used at small depths; but 
at any considerable depth it is both dangerous and iuoou- 
venient, hocanse the strength neceseatr to enable it to bear 
the pressure of the water is incompatible with the flexibility I 
essential tu the fi«e use of the limbs. Dr. Ualley invented aM 
leaden cap for the diver's head, the front glazed for the eyes tj 
it contained a supply of air fur two minutes, and had affixeafl 
to it a pliable pipe, the other end being fastened to the bell«l 
whence fresh air was conveyed to the diver. 

At Newtou-Busbel, in Devonshire, a gentleman contrived ai 
apparatus consisting of a large strong leather water-tight caBC^V 
holding half a hogshead of air, and adapted to the Tegs auall 
arms, witii a glass in front, so that when the case was put ooM 
the wearer could walk about easily at the bottom of the sea^fl 
enuniue a wrecked vessel, and deliver out the goods ; the in-4 
Tentor of this apparatus used it forty years, and thereby acquired ' 
a large fortune. 

Mr. Klingert,inir98,constructedatBreBlau tin-plate armour 
for the head and body, leather jacket, and water-tight dvaww^ 
^nBs hooped ; and a helmet with two pipes, one ^ot 'wittaiisu^^^ 
^B the other for the escape of foul air. The Vio&y V4a& >u»j^H 

down liy weights. ContrivaiLCea of this kind, in which water- 

Jroof I udia-r libber cloth hna been applied, aie very uurQerous. 
a 1639 Mr. Tbornthwidte made a. hollow belt of Iudia-rubb«r 
oloth, with EL Bmalt strong copper Teasel attached, and into 
which air is forced b; a eoiideueiug sjringe ; the belt is put oa 
collapsed, and the diver descends ; but when he desires to rise, 
by a valve he lets out the ooudeused nir from the copper vessel 
into the belt, wliich, as it expanda, buoys up the diver to the 

Extraordinary eubstitutea have been sometimes made for the 
teguhirij-constnicted Diving-belL Thus, in the memorable 
recovery of treiisure and stores from the wreck of the TAetu, 
which sank in n cove soutb-eaft of Cape Frio in 1830, and wu 
not attempted tu be raised until fifteen mouths after, by the 
officers and crew of U.M.S. ZtgAtniny, the Diving-hell consisted 
~ a. one-tnn ship's water-tauk, with eight inches of iron ri- 
veted to the bottom in order to give it more depth, and 
having attached to it eighteen pigs of ballast (17 cwt.) to sink 
it. Yet, with such a means of survey, often tendered un- 
mtuiageable by the swell of the Bouth Atlantic rolling into tbi 
cove of nearly perpendicular granite rocks, from 100 to SOOfeet 
high, fifteen - sixteenths of the property were recovered. A 
model of this enterprise may be seen in the United S^^rioe 
Institution Museum, Scotland Yard. For the achievement 
Captain Dickinson received the gold medal of the Society of 

One of the latest improvements upon the old Diving-bdl— 
the JfinilUug Submarine Machine, an American inveotion— 
has been successfully employed by engineers. It is nearly oj- 
lindrical, with a spherical top ; and the working apparatn^ m 
board a barge floating near, consists of a steam-boiler, a W- 
Under or reservoir, and a condensing or air pump. The wo* 
men being stationed in the machine, water is admitted into 
two chambers, to serve as ballast and cause the Nautilus to de- 
Hoend to the bottom j meanwhile air being drawn through hoH 
&om the reservoir in the barge. As soon as the air thus dtswn 
is sufficiently condensed, a cover to the bottom is raised, and 
communication obtained. Not only do persona thug renuin 
under water for a considerable time, but should the hose coK' 
muuicating with the reservoir become disconnected, no dangBF; 
can ensue to those in the machine, as they can, by means of ' 
the compressed air vrithin the bell itself, expel a portion of the 
water, and thus rise to the surface. 


6kd speaking machines. 

tauBing species of ingenuity wTiich is requisite for the 
tctioii of these machines has heeu exercised to great 
. The name A-almiuitoti ia derived from two Greek words 
Ig eeif-moved, and ia generally applied to all luachinea 
are so Doustructed as to imitate any actions of men or 
irer auitnala, and are moved hj wheels, weights, and 

)t most ancient Automata are the Tripods which Homer 
«s as having been constructed by Vulcan for the ban- 
(-hall of the gods, and which, advanced of their own 

to the table, and agniu returned to their place. Self- 
[ Tripods are mentioned by Aristotle; nnd Philostratua 
B us, in his life of Apollonius, that this philosopher 
d admired similar pieces of mechanism among the sages 
tL. Beckmann hints that these Tripods were only small 

or dumb-waiters, which had wheels so contrived that 
nild be put in motion, and driven to a distance, on the 
Ft impulse, like the fire-pans in the country beerhousas 
pauy, at which the boors light their pipes. 
it BEedttlus made Statues which could not only walk, but 
4 to be tied up that they might not move, is related by 
Dd Aristotle. The latter speaks also of a wooden Venus, 
pioved about in conBec[uence of quicksilver beingpoured 
iinterior ; and before this method was known in Europe, 
^ proposed to put n small wagon in motion by adding to 
te filled with (Quicksilver, and heating it with a candle 
below it. Callistratus, the tutor of Bsedalus,'"' however. 

^^V^ Friar Bacon's Brazen Head. ^^H 

states that his Htatues received their motion from the meobiL- 
uical powers, which is more probuble thaw tlie opiuiou of Beck- 
inann, that their beiiig in a position " aa if ready to walk, gave 
riee to the exaggeration that tbej possugsed the power of looo- 
motiou." " This opinion," Sir I>avid Brewster OMerres, "how- 
ever, cannot be maintained with any show of reason ; for if we 
apply such a principle in one case, we lumt ap^lj it in all, and 
the mind would be left in a state of utter scepticism respecting 
the inventions of ancient times" (NntttnU Magia, p. 265). 

It is related by AuluB Qellius, on the authority of Favori- 
BUS, that A.rchytas of Tarentum (about 4(X) b.o ) constructed ■ 
Wooden Pigeon which was capable of flying. Favoriuns states 
that when it had once alighted, it could not resume its flight; 
and Aulus Qellius adds, that it was suspended by balancing, 
and animated by a concealed aura, or spirit. 

Of Albertus Maguus it is related, that among other prodi- 

E' SB he constructed a Head of Brass, which is not only said to 
ve moved, but to have answered questions I It is said to hare 
occupied All>ertua thirty years in its construction j and that 
his disciple, Thomas Aquinas, was go frightened when he saw 
the bead, that he broke it to pieces; wheti Albertus exolaiuied, 
" Periit opus triginta annorum," Of contemporary date is '' 
legendary story of " Friar Bacon's Brazen Head." It is i 
tended lie discovered that if he oould make a head of vrKS 
which should speak, and hear it when it spoke, he might be 
able to surround all England with a wall of brass. Bacon, witJk 
some assistance, accomplished his object, but with this draw- 
back — the head was warranted to speak in the course of oni 
month, but it was quite uncertain when ; and if they heard it 
not before it had done speaking, all their labour would be lost. 
Bacon, wearied with three weeks' watching, set hb man AGltt 
to watch, with strictest ii^unction to aw^e him if the hod 
should speak. The fellow heard the bead at the end of pM 
half hour say, "Time is;" at the end of another, "Time was;" 
and at the end of another half hour, "Time's past;" when 
down it fell with a tremendous crash ; but the blockhead of ■ 
servant thought his master would be angry if be disturbed Ma 
for such trifles ! Now, Robert Records states, that on the above 
account Bacon was considered to be a necromancer, ''wbidi 
never used that arte," but was ati expert geometer and matha- 
matician, as will be shown in a future page. 

Among the earliest pieces of modem mechanism was the 
ottiiouB Water-clock presented to Charlemagne by the Kaliph 
Baronn-al-Raschid. In the dial-pLite were twelve small win- 
dows oorres^uding with the divisions of the hours, indicatrf 
bj the opening of the windowB, which let out little metalli* 
l)alla, which struck the hoar bj laffin^ o.'jwi a. \Ka3ft-a l^ 

Early Automata. ^^^^^^^| 

3 doors continued open till twelve o'clock ; when twelve 
'e knights, uiauuted on Itorseback, came out at tJtc same 
"i, and after parading round the dial, 5hut all the \tin- 
LiTiB, and returned to their apaj'tments. 
The nest automaton was the Artificial Eagle, which John 
U&ller, or Regiomontaiius, coiiBtructed, and whiuh flew to meet 
&B Smperor Maximilian when be arrived at Nuremberg, June 
^ 7th, 1470. This eagle is said to have soared ali>ft, and met the 
emperor at eume distance from the city; then to have returned 
and perched upon the town-gate, and to have stretched out its 
wings and grduted the emperor when he approached ! Another 
of Miilier'B prodigies was an Iron Fly, put in motion by wheel- 
Livork, and which flew about, and ieuped upon a table I But 
Bnone of Muller's contemporary writers speak of these pieces 
t mechanism, the tale of them is suspected to have been in- 
mted by Peter Ramus, who was never at Niu-emberg till the 

The Emperor Charles V. is known to have amused himself 
1 hia later years with Aulomata, made for him by an artist 
t Crranona. Among the prodigies which he wrought for the 
yaperor were figures of armed men and horses attacking with 
A«aTfl, while others beat dnims and played flutes; heeides, 
Bso, wooden sparrows which flew to and from their nesta, and 
Dinnte corn-mills which could be concealed in a glove. 

It will hardly esoite surprise to find that the artists who 
produced Automaton figures were in some instances suspeoted 
of practising the black art, and thus fell victims to their own 
ingenuity. A melancholy incident, arising from the prevalence 
of this opinion, even bo late as 1674, is related by Bonnet, in 
his Bifiori/ of Mftsie. Alex, an ingenious Proveu9ai mathema- 
tician and mechanician, had discovered the sympathy of sound 
in two instruments tuned in uuisou. To illustrate hia dis- 
covery, he constructed an Automaton Skeleton, placed a guitar 
iu its hand, while by a mechanical contrivance the fingers 
moved, as though playing it : h-e then set it at a window, and 
at a proper distance phiyed another guitar, which produced 
Bound in the instrument held by the figure. The inhabitants 
of Ais (the town iu which this was exhibited), believing that 
the skeleton really performed an the guitar, denouuced Alex 
as & sorcerer, and he was coudemued by the parliament to be 
burnt alive together with his figure. 

In the Memoin of i/ie Acade^nj/ of /Sciences, l~2d, is described 
aset of Automaton Actors representing a pantomime. But pre- 
viously to this, M. Camus had constructed, for the amusement 
L of Louia XIV., a small coach djawn by two hotsea, &c. '&\a 
^^Machman smacked hia whip, and the horses fiet oS, itawm^ 

46 Vaucang'jn't Julomatan Duck. ^^H 

the page got down and opened the door, on which a laii^ 
alighted, with n curtsey preseuted a petitiun to the king, and 
then reentered the carriage. The page then shut the door, the 
carriage proceeded, and the servant, running after it, juinped 
up behiud it (Hutlon'a Mathnmatieal Recreatioiui). This is by 
no means inconceivable, but is somevrhat hard to believe^ 

Among the rusultB of the development of the natural eci- 
encBB in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was the 
attempt to build Automaton figures which should perform the 
fimctions of animals b; means of wheels and piniuoG. Thus, 
General Degennes, who invented machines in navigation and 
gunnery, and constructed clocks without springs or weights, 
made a peacock, which could walk about as if alive, pick vf 
grains of com from the ground, eat and digest them, 

This aiitomaton is thought to have suggested to M. Tau- 
canson the idea of constructing his celelitated Duck, per- 
haps the most wonderful piece of mechanism ever made. 
It resembled a living duck in size and appearance, ate and ' 
drank with avidity, performed the quick motions of the head 
and throat peculiar to the living animal, aud, like it, dab- 
bled in the water, which it drank with its bill, It produoed 
also the sound of qtiacking. In its anatomical structure eveiT 
bone of the real duck had its representative, and exhibitta 
its proper movement, as its wings were anatomically cof^ 
rect[ and the automaton picked up corn, swallowed it, and. 
bmg digested by a chemical solution, the food was coiirejB^ 
away by tubes. This feimoua automaton was repaired by Robert 
Houdin, the Parisian conjuror, who, on examining the medt*" 
anism of the Duck, found the trick to be as simple as it iML, 
interesting. " A vase," he tells us, " contaiuing seed steepK 
in water, was placed before the bird. The motion of the wki 
in dabbling crushed the food, and bcilitated its introduc'' 
into a pipe placed beneath the lower bili. The water and 
thus swallowed fell into a bos placed under the bird's Eton 
which was emptied every three or four days. The other 
of the operation was thus effected: bread-crumb, coloi 
green, was espelled by a furcing-pump, and carefully an 
on a silver salver, as the result of artificial digesti " " 
din's Mfmoirs, 1859). 

VaucaQSon's Automata were imitated by one Du Moi 
a BilverSTnith, who travelled through Germany in I7S2. 
mann saw several of these automata, and among them 
Artificial Duck, which was able to drink and move; its 
were made of wire, aud covered with duck's feathers, and 
motion was communicated through the feet of the dock 
laeans of a cylinder and fine chains, as in a watch. 

Vaacansou also constructed & EiiAe-^Aa.'jBT, -w^uob. 

The Automaton Flute-player. 47 

n the flute by projecting air with its lips against the 

hure, prodi 
jng iJieir 

.- r opening; forcing i 

of liviug performersj and regulating the tones by its 

if llieae uitomutn, or rathar androidtt, the Flnts-plajer of Vau- 
B M the only ona of which a correot deauriptioii has boon pre- 
1; a particular acoount of its mBchaniam having been publiBhed 
e Henioirs of the Fmnch Acadeiaj. The (inioe vaa about five 
'x inches high, and wna placed upoo an elevated square podestal. 
'r ontarod the body by three Bapnrote pipes, into wbieh it was 
,ed by nine pairs of boDows, which aipandad and oontraoted in 
IT mooesaion, bymaana of an aiia of stool tiimad by the machine. 
A' three tolxH, which conveyed the air from the bBllowB. after paw- 

- '' '- UiB lower extremities of the flgura, united at the cheat ; 

— . e from tbenoa to the mouth, paaaed through two artificial 
■Wthin the cavity of the mouth was n small movable tongue, 
'i, by its motion al proper intervals, admitted or Intercepted tha 
I its passa^ to the flute. The fingers, Ltpa, and tongue, derived 
Cipeoifio movemeotn from a steal cylinder turned by oloek-work. 
nyliDder wn« divided into Eftecn equjil parts, which, by meai 

upon a hltB number of levera, onu.ied the other . 
oend. Saveu of theao levers directed the fingers, having 

la filed to thdr BHOondins eitrcmitics ; whioh, being- at- 

S to the fingers, made tbem ascend in proportion na the other " 
tg was presaod down by the motion of tbe cylinders, andvicdvir 
^i^the levels aervad to regulate Che inereas pI the air, being so 

_jn the lips and reaervoir, so that more or lesa strength might ba 
Land abighar or lower note praduDed, as occaainn regnirad. Tbe 
-B direotad by ioxa siniilar lavars ; one of which opened to gire 
ft fteer passage, anothor contnustod them, a thinl drew them 
^_,_rd, and the fourth pushed there forward. The remaining lovar 
IBrnployed in the direction of the tonpue, which, by its 
"^ ned the mouth of the flute. The varied and sueew 

„j BimpiB than aBicacioua. The aiia of the steel cylm .. 

■ terminated hy an endless screw com posed of twelve threada, abova 
iob WHS placed a small arm of copper, with a steel stud made to fit 
, thraads of the worm, whioh, by its vertical motion, wna continually I 
ihed forward. Hence, if a lover were moved hy a )ieg placed on t' 
iiMler In any one rovolntion. it could not be moved by the same p 
^e succeed log revolution, in conaequanco of the lateral motion col 
located by the worm. By thia meana tha aize of the barrel " - , 
■idombly reduced ; and the statue not only poured forth a varied. 1 

Ttion of iDatrumcntal harmony, but sshibited all the evolutlona of | 

most gmceiul perfen 

It ie ctiriouB to find that Taucanaon's uncle reproached him 
telling him that to constnict the Flute-plajer would be a 
»t waste of time ; and he did not set about the work until 

lucked umptoyiaent to white away the time after a Lott^\Vk.- 
BB. He also made b. Flageolet-player, who beat & iBm^toMn-oft I 
th oue hnnii, Tbe Sageolet had only tlitee \io\ea, \i-3 \i!ii" 

48 Automaton Soys. ^^^^^^^H 

rtoppitiff ■which some notes were made : the force of wind 
required to produce the lu'A'eat note -viw one ouuce; the 
highest, 5(ilb. French. 

Jacques TnucaoeoD, the mnker of these Automata, was & 
natiTe of Grenoble, bora iu 1709. HIb mother toot him one 
day to a fflte, when peeping through a crack in the partition 
of a room, he saw part of the works of a, clock which hung 
sgunet the wall ; he was much struck, and, on his next viii^ 
he drew with a pencil as much as he could see of the doii- 
springs and the escapement ; and hj aid of some poor tools, be 
soon made a clock. Then, he made a sort of baby-house chapel, 
with figures, which he caused to move. At length he devotu 
all his time to studying anatomy, music, and meclianioB. Ha j 
grew to be to celebrated, that the Ring of Prussia tried to 
attach Vaucanson to his court ; he, however, remained 
France, where Cardinal Fleury made him inspector of a 
maniifacturBs, for which he greatly improved the machineiy. 
This rendered VaiicanEOU unpopular, and he was nearly killed 
by an incensed mob. He died in 1783, having bequeathed hii 
curious collection of machines to Louis XTI. 

Nest deserve to be mentioned the Writing Boy of the older, 
and the Pianoforte-player of the younger, Droz ; which li^ta, 
when perfoi'ming, followed its hands with its eyes, aud attlia 
conclusion of the piece bowed courteously to the andienoe> 
I>roz's Writing-Boy was puhiicly exhibited in Germany some 
years ago. Its wheel-work is so compUcated, that no ordisaij 
head would be sufficient to decipher its manner of actiolt; 
when, however, we learn that the Boy and its couatruotoft 
being suspected of the black art, lay for a time in the Spanim 
Inquisition, and with difficulty obtained their freedom, we ma; 
infer that in those days even the mystety of such a, toy iRR ' 
great enough to excite doubts as to its natural origin. ' 

AT. Maillardet next constructed au Automaton Boy, wUdl 
both wrote and drew with a pencil, kneeling on one knu 
When the figure began to woTk, an attendant dipped the pendl I 
in ink, and adjusted the drawing-paper upon a brass t«blei 
Upon touching a spring, the figure proceeded to write, OT tt 
execute landscape drawings. IVIaillardet also constructed V 
Magician, who answered questions inscribed in ova! medaUinH 
npon a wall; one of which the spectotor having selectsd^l I 
was shut up in a spring drawer- The magician then rose, i)e8> \ 
suited his book, and striking a wall with his wand, two M^ I 
ing-doors flew open, and displayed the answer to the questiiA| i 
The door again closed, and the drawer opened to return W i 
medallion. The machineir heing wound up, the movemetjil I 
in about nn hour answered fifty questions ; and the means l^ ' 
which the medailions acted Mpott tte mac\iner3,aQiia*js^- 

Speaking Machines. 40 

ie the proper answers to the questions which theycontwned, 
■dated to have been very simple. Maillnrdet likevrise con* 
icted utiier autimiiitn, itiuludiii); a Spider, laade of steel; and 
erpillar, Lizard, Mouse, and Serpent, all with their natural 
meiits. In Londun, he exhibited in Spring Qardeiia. 
■Vnuoal automata have ohtained great celebrity. Maelzel, 
inrentor of the Metronome, exhibited in 1809 an Auto- 
ton Trumpeter of hie conatruciion. From a teut he led 
mt a figure in the aniform of a trumpeter of the Auatrian 
Iragoon. regiment Albert, his tnimpet being at his mouth, 
Saving presBed the figure on the left Ehoulder, it played the 
Instriau cavalry march, the signals, and n timmh and allegro 
jy Weigl, accompanied by the whole orcbestra. The dress of the 
igare was then changed into that of a French trumpeter of the 
juard, when it played the French cavalry march, all the Bif^ 
lals, a march of Dusaek'a, and an allegro of Pleyei, all accom- 
>anied by the orchestra. The souTid of the trumpet was pure 
ind more agreeable than that which the ablest musician could 
jroduoe from that instrumenfc, because the breath of man 
^ves the inside of the trumpet a moisture which is prejudicial 
■o the purity of the tone. Maelzel publicly wound up hia ia- 
itrument oiily twice, and this waa on the left hip. Uia most 
amoua wnrli was hia PanharvMnica, a band of forty-two wind- 
nstrument players, fur which Cherubini deigned to compose, 
tnd Beethoven wrote hia Battle Symphony. Maelzel died in 
ISSS. Marreppe, in 1837, produced his automaton violin-ph^er 
Lt Paris, which piayed airs A la Pagataid; the interior waa 
tiled with small cranks, by which the motions were given to 
be seiveTal parts of the automaton at the conductor's will. 

^ the Speaking Mackinee of antiquity, the head of OrpheuB 
te island of Lesbos, and the tripod at Delphi, the answers 
p probably conveyed by the pnests ; and Cliaries II. and 
*""irt were similarly deceived by a Popish priest in an ad- 
j chamber answering through a pipe the question pto- 

fl to the wooden head by whiapering in its ear. 

Hie prinniple of a Speaking-Maohitie has, however, been 
^^loped. Bishop Wilkins, in his Mathematical Magick, illua- 
Dg the mode by which articulate sounds may be produced 
I aotomata, says : " Walchius thinks it possible entirely to 
BTB the voice, or any words spoken in a hollow trunk or 
r; and that, this pipe being rightly opened, the words will 
K out of it in the same order wherein they were apoken, 
Iwhat like that cold country whi^re the people's discourse 
e in the air ail winter, and may be heard in the next 
r at a great thaw; but this conjecture v'" ' 

elmont, one oftlio first persons who wrote \i.^o-a.' 


' M 


te ts the articulation of the 

of the alphabet conEtituted 

■tee ir~~** WOK mtnrally produced 

«■(■• lad latjnx; that when one 

Mipw was i> ito proper position for 

■AaEOiMl (Me. Thne, as several dif- 

mai MBWr W' ■**■■■>£ or depressing the 

1 lb iBMifc Jv, JJk, At, A, E, it VRU 

>r — w» C* bne vilha reed, and ter- 

Ifc. V3&B ha» deeted this bj using a 

ih»i«Bi,afaHKif hcM^lMigtbened or^ortened 

i& tkc |>«ai^inciia af tfae Towels, i, e, a, o, u, 

» be *wte« wiA tke 6(«i, and io uttering the 

IS >• W pad^lf lo^tlieiied. In this war it 

• Ac fca^lh aeeesaar^ for each Dote. When 

l,th>tofcBWH 1 mcfalong; Jv, 38 inches; 

i;J,*«aA; J^trameL A Speaking Machine 

~ get &tincttf taam-ma, 'p'vpa, 

1 bdl, the 

I Iqrtke hand, so as to produce | 

wahine w»i exhibited at the I 

is 1S33^ \j Pnfcffior Wlieatstone. J 

•fe iMTraAer of die Aotomaton Chess-pUjei, I 

^^c«ku*K AvtooMton, in which he ultimatelj | 

tbelMBt efwUdwoe, "Bomanorum imperatorsemper C 
"" ' s;"''Toasfitesnionaini;"*'j8 t 

It was some jears, faowevw, L 
bdore be could •ocompliglk num than the ample utterance dI 
t]te SMuds s, «■, and (. Year alter yuar, we are told, was de- 
voted to this machiiie; but t or ■, or anv of the conBonant^ 
refuted to obey his summons. At lengui be added, at tilt 
open extremitj of the Tocnl tub^ an apparatus similar in action 
and eoDStructioD to theAHman movCA, witk iU Utth; whenh? 
quickly succeeded in inakiug it not oulj pronounce the oon- 
aonauts, but word^ and even the sentences quoted above. Be 
had previouElj imitated the tongue, and its actions. The iial 
is interesting, not oulj aa a rare instance of human itigenui^. 
but also as exhibiting in a most striking light the beautiflU 
1 of paKs to their respective fuuctious; and that N 
; the contrivances in Nature for particular ends, thit). 
n order to arrive at anj thing like an itnitation of those fuuft- ' 
it follow cluEely the method she employs. 
la 1843 there was exhibited, beiute U\e American Philos*- 
'>bical Socfetj a Speaking Machine, avi'yie^Vi^Afe (A 
■ — 't by jneaaa of keys, and thus moAe \.ci cwwya^a' 

Speaking Machines. ^^^^B^H 

Setters and words ; in ennnciatliig the simple souoda could be 
'weii the movements of the mouth, the parts of whii;h were 
'made of caoutchouc. The inv-entor, Mr, Reale, in a freiiisy, 
■detfCrojed this imtnuneot, which it had tateu him gisteeu 
~ ean to construct. 

Three years later, in 1846, there waa shown at the Egyptiaa 
'Ball, Piccadilly, the Euphonia of Professor Fnber, of Vieuna, 
'the result of twenty-five years' la,l>our. It coofiiBted of a draped 
bust ajid wasea-faced tigure, In which the sounds were pro- 
duced by striking on sixteen keys, and thus were enunciated 
words. A small pair of bellows was worked with the uozzle 
into the back part of the head, and the mouth formations were 
of caoutchouc. 

Sov/j the several attempts of Cagniard la Tour, Biot, MuUer, 
and Stemle to produce articulate sounds, or even to, imitate 
flie human voice, have not been very successful ; but M. Fa- 
ber's inaohine — with its bellows worked by a pedal, and its 
dBoutchouo imitatiou of the larynx, tongue, nostrils, and a 
Kt of keys by which the springs are brought into action— is 
I'finieidered the nearest approaob to perfect success. 

Reviewing the results of the Automata of the last century, 
frofesBor Uelmholtz observes: "This inventive genius was 
boldly chosen, and was followed up with an expenditure of 
ligamty which hm contributed not a. little to enrich the me- 
^d^nical experience which a later age kuew how to take advan- 
tage of. We no longer seek to build machines which shall 
fulfil the thousand services required of one man, but strive, on 
** e contrary, that a machine shall perform one service, but 
.all occupy ia doiug it the place of a thousand men." 

Nevertheless, the above passion for automatic exhibitions 
Btroduced among the higher order of artists habits of nice and 
Odtnte excoution in the fwmittiou of the most delicate pieces 
f maebinery; and the same combination of the mechanical 
mwers which in one century enriched only the conjuror who 
Med tbem, is in another employed in extending the power and 
i^tOmoting the oivilisation of our species. 
^ Robert Houdin is one of the latest adepts in automatic art. 
'f) was bom at Bloia, the son o! a watchmaker, and had such 
Wly mechanictLl tastes, that he professes to have come into 
he world, metaphorically, " with a file or hammer in his hand." 
Bis aptitude showed itself iu early efforts to train mice and 
- [larj-birds, to construct ingenious toys and model apparatus ; 
dfae perfected hiinself at Paris as a mechanist. In 1844, iie 
idehimeelf widely known by CJchibitiiig an Automaton Writer, 
lioh attracted the notice of Louis Philippe and. b\B tamA'j . 
le figure drew, as well as wrote answers to qwes^iwua, mi4.\i-^ 
, ssanoas oomcidence its performance on this occa&iou "«a» "^M- 

6S yiutomaton Nightingale. ^H 

ticukrly ominous. When the Comte de Paris requested it to 
draw » crovii, the Automaton begun drawing the outline de- 
manded, but its pencil broke, and the crown could not be 
finished. Houdin whs going to recommence the experiment, 
when the King decliued, with thanks. " As you have learned 
to draw," he aaid to the Couite de Paris, " jou can finish this 
for yourself." Thia incident is characteristic as regards the 
tact of the king, 

Houdin, in his Mmutirt,* rektes the following remarkable 

Eroof of his na^duity in this mechanical phase of his life. He 
sd received an order from a merchant of St. Petersburg to 
oonstruct an Automaton Nightingale, and he agreed for a large 
sum to make a perfect imitation of the above oird. This un- 
dertaking offered some serious difficulties; for, be tells ua, 
though he had already made several birds, their singing was 
quite arbitrary, and he had only consulted his own taste in 
anauging it. The iniitatioTi of the nightingale's pipe was 
much more delicate, for he hEid to copy notes and sounds Mhich 
were almost inimitable. Fortunately it was the sensDn for 
this skilful songster, and Houdin resolved to employ him as 
his teacher. He went constantly to the wood of Romainvilie, 
the skirt of which almost joined the street in which he lived) 
and, laying himself on a soft bed of moss in the densest foliage, 
he challenged his master to give him lessons. (The nightingale 
sings both by night and day, and the slightest whistle, in tune 
or not, makes him strike up directly.) Houdin wanted to im- 
print on his memory the musical phrases with which the bird 
composes its melodies. The following are the most striking 
among them : Tiou-tiou-tiov., nl-iU-itt-iil-ut, tchitcliou, tckilehou, 
tchit-tchit, r rm rr rrrf rroail, Ac. Houdin had to analyse these 
strange sounds, — these numberl^ chir[>s, these impossible 
"rr r rrouita," and reoompose them Oy a musical process. To imi- 
tate thia flexibility of throat, and reproduce the harmonious mo- 
dulations, Houdin made a small copper tube, about the size and 
length of a quill, in which a steel piston, moving very fredyj 
produced the different sounda required ; this tube represented, 
in some respects the nightingale's throat. This instmmHit 
had to work mechanically : clockwork set in motion the bel- . 
tows, opened or closed a valve which produced the twittering 
the modulation, ajid the sliding notes, while it guided the 
piston according to the different degrees of speed and de{itli 
wanted. Uoudin had also to impart motion to the bird: tt 
must move its beak in accordance with the sounds it produoed) 
fiap its wings, and leap from branch to branch, which, however, 
was purely a mechanical labour. 
^^^Hftmiir.i o/BiiKft Um^v'. dniifosmlor. jtntlurr , anj Omyimr. Written iT 

Expanding Model. ^^^^^^H 

After repeated eiperiraentB, Houdin succeeded in creating 
t K Bystem half musiciil, half mecbaDical, which ooly required to 
I'be improved hy freah studies from nature. Provided with thia 
tj&Btrumeiit, iloudin hurried off to the wood of RoioainviUe, 
■'Where, seating himself uuder an oak, near whioli he had often 
V heard a. nightingale sing, he wound up the clockwork, and it 
I began playing in the midst of profound silence; but the laat 
' B had Boarcelj died away ere a concert commenced from 
>us parta of the wood. This collective lesaoii did not suit 
I' his purpose, for he wished to compare and study, and could 
■.positively distinguish nothing. Fortunately for Houdin, all 
I tiie musicians ceased, and one of tUem began a solo of dulcet 
\ sounds and accents, which Houdin most attentively followed, 
1 ihoB passing a portion of the night, when the conjuror returned 
l<&Dme. His lesson hud done him so much good, that the next 
r morning he began making important corrections in iiis meoh- 
anisin ; omA after five or six more visits to the wood, Houdin at- 
tained the required result — the nightingale's song was perfectly 

In the Great Exhibition of 18SI was shown a mechanical 
Duriowty — an expanding Modei of a Man, the construction of 
3 has a romantic interest. It was the invention of the 
h Count Dunin, who in early life became involved in the 
action of his countrymen, and was banished. In hia 
'dreary exile, he betook himself to mechanical pursuits, that he 
might expiate his offence, real or imaginary, against the Em- 
peror of Russia, by showing that he might be useful if he were 
restored to hia country, 

Tho Modol represents n man 5 foot high, in the proi>ortioufl of tha 
Apollo Belvidere ; from that bIm it can be proportionally increaaed to 

anoy, tt is capahla of sipansKn and ooDtraatioii in all its parts. Ths 
iatemal mechaniam is completalj concealed, the figure externally baing 
oompofied of thin elitiB of steal and copper, by tha ovarlappiog of whien 
expansioD or contraction is eiarcised ; the motion belne^ communioated 
by thin metal Bliiles within the £g:ura ; tliesa alides haring pins worked 
in curved (rroorea in ciroular steel plates, which are put in ravoloUon by 
a train of wheels or screws. A windiiJif-key, turned right or left, effoota 

fibres of the mnsolas in the living Bnbjoot. The mechanical oombiaa- 
&aus are composed of S6T framing-pteCB9, 43 grooved steel plates, 163 
wheels, 203 slides, iT6 metal washen, 48S spiral springs, T04 sliding 
plates, 407 nuts, 3600 filing and adjuaUng serowa, with DiuneroBB 
■teadyinf; pins ; Bu that the numboi of pieces ie upwards of TQOO. Por 
this beautinil pieua of meolumiaui u Oruat-Exhibitiun Council Medal « 
awarded to Count Dunin. 


We have reserved for a separate chapter the origin luid his- 
tory of this marvellous contrivance, which, at various periods 
during the lapse of uliiet; years, hag aatoninhed and delighted 
the scieiitiBo world in several cities of Europe and North 
Aiuerica. Its raachinerj has been variously explained. It was 
eonstructed in 1769 by M, de Kempelen, a gentleman of Pres- 
burg in Hungary, long diatinguished for his skill in DiechanicB. 
TheOheEB-pkyerisalife-sized figure, clothed iu a Turkish dress, 
Bitting behind a large oheat, three and a halt feet long, two 
feet deep, and two and a half feet high. The player sila on 
a chair fixed to the chest, hia right arm rests on the table or 
upper surface of the chest, and in the left he holds a pipe, 
wmcb is removed during the game, as it is with this hand. 
that he makes the moves. A chess-board, with the pieces, is 
placed before the figure. The exhibitor first opens the doors 
of the chest, and shows the interior, with its cyUnders, leven, 
wheels, pinions, and other pieces of machinery, which havt 
the appearance of occupj'iiig the whole space. This raaohineij 
being wound up, the Automaton is ready to play ; and when an 
opponent has been found, the figure takes the firat move, moves 
its head, and seems to look over every part of the chess-board. ' 
When it gives check to its opponent, it shakes its head thriee, 
and only iwiee when it checks the queen. It likewise shakes 
its head when a false move is made, replaces the adversary's 
piece on the square from which it was taken, and takes the 
next move itself. In general, though not always, the Auto- 
maton wins the game. During its progress, the exhibitor often 
stood near the machine, and wound it up like a clock after !t 
had made ten or twelve moves. At other times he went to ft 
comer of the room, as if it were to consult a small square boj, 
which stood open for this purpose. 

The earliest English account of the Automaton Chess-player 

that'we can find is in a letter from the Rev. Mr. Ihitens to the 

Otntleiiion't Magadnt, dated Presburg, January 24, 1771. The 

writer formed an acquaintance with the inventor, whom be 

^*arB is M. de Kempett (not Kempelen), an Aulic counsellor, and 

"'-'ml of the BBJlt^BMBaa ir " " --i^.j.^ 

Tlie yiutomaton Chess-'player. 

i,jei a game at chesB with the Automaton ttt Presburs ; tU 
igliab. auhassador. Prince Guistiiiiani, and Beveral Englig) 
ds, Btauding round the tnble. 

"Thej all," aeoording to Mr. Datons, "had UibIt ejea on A 
mpett, who stood by the table, or aametimea romoved Clra o 
t from H, yet not one of them could dlseover the least motit 

1 that could inflnenoe the Automaton Ha also withdra , . 

r diatonoe ;ou please, and lots tlie figure play four or fivo moTM'fl 
OHdre!}' witbaut approacliin^ it. The muTsUoiis in tUa AuComatoo 
mHtfl chiedy in this, tbat it hae not (as in Gtliers, tlie moat oelebrfLtsd 
Dbines of this sort) ona determined series of movemestB, but that It 
«ja niDcea in aoDaequence of ths laanner In which iu opponent 
nm, which produces on amasing multitude of different corobinatioDB 
lt« movemeniii. M. de Kempett winds up from time to time the 
biga of the arms of this automaton, in order to renew its mofiH 
ttl bat this, you will obeerni, has no relation to its guviing font 
power of direction, which makes tho great merit of tbis maobine. 

iBDeral, I am of opinion that the contriver inituenBes the direction 
most etery elroke played by the Automaton, althoujch, as I bare 
I, I have Bomfltimes eeeo bim leave it to itself for many mores lo- 

tomprahend in what regards tide machme." 

Mr. Sta.anton, the celebrated chess-player, states that De 
mpelen constructed the Automatou " merely to afford a 
Rone amuEement to the Empress Maria Teresa and her court." 
on its oompletioti, it was exhibited at Presburg and Vienna ; 
1783 in Paris ; and in that and the following year in London 
i different parte of £nghind, without the secret of itsmove- 
mtG having been diBOOvered. " It was suhsequentlj," sayB 
\ Staunton, " taken, by apeoiail invitation of the Emperor, 
the court of Frederick the Great at Berlin. Thia prince 
B devotedly attached to ohesa; a.nd in a, moment of liberality, 
, proffered an enormous sum for the purchase of the Auto- 
tton and its secret. The offer was accepted, and in a private 
lendew with Ce Kempelen, he was furnished with a key to 
> mystery. In a short time, however, Frederick threw aaida-~I 
I novelty so dearly bought, and for many years it lay fc 
I KbA oezlected among tbe luniher of his palace. 
"M-de Kempelen died in 1804 ; but in two years after, when 
Kdeon I. occupied Berlin, we find the Ciieas Automaton ii' 
field again, under a new master. On one ocoasion of ib 
titdtioD at this period. Napoleon himself is said to hav^ 
red the lists. After some naif-dozen moves, he purpose,' 
e a &lBe move ; tbe figure inclined its head, replaced tl 
B, and made a sign for Napole on to play again. Fresentra 
^^ gain played falsely -. this time the Automaton removed tl 
Boding piece from the board, and played its own. iQCfi' 
^^wleon WHS delighted ; and, to put the patience oS\iv6 \j 
" "" 1 severer test, he once move 'p\>]i-jei va 

56 The AiUomalon Chess-player, 

recti;, apon which the Automatoa raised its arm, and sweeping 
the pieces from the hoard, declined to contiiiue the game. 

After a. Becood tour of the leading cities uf Europe, where 
it was received with unabated enthusiasm, in 1819 the Auto- 
matou was again eatablished in London, under M. Maelzel. 
For some rears it woa eidiibited iu Canada and the United 
States, and was finally understood to haye returned to New 
York, where it was shown in the autumn of 1845. 

Meanwhile there were various attempts made to discover 
the secret. The ingenious iaventor never pretended that the 
Automaton itaelf rrally played the game : on the contrary, he 
distinctly stated that the machine was a hagatiMe, which was 
not without merit in point of mechanism ; but that the eSects 
of it appeared ao marvellons only from the boldness of the con- 
ception, and the fortunate choice of the methods adopted for 
promoting the illusion." It was eurmised that the game was 
played eiUier by a person enclosed in the cheat, or by the exhi- 
bitor himself ; yet the chest, being nearly filled with machinery, 
did nut appear capable of accommodating even a dwarf; nor 
could any mechanical communication between the exhibitor 
and the Rgui'e he detected. It was then thought to be influ- 
enced by a magnet, which the exhibitor disproved by placing a 
strong and weU-armed loadstone upon the machine during the 
game, wlitch did not affect the moving power. The original 
coi^ecture, that the player was concealed in the interior, was 
then revived ; and in 178B, Mr. J. P. Freyhere, of Dresden, 
published a pamphlet, in which he endeavoured to explain hj 
coloured plates how the effect was produced ; and he con- 
cluded, " that a weil'taught boy, very thin and tall of his age 
(sufficiently so that he could be concealed in a drawer almost 
immediately under the chess-board), agitated the whole." 

Iu an earlier pamphlet, pubUehed in Paris in 1785, t^ 
writer supposed the machine was put in motion by a dwarf, > 
&mouB chess-player, his legs and thighs being ooucenled in 
two hollow cylinders, while the rest of hia body was out of tha 
bos, and hidden by the robes of the figure. 

Sir David Brewster, in his Nat>iral Magic, describes the 
secret as shown in a pamphlet published anonymously, and ths 
machine to be capable of accommodating an ordiuarily-si ' 
man ; and he explains, in the clearest manner, how " the ■ 
closed player takes all the different positions, and performs _ 
the motions which are necessary to produce the effects actualli 
observed." Sir David devotes eight pages of his work, with 
illnstrative woodcuts, to this explanation ; and endeavours to 
show how the real player may be concealed in the chest, aal 
"••rtlj ia the figure ; " as his liea4 ia aXAWift ttie di»«fe-\iw«e4„, 
BiU see tirough the waisWoout oi t\ie fe^ve, ^ ^ssii^ia 


Robert Kovdin. 

lough a veil, the whale of the piecea on the hoard ; aiid 

~k easily take up mid put down a chcGB-mau without «a^ 

T mechanism than that of a sLring communicating witb the 

r of the left haud of the figure ;" tlie right hand being 

a the obest, to beep iu motion the wheel- work for pro- 

the noise heard during the movee, and to more tht 

IP the chest, &c. 

Btaunton also maintaius that the chess-player who 
d the Automaton was really hidden in the interior; tl '~ 
■ maohinery bo ostentatiously exhibited was a sham, yet 
■trived that it would collapse or expand, to suit the exigei.^ 
I of the hidden agent's varioiia positions; while the chesfci 
<t exhibited, he was in the Hgure, and when the figure, he w&i 
kthe chest. While conducting a game, he eat at the bottom 
[the cheat, with a small pegged chess board and men on his 
L and a lighted taper afiiied ; witliiu reach were a handle by 
Boh he could guide the arm of the Automaton, an e' 
for moviug its fingers, and cord in communication 
E for producing the sound of 'Check.' The most 
niouB part of the coutrivnuce remains to be told. M. Moi 
B celebrated oliess-player, who directed the movements 
B Automaton for some years, states that the concealed player 
a aeated immediately under the chess-board of the Automa- 
I, and from the under side, at every one of the sixty-four 
HtreB, was suspended by the finest silk a tiny metallic ball; 
i, Bfl each of the chess-men had a magnet inside, wlien it was 
■oed upon a square, it drew up the ball beneath, while th«j 
"■ beneath the other squareB remained suspended. Th' 
<ea being arranged, the Autoitiatou opened the game; ani 
ling the handle oi the arm of the figure, and putting 
ion the finger-springs,' he cauBed it to take up the piece 
pbyed, which was indicated by the falling ball, and when 
a plaoed upon a square, the ball was drawn up. Be thr 
nted the move ou the small board in his lap, and thus '' 
le proceeded.* 

Thus the espLitiation rested, until the publication of 

" 8 of Robert Houdin, who therein relates the origin 

1 of the Automaton Chess-player in substanai 


■la 1769 thoni fell, EghtiDg ii 

Tolt at Riga, a 

4 both thigha shattered by a oannoii 

self into a. Wga behmd a ditch. At nightfell, 'WorouBky 
lelf along, IRth great difficulty, to the adjiK-ent house of 
pliyBioian, irhuso benevolence was well known ; mid the doctor, 

by hlB aofferini^, attended mion and promised to coueeal him. 

und waa aerioUB, gangrane set te, and his life coiild qii\-j \ia ss."5sA. 

elenied ud abrlUged froni the J/lwuratcd Loudon Neva. Uec. ^, Uitb. ^H 

5H The Julot , u,- ~ '/ ess-player 

Kt the cost of half lus body. The ajnputation wns raiccesafu], iLod 
Wiiroiuky BBved. 

Meanwhile, III, do Eenipolen, the celebrated meohaDiciiui, aama to 
Higa, to vJBt M. O«loff, who eoiifldad to him bia secret of ouncealing 
V/oToaekj, and beifgod hii nid. Tbougb Btartled at the requEat — [ot 
be knew Ibat n rew^d ku offered tor the innur^nt chief, Hod that the 
act of huiDiiDity he was about tc aasiat in mig-ht Bead him to Siberia— 
idU. M. de Eempelan, on aeeiofr Worotialty'a mutilated body, felt 
moved with compaBaian, aod begau contriTiug some plan to secure his 

Dr. Ontiffwaa a, paaiionnta lover of chasa, and had played numerau 
g&mea with bia patient during bis tardy convaleaconce ; but Woroniky 
WW so strong' ut the game that tbe doctor was always defeated. Then 
Kempelenjoineii the dootorin trying to defeat the alrilfkil player, but it 
waaofnouaa; Woroualiy wbb always the o^ioquaror, Hia superiority 

Kra M. do Eempelen the idea of the fitmoas Automaton Choss-phkyer. 
■n instant hb plan wim formed, aod be set to work immediettdy ; and 

Vlbicit Bitonlahed the whole world, was finished within three moDtb& 

H. de Ksmpelen waa aniieas that hia host should make the 6rn 
(rial of his Automaton; so ho inritad him to play a game on the 10th et 
Ootobor 1760. The Automaton represented a. Tku-k of the natural bm, 
wearing the national coatiime, and seated behind a box of the ahanei^ 
a chest of drawera. In the middle of the top of the box was a ohea- 
board, irith the pieces, for play. 

Prior to commencing the game, the artist opened aereral doon la 
tha chest, and M. Oeloff could see inside it nurober of wheala, puUlifa, || 
aylisdera, ipringa, lie, eucupying the larger jurt. At the aanie IJM I 

B oiujhiou, on which the Turk waa to rest his arm. This examiDattCH 
ended, the robe of tbe Automatan woa raised, and the interior of ^ 

ifW which, I 
1 one of tbt 

ody oould alao be iospected. 

The dooiB being then closed, M. de Kempelon wound up 

The doctor moTed in his turn, and waited patiently Ijll his adverwT, 
whose movementa had all the dignity of the sultan, had moved. lOe 
game, though slow at first, Eooti grew animated, and the doctor fmmif 
he had to deal witb a tremendoos opponent ; for, in spito of all Inl 
efforifl to defeat the figure, his g»me was growing g\dte desperate. H 
is tnie, though, that for soma mi nutes pust, the doctor's attentjon tail 
appeared to lie distracted, and one idea aaemed to occupy him. Bl^' 
while heatfltlng whether ho should impart hia thoughts to his ftierfi 
tiie figure gave three nods. The game was over. 

" By Jove 1" the loser aaid, wi th a tinge of veiation, which the liAt 
Of the inventor's smiUng face aoon diapelled, "if I were not certain aiti 
Woransky is at this moment in bed, ! should Mcllove 1 had been playiq; 
with him. His head alono ia capable of inveotiug such a oheoWaU, 
And beaidea," the doctor said, looking fixedly at W. do KompoloB,, 
" can you tell me why your Airtomaton plays with the left band, jmt I"*' 
Worvaskyr (The Automaton Ghew-vlayer alM-nys naod " ■ " ' 
— s defect &lBBly attributed to the cairdosBWoaa ol 'liie wm 

&iend that ho 

27/6 Automaton Ches^-plnyer 

— „, : at length o 
liajiug witb Worouflky. 

lookiag round to try and diecover bis opponent 

The invBTltor laughed heartily. 

" Well, do you not racogQise rao !" the Turk ei 
his iefl hand to the dootor in reconciliation, nhilo 
robe and displayed the poor cripple stowed awsy in the body of the 1 
AntomatoQ. " 

M. Oaloff could no 
"iB laughter. 

"When this inspection was end eii, and as soon ne the robe WHS nlloired 
to fall, Worouaky entered the Turk's body we have just examined, and, 
while 1 was ehowin^ yon the box aud the machinery, he was taking his 
time tf> pniu his arms and hands into those of the figure. You can 
i that, owing to thesiseofthe neck, which is hidden by the 

broad and e 

Donaoiw collar ha c, 

an easily pass hia 1 


and eeo the 

cheas-board. I mus' 

t add, that when I 


the macbint 

,, it is only to drown 

the sound uf Woro, 


M. Houdin relates that the mutilated Pok once bad the J 
sudacity, in his clockwork case, to visit St. Peterelmrg, and J 
plaj B game of chess with the Empress Catherine, agaiust f 
whom he had revolted. I 

It is hard to reconcile these conSicting statements, uiileaBi, J 
liaviug allowed Houdin'fl account of the origin of the AutomB^'l 
ton to he coiTect, we consider the other narratives to explain,.! 
tlie modes by which the Automaton was worked after Worousk^B 
iwd ceased to he the prime mover of this extraordiuaiy decep- F 

H 'JSubstitutes for the natural limbs have been constructed 
^Ui great succesg. In 1S46, Magendie deecribed to the French 
msdemj a pair of artilicial arms, the iuveutiou of M. Tan J 
XWrsen, with one of which a mutilated soldier raised a full J 
0I3SB to his mouth, and drank its contents without spilling &■ 
drop of the liquor ; he also picked up a pin, a sheet of paper, ■ 
ONh Each arm and hand, with its articulations, weighs ' 
filed round the person, 
gut, which act upon the 1 
ti given to the natural aW 


The idea of constructing a machine which should enable na to 
rise into, and Eail through, the air (henue the term aeronaut), 
would seem to have occupied the human mind even in ancient 
times ; but it was never realised until the beginning of the pre- 
sent, or the close of the lanC, ceittui7. 

a notion of imitating the flTing of birds is verj andoit. 

g over the winged gods, the stories of Abaris, Dsdalm, 
and the lile, which, with many others, might have been puiel; 
imaginative, and not traditions of any previous reality, wa 
oome to Strabo's account of the Capriolahe, a Scythian peopki 
who (so the word has been foolishly interpreted) raised thelB- | 
selves by smoke, or more properly, heated air. The Carolinianl J 
are also mentioned by the Jesuit Cantova, as having a &bte I 
about a female deity, who raised herself to heaven by the I 
smoke of a great Gre. We may likewise mention the woodan | 
pigeon of Arohytas, which had air enclosed in it, and whid I 
Iiucian professes to have seen raise itself in the air ; the fikUt I 
in British mythology, of Bbdud, the futher of the welt-knowB I 
Lear, which resembles that of Dtedalua; and many others, ill , | 
of which serve to show that the notion of the possibilitf of 1, 
raising a roan or a machine was very widely extended in tl' 
ancient world. Roger Bacou says that there certainly i0 
,fiffinff taaeUiiK, of which he knows the name of the inventa 
but which he has neither seen himself, nor docs he knowM. 
one who has. Van Helmont and others proved the possibiUtT f 
of flying by very eloquent dis<wurses, which convinced all hew- I, 
ers— but not their posterity. Sometimes, hnweverj the e^ 
dence of these ancient wonders is strangely shaken by hl«t 
rical fact ; as in the case of Regiomoutanus's wooden eagl^ W 
which flew out of Nuremberg to meet Charles V. ; for A-w 
though this statement- is testified by Sextus of Ratisbon, Kif^^ 
cher. Porta, Schott, Gasaendi, Lana, Ramus, and Bishop Vit-lb 
kins, they have overlooked the fact that Regiomontanus di<i|b 
twenty-five years before Charles V. was bom 1 I"' 

The Jesuit Francis Laua ( a,d. 1670), among many other pw| 
Jeots, baa given, perhaps, the earliest idea of a real BallooD) IT 
*«Aarei^nediti andlBafiratBte^TiBa^v--"-'-'- ^- " 

B Bishop Wilkins on Flying. 61 

pToposes to ridse a veBsel Tij means of metal balls, etronff 
enough, when expanded, to resist the pressure of the externd 

stances, to be lighter than their bulk of air. Had the good fa- 
ther made the experiment, he would have found that strength 
to resist the estemal air is incompatible with the necesBary de- 
gree of thinness in the material. Still, there was one avenne 
to the object of pursuit, to which the common and well-known 

Erinciplea of hydrostatics appeared to direct the way, though it 
ad been of all others the most neglected : this was the obviouB 
one, that any body which is specifically, or bulk for bulk, 
lighter than common air, will rise and swim in it, and submit 
to the action of the wind; therefore, if any body could be 
found which was in any considerable degree lighter than air, 
by making it of a sufficient size, a pursou might attach himself 
to it, and float along with it. Another century, however, 
elapsed before this was aocomplislied. 

Bishop WilUnE (who Hied from ISU to 1672) •ras an mrlr 
ofthis art. In Ma Diicoeery i^fu Seia World, or That the Woi 
it a Moos,, one of his proposition!! ie, " Thai 'tta possiblB for soma ijl 
" IT IK«terity to find oat a coQYBjauoa to tbis other wor'^ " -' "■■ — 

■ e incTBdible to ua than did the invontion o 

its bold WM lit. who in a abip so frail 

- - to Mil.- 

anted by" 

. .. _ _ . IB twenty miles ]iij;li, or thoreaboota, 

k aat HltOf^BUier improbablB that same otter art may suable him 
"W to the moon ; aocl supposing that he could fly nn fast and as long 
^ aviftest bird, were he to keep do in a ntraight lino, and fly 1(>W 
B a-day, he would not arrive at the moon under 180 dnya, or 
B Toar. As for the means of flying, Wilkins points to angels pio- 


there bo. as Marco Polo says, a roa in Madacascaj-, 

i^ up a horse and hia rider, or an elephant," then a : _| 

to tie moon, as Gauymede does upon an oaele. Or the Bishop 

it possible to moke a Flyicg ChonoC. largo enough to carry up 

.__ men, »ith tbeir food and luggage, on the same principla 1^ 

b Archytas made bis wooden dove, Eind ReeiomontanuB his vfdoden 

.B. The Bishop also devotes a chiiptcr if ha JUalAfiialiait JUagtel 

KiolTing tha difficulties thn.t seem to npiioae the possibility ofa Flying 

' it,»ndoonelQdeawithsuggBBtiu(^ the wiling of the bat as preferable 

' ')ird gravely adiling tha.t tho bat's wings are most easily 

perhajB Nature intended liy them to direct us in suoh 

it 'Maffick be minutely 
1 the smnke-jBck ; and 
a by this kiDd of motion liia representations 

]iioy, ns In the smoke-jock ; and he adds, 

t Leaving these phantasies, we reach some practical iUw^A^nr 
— • of the art. In 1709, Gusman, a Portnguese imi, toa- 
,cted a machine in the form of a bird, with tu'oea aa4\)^- 


Hydrogen Gas diseovered. ^^^^^^H 

lows to supply the wings with air ; he was rewarded with a 
liberal pension, but his nmcbioc failed. Gubidiid, however, was 
not diacouraged ; for in 173(3 he constructed a wicker basket, 
7 feet in diameter, and covered with pnper, which rose to ibe 
height of 200 feet in the air ; the success of which eKperiment 
procured for the inventor the reputation of being a sorcerer. 
As air was nonaiderod the lightest of all things, there ap- little reason to Iwlieve that the discovery of flying nould 
made; when in 1733 Joseph Gallieii, of Avignon, in a trea- 
tise, reommended the emplojtnent of a bag of cloth or leather, 
filled with air lighter than that of the atmosphere. Eleven 
years later, in 1766, this desideratum was supplied by Mr. Car 
veiidisb announcing to the world that the gas now known u 
hydrogen, but at that time called inflammable air, was at least 
seven times lighter than common air. This important discovery 
led Dr. Black to suggest iu his lectures, that if a bladder snffi' ! 
oieutly ligliC and thin were filled with this air, it would fona t 
mass so much lighter than the same bulk of atmospheric air, 
and that it would float in the latter. Dr. Black, however, dia 
not pursue the subjeat further ; and it rested for nearly twenty 
years, until Cavallo, reflecting on Dr. Black's remarks, in 178^ 
made several experiments to elevate a bag hlled with hydrogen 
gas: he tried the largest and thinnest bladders, but they were 
found somewhat too heavy for the purpose. He also tried bap 
of the fluest China paper, of ruch a size that, had it been poi- ' 
Bible to fill them with fjie gas, their ascent would have bMn 
oert^n ; but the experiments failed, for, though common ijr 
would not pass through this paper, hydrogen gas passed tbrooali 
it, like water through a sieve. In short, Cav^o was completiSy 
successful only in filling Boap-bubbles with the gas, vi'hich wW 
easily done by pressing small quantities of hydrogen out dlt 
bladder, while a small pipe was immersed in a solution of sow- 
and-water; these bubbles rapidly ascended in the ambient &, 
and they may be considered as the first inflammable air-balloool 
that were ever exhibited. CfiTallo read to the Royal Bocie^ 
the paper in which he gave au account of his expenmentB, 
the aoth of June 1782. 

Here it should Ite observed that, although the art of flying 
had been diligently studied, or at least discussed, for centuries, 
the exceedingly simple contrivance we shall presently desoribe 
had not been tried, or even mentioned, by any of the pro- 
jectors, some of whom were noen of ingenuity. Nothing osn 
set in a stronger light the antipathy of the earlier moderns to 
experimental research. And it is no small honour to the 
Montgolfiers, that the hint given by laiia, together with " 
every-day esperiment of soap-bubbles, and the like, ahi 
Jiava reraaiDea without reauUs W Vaevt I,\m6. 

The Montgolfiers. 

t" (says an able writer) " him the inventor of" 
P balloon who raised a mass of solid substauce to soine con- 
rable height in the atmosphere. But if we were to take the I 
e which is so frequent, of disputing the right of ai 
ventor, on account of Bome_esperimentB containing a p: ' 
common with his own, we' might sa/ that thia mach 
been invented from time immemorial in the asceut of soap- ■ 
bubbles; or we might citeCandido Buono, who made one s(»le 
of a balance ascend by rarefying with a red-hot iron the air be- 
neath it," We have seen how Cavendish discovered the gas 
seveufold lighter than airj how Block took up its application, 
but then halted) and how Oavallo followed, but could not huc- 
ceed in raising, by meaua of hydro^n, any thing heavier than 
a soap-bubble. We shall next Ehuw that, natural as it might 
appear to use hydrogen for the purposCj the esperiment suo- 
Beeded, only with a very difi'ereiit agent. From this point 
pmctical aerostation oomnieaces. 

In the last-mentioned year, 17S2, but unknown to the Eng- 
lish philosophers, two brothers, Stepheu and Joseph de Mont- 
Eolfier, paper-mauufiicturers at Annouay, about thirty-sis miles 
mm Lyons, formed a scheme whiuh led in a short time to the 
practice of aerostation on a large scale. They had both studied 
oatural philosophy and chemistry, and their business gave them 
Facilities for procuring large masses of light euveiopea; so that 
we owe the invention of balloons to one of two accideutB, either 
to that of philosophers being paper-makers, or to that of paper- 
makers being philosophers, Stephen Montgolfier is said to nave 
lerived the first idea from the accideulal circumstance of the 
paper cover of a conical sugar-loaf which he had Hung into the 
Ire becoming inflated with smoke, and remaining suspended 
in the chimney. Struck with the notion of conuiiing some- 
thing lighter than air in a recipient, as the means of making 
the latter ascend, the MontgolSers tried this method at about 
the same period as M. Cavallo, by confining hydrogen in paper, 
rhey succeeded to some esteiit; but the gas so soon escaped 
through the paper, that they abandoned the idea of any thmg 
like perpetual elevation by means of it. They nest thought 
that, as it was supposed the elevation of the clouds was caused 
by the presence of electric matter, and as it seemed to them _ 
Erom experiments that electrified bodies were diminished in I 
ifeight, it might be possible to raise a surface of great extent, I 
~ roportion to its apecifio gravity, by means of electricitji \ 
r tiding various methods, thejj applied fire underneath a' 1 
ion, not to rarefy the eadoted air, Imt " as welt to increase 
Rlaj>er of electric fluid upon the vapour in the vessel as to 
Ttle the vapour into smaller molecules, and diVate \,\\e g»s.w 
Ich they are suspended." Thus they thought toft's ■wm 

64 S. Montgolfier'g First Experiment, ^^H 

iiiuta.tiiig a cloud by electrifying the gases and vapoara con- 
tained in the atmosphere. 

The first experiment wag made at Avignon by Stephen Mont- 
golfier. He prepared a bag of silk, in the shape of a parallelO' 
pipedan ; its capacity waa about Ajrty cuiiic feet, and he ap- 
plied to its aperture burning paper, and inflated Uie bag vrith 
a kind of cloud, when the ma ascended rapidly to the ceiling 
of the room. This waa referred to theeleotrio theory, as above; 
but in the report made to the Academy of Sciences (December 
1783), by the commission appointed to iiiTestigate Mont^olfier'i 
invention, the inventora are epoken of ae simply rarefying the 
air contained in the balloon, when they had probably arrived 
at the correct view of the subject. Their first pubhc experi- 
ment was made at Annonay, June 5, 1763. At the appointed 
time, nothing was seen in the public place of the town but im- 
mense folds of paper, 100 feet in circumference, and fixed to a 
nearly spherical wooden frame, the whole weighing about 5001b,, 
and containing 22,000 cubic feet, French measure. It waa 
suspended, in a flaccid state, on a pole thirty-five feet highi 
straw and chopped hay were burnt underneath the opening it 
the bottom, the heated air from which entered ; the mass grv 
dually aasumed the form of a large globe, and ascended with 
such Telocity, that in less than ten minutes it reached the ele- 
Tation of 60(10 feet. A breeze carried it ui a horizontal direo- 
tioD to the distance of 7668 feet, when it fell gently on the 
ground. Machines on this p'rinciple were called Jfoniffoifitri, 
to distinguish them from the hydrogen balloons, which wen 
made immediately afterwards. 

The news of this phenomenon flew to Paris, where it imnia- 
diately produced an exciteineut almost unheard of before. That j 
hydrogen could not have been used, was evident from the d»- I 
Bcription given, namely, that it was half as heavy as air. 0> ] 
Aagust 23, the experiment ivas resumed at Versailles witli I 
hycbogen enclosed in lutestring, which had been dipped is ■ I 
solution of India-rubber. The gas was obtained in the usu^ I 
manner, by the action of diluted sulphuric acid on iron filinji| I 
but the machine was not lilled until August 26, when it KM | 
allowed to rise 100 feet, to which height it was confined bj I 
ropes. Next day the balloon was conveyed to the Champ 4l I 
Mara, where it was set free in the presence of an enomuHl I 
crowd. It fell five leagues from Pans, after being about 1 1 
quarter of an hour in the air. I 

Meanwhile, Joseph Montgolfier arrived in Paris, where hi I 
exhibited one of his balloons on the 12th of September; ul f 
on the IDth, in front of the Palace of Versailles. The inter g i 
attached to the mere ascent of the balloon alone here ceuf^l 
Farfoue repetitions of the e^pevuutm^, ^e\e nwide at Parii^^^| 

The first Aeronauts. ^H 

Vioualy to the time when men tnieted tiiemselves to this con- 
Teyauce, The first aerial voja-gera were a sheep, a rook, &ud 
A duck, nho were sent up ou September 19, and came down 
iBafe, Human life was not, however, trusted to a balloon till 
Me e^eriment of hotdiiiij the inaakine with ropes had been 
^nade. In this munner M. Filatre de Rozier ascended 100 feet 
'tm tbe filb of October, and 324 feet on the 19tb, in a aphe- 
Ytndal balloon seventf-five feet high. 

The first persons who offered to leave the earth entirdy 
were the Marquis d'Arlatides and M. de Rozier, in a Mtmtgdjier, 
from the Chitean de la Muette, near Pasey, November 21, 1783. 
.Sheir balloon, magnificently decorated, was terminated below 
it^ i. drcular gallery for tbe aeronauts ; inside a grate was 
nupended within their reach, ao that they eould, during the 
— ige, feed the fire ia it with straw, a supply of which they 
: with them. The sky was loaded with heavy clouds, 
lyen about by irregular winds. After a first trial, which had 
sAj proved iatal to the aeronauts, the balloou was again 
Ded, and a proviBton of straw taken up to supply the fire. 
" B machine first mounted with a steady and mftjeatic pace to 
re than 3000 feet, and traverBed the whole extent of Pari«, 
bteroepting the body of the sun, and giving to the gazers ou 
9ie t«werB of Notre Dame, for a few seconds, the spectacle of 
v totti eclipse. Wheu the balloou had readied so high that the 
1 earth were not distinguishable, the Marquis d' Ar- 
ia anxious to descend ; but his companion still kept 
seding the fire. At last, ou hearing some craijlts from tjie top 
c^tfae balloon, and observing holes burning in the etdea, the 
rquis became alarmed, and applying wet spunges to stop the 
gress of the burning, he compelled M. de Eozier to desist. 
B they DOW descended too fast, M. d'ArlandeB threw fredt 
law on the fire, in order to gain such elevation as would 
lable them to clear tlie lofty buildings ; and after a journey 
[twenty or twenty-five minutes, they safely alighted beyond 
Ike Boulevards, having described a track of sis miles, and the 
'loon being quite empty and flattened. 
Tbe nest voyage — the first made in a hydrogen balloon — 

Pwas that of MM. Charles and Robert at sunset, on December 
1, ITf 3, from the Tuileries. After coming down, M. Charles re- 
ascended alone, and was soon nearly two miles high : he saw 
un rise again, and he says, "1 was the only illuminated 
t, all the rest of nature being plunged in shadow." A 
balloon, launched by Montgolfier just before the ascent, 
bund to have run a totiLlly opposite course, which first 
nae to the suspiaion of differeut directions iu the curcea'W 
at diSereut heights, 
le third rojage—Gvm Lyons, Jan. 19, 17i^4 — wftsniaAaXii 

■' The Edinburffh Fire-ballmn." fi^^l 

Coant Zambeccari maybe canddered as amongst the most 
' tanate of the early voyagers. In an ascent from Ancoua. 
IS driven formanj hours over the Adriatic Sea, until picked 
K up by a bark; and in another journey, from near Bologna, in 
* 's desoeot, the car, hy the upsetting of a lamp and spirit^of- 
i, took fire, and burnt the olothes uf the Count and his com- 
n ; the balloon fell into the Adriatic, twenty-five miles 
^Btant from the Italian coast. The half-biirut car sank, but 
mbecoari held fast by the ropes of the balloon, thouah im- 
e water to hia neck. By means of a bit of glass he 
letached a rope from the bag, and with, it fastened hie body to 
Bthe machine. In this situation he floated on the water for some 
irs, tbe balloon being still inflated. At length, in the even- 
j, the Count was taken up hy some fishermen, who, in at- 
Saaptingto seize the balloon, cut the ropes, when it rose, and 
M>k its course towards the Turkish coast. 

In Scotland, the earliest attempts at aerostation emanated 

1 A chemist at Ediubui^h, Mr. Scott, who, on March 13, 

[, let off from Heriot's Qardeus a balloon, which was taken 

p twenty miles from Edinburgh. About the same time, vari- 

~B balloons were let off from other places in Scotland; one 

ached from the Observatory of Aberdijen went thirty-eight 

ea in half an hour. 

By a singular coincidence, on the above day, Philip Astley, 

B)e eelebrated horse-rider, and founder of the Amphitheatre, 

inched an aeroBtatio glube (or bailoon)in St. George's Fields; 

IB afterwarda found at Faversham, forty-seven niilea distant. 

In the same year, Mr. J. Tytler, another chemist at Edin- 

mh, had constructed a balloon on the Hontgoltier principle, 

ij exhibited it as "the Edinbui^h Fire-balloon." It was 40 

, aitd 30 feet hi diameter. On August 27, he ascended 

a balloon 360 feet ; but as no furnace wa« taken up 

to maintain the supply of heated air, Tytler soon de- 

with the triple &me of being the first oative of Qreat 

^riiam jMd acliitved an aerial ascent; of having accomplished 

" e firrt aerial voyage in these realms; and with one exception, 

i gnly person who ascended in Great Britain by the agency 

if fttmospheric air rarefied by artificial heat. Nevertheless, the 

'jtoilof the first aerial voyage In Great Britain was long ascribed 

OlJunardi, whereas he did not ascend till September 15th fol- 

ring. From an admission ticket in the British Museum, Tyt' 

Islnlloon appears to have been constructed byM.W.Brodie; 

1 tbe engraving represents it in the shape of a cask, hooped, 

f vnmished linen in eight pieces; the car, provided with a. 

> of wings or sails, being suspended by eight larje coiift. 

The exception shore re/eired to was the ascent o^ "^t. 

BRtb, In a balloon of bis own coiiatruotion, from ■fe\eak'Q)&-. 

Earltf Walloon Voyages. ^B 

near Mansfield, on the night of Ma; S4, 1837: after heing in 
the air two hours, the ballooD desceodGd ; hut Air. Sueath, Sar- 
ing it might be destroyed if he quitted it, remaiced there till 
aid airived in the morning. 

On June 4, 1784, Madame Thible, the first female aeronant, 
and possibly the only woman who has ascended in a fire-balloon, 
did BO in a ManigDlJiin, from Lyons, in company with M. Fleu- 
rand, in the preBence of the court, and of Uustavua, king of 
Sweden, then tmvelling as Count Haga. Madame Thible's in- 
trepidity was soon paralleled; for in the following year, June 
29, 17B5, the first English female aeronaut, Mrs. Sage, ascended 
in a balloon. 

The firnt aerial vomge in England was made by Vinoentio 
Lonardi, accompaniea by a cat, a dog, and a pigeon : he started 
from the Artillery Ground, and landed at Standoii, near W»e. 

On Jan. 7, 176G, Messrs. Blonchard and Jefferiea crossed 
the English Channel in an inllammable air-balloon cotiBtructed 
by the former gentleman. They rose from near ShakspesJ^ 
Cliff, at Dover; but the weigbt being too great for the poww 
of the balloon, they rapidly descended. They threw out balllilt 
from time to time, but without success ; next they threw ont 
a parcel of boolia, anchors, and cords, but ineffectually ; and 3S 
the balloon approached the B«a, the aeronauts threw away thor 
clothes, and fastening themselves to slings, prepared to cut 
away tlie boat as a last resource. Calais was now distinot^ 
seen at a distance of about four miles in the direction of ibe 
wind ; and the balloon rising quickly, they at length descended 
in safety in the forest of " 

from Paris, in a balloon filled with heated air. Its diamett 
was 27! f^t, and its length 4GS feet, and it was made to flmit li 
with the longest part parallel to the horizon, with a boat nes^ li 
17 feet long attached to a n-et that went over it as far as tull 
middle. To the boat were annexed wings, or oars, in the f^V 
of an umbrella. At 12 o'clock they ascended, and desaendrfll 
at4{>minuteBpaBt 6, near Arras, inArtois. By working theotnfl 
they accelerated their course ; but the current of air was onK 
form from the height of 600 to 4200 feet. In their voyage of 
150 miles, they heard two claps of thunder; the thermoiMttr 
fell from 77'' to 56", and condensed the air in the balloon » 
as to make it descend very low. From experiments, they cn 
eluded that they were able, "by the use of the two oars, to dC'la 
viute from the direction of the wind about 22°. 

On June 16, 1785, M. de Boder and M. Bomaiu a 
&oni Bottlogue in a Montgolfiire, with the intention of oi 
"' leJ. This machine was r^ sort, tit. iovtaVWloo 

Balloons in Military Operations. 

&ited with hydrogen gas ; below it was auepended a 
~lUoon, and between them were sails. In a short tim 
r balloon was seen to be rapidly eipiinding, wliile t 
ronants tried to facilitate the escape ot the gas. Soon i 
wards the whole apparatus appeared to be on lire, and thn 
^^^""~s of the machine descended from the height of three^ 
:8 of a mile, with the mangled bodies of the voyageni4 
July following, M^ur Money ascended in a balloon othto'" 
^ conrtruction from Norwich, which burst ; he was preoi- 
d into the German Ocean, where he remained five hours, 
_ g to the wreck of the Imlloon, by the aid of which he 
it bimeelf floating, till he was picked up by iheArgiu sloop- 
Wr off the coast of Yarmouth. ^ 

"he aaoent of M. Teetu from Paris, in June 17813, lastei. 
■9 hours. His balloon was furnished with wiugs and othefc 
ing apparatus ; and when he had ascended 3CiOD feet, tlM' 
ision of the balloon led him to desceud in a corn-field ir 
I plain of Montmoreuci. His balloon was seized by the vf 
B ; when he cut the cords, and re-oscended, and was drin . 
t through the night by a terrific thunderstorm, but d^ 
led at sunrise uninjured, seventy miles from Paris. 
About this time attempts were made to render aerostation 
iful in military operations. A. captive balloon was held nt- 
(bed to a ourd of suffioieut length, so that a person could 
said to a corresponding height, and obtain a bird'a-eye view ^ 
file enemy's movements. The most successful result w *■ 
Bed eariy in the French revolutionary war, when a ba 
Mred by the Aerostatic Institute iu the Polytechnic % 
8 intnuted to the command of esperienoed officers, was d 
bated to each of the repubUcan armies. The decisive victom 
ocdi General Jourdan gained in June 1794 over theAustriuif 
flennu, has been ascribed principally to the accurate iuf(U«^ 
llion of the enemy's movements, oefore and during the bat^ 
^ ooBunuiiicated by telegraphio signals from a balloon sent 
to a moderate height in the air. The aeronauts, headed by 
nton de Moi-veau, mounted twice in the oourse of the day, 
3 continued about four hours each time hovering in the rear 
the army, at an altitude of 1300 feet. In the second ascent, - 
^ enterprise being discovered by the enemy, a battery wai' 
^ ~d against them ; but they soon gained an elevation abovV 

»oh of the cannon. 
In 1(502 Oarnerin visited England, and ascended ii 
ID from Banetagh Gardens, Chelsea, with a naval officer^ 1 
len they reached Colchester in less than an hour. In July^H 
1 September, Oarnerin repeated his ascent ; aud in the \B.W«tW 
nth descended in a parachute in safety {com 3> ^cA^t. *i*^ 
aoh he could scarcely he distinguished. ' 

Coal-gas for Balloons. ^^^^^^| 

lu 1007 Otimeriii made a night ascent, and rising with on- 
ububI rapidity, attained a greut elevatioD. Bj Bome neglect, 
the apparatus for diBchargiug tiie gaa be<»me unmauageabte; 
the aerouaut was obliged to make an iocision in the balloon, 
which then descended eu rapidly that he ca£t out hie ballast. 
The balloon, in this way, alternately rose and sank fur eight 
hours ; and the aeronaut was drivcti hy a thunderstorm against 
the mountains, and landed at Mount Touuere, 300 milcB dis- 
tant from the place of his ascent. 

Among the moat perilous ascents on record are those of Mr, 
Sadler from Bristol in 1810, aiid Dublin ki 1812. In the latter 
Toyage, he was wafted across the Irish Channel : when, on his 
approach to the Welsh coast, the balloon descended nearly to 
the surface of the sea. B; tliis time the sun was set, and the 
shades of evening began to close in. He threw out uearly all 
his ballast, and suddenly sprang upwards to a great height} 
and by bo doing, brought his horizon to dip below the sun, 
producing the whole phenomena of a western sunrise. Sub- 
sequently, desceudingin Wales, he of course witnessed a seoond 
sunset on the same evening (Sir John Herachel's Ou&inet of 
Aitrdnomi/), Mr. Sadler was long a famous aeronaut, and be 
was oue of the earliest manufacturers of soda-water. His tvro 
sous, John and Windbam, were also aeronauts: the latter wffi 
killed in 1824 by falling from a balloon. , 

Before the introduction of gas-lighting, the mode of inflat- ' 
ing a balloon with hydrogen gas was by a slow chemical pn>- 
~3as from oil-of'Vitriol and water, and sheet zinc, zinc filing^ I 
r iron filings; when the water being decomposed, the vitriw 
tuaes the Einc or irou to attract the oxygen, and form wiUi it ' 
a oxide, while the hydrogeu, the other component of water, 
is liberated. The hydrogeu was made in casks, wheuoe it was 
conveyed by hoae into the balloon. Coal-gas was first substi- 
tuted for hydrogen in 1S2I, by Charles Green, who, on the 
ooronatiou-day of George IV., ascended from St. James's Park. 
The success of this experiment vastly increased the faoilitiet^ 
and diminished the expenses, of balloon -ascents. This was 
Green's first aerial voyage ; be subsequently made upwards of 
BOO. lu 183G a vast balloon -was constructed in Vauxhall Qai- 
dens, at the cost of SOOO guineas. lu this balloon Green as- 
cended November 7, in the above year, with Mr. Monck Mason 
and Mr. Holland, and crossing the British Channel, descended 
in eighteen hours at Weilburg in Nassau. In the same balloon 
Green, Sept. 10, 1838, with Mr. Rush, reached the gn 
altitude ever attained— 27, 14H feet, or 6 miles 746 feet. 

In 1336 a return was made to the heuted-air system : there 

s constructed by subscription of a party of amateur hsn ' 

nautB au egg-shapsi MoulgoUitii: WLouq, tlie height otM 

ur aM^fl 

Scienlijic Balloon Observations. 7^ 

Torh Column, and half the circumference of the dome of St. 
Paul's CathedraL The furuac'e was dropped iuto the oeutce of 
*' e car, and the chimney was placed in the lower aperture of 
6 balloon : the heat could be miaed to %W Fahr, in three 
ininutes, and the haR filled with 170,000 cubic feet iu eight 
^uautea. On May 24, the bdloou having been inflated upon 
% platform in the Surrey Zoological Gardens, an attempt to 
■Bceud &iled from the furnace being too small, when, the die- 
^ipoiated spectators tore the machine into pieoes. 

It has been at various times attempted to turn the balloon to 
kaentific account, of which efforts the following are iustauoeB : 
QbLuc, the cslebralfld Genoveae philosopher, mode n Hcientific voy- 
e in a balloau, tukins up nith him a barometer, which fell at the 
oatest altitude te 12 incbea. Suppeain^ the barometer to havo stood 
tliat time at 30 inahes, it fullows from this that he must hava left 
low him in quantjt; eisctl; three-fifths of tho eutire atoiuapbere, 
. — lOa 12 inches would be only two-Sfths of the complete column aus- 
ftined in the lurometric tube. Uls elevatiuu at this momsot waa eati- 
fnated to httve been 2(I,D00 feet ; but it is certain that he had Dot at- 
Mined a poiot amounting to mora than a small fraction of the eutire 
,#titudB of the Btmoaphert), 

'- ' ""' 'IM. Gay Lussao and Biot ascended at Paris to a height of 

irovidEd with apparatus. The same year M. Qay Lussac 

la 23,000 feet." In the latter voyage lie eoufirmed two 

ipbrtODt points : 1, That the magnetio force eiperieaoea no seruuble 

-"ktioD, either in its inclination or its inteustty, from the surface of 

earth to the greatest heights to which it ia possiblo to aecend. 2. 

t in this interval, the oonstituticin of the atmosphero ia entirely tho 

Q. M. Gay Lussac observed that the heat decreased nearly in 

luneClca) progression, in proportion as he rose in the atmosphere, 

thAt each degree of the depression of liis centigrade thermometer 

BBDonded to an aleTstion of about 85 toises 5 feet. 

;hi (^died lSa3), astronomer ro^ at Naples, as- 

Amlroaui, the tu'st Itaban aeronaut. Trying to rise higher 

M. Gay Luwuic had done, tlioy got into an atmosphere ao rarefied 

burst the balloon. Ita remnants checked the velocity of their de- 

I. lUid this, with their falling on an open space, saved their lives ; 

nt Briooolii contraoted a compluut which brought him to bis grave. 

On JuneJT, 1823, Captain Benufoj, the able meteorological observer, 

aided with Ur. Graham in bis balloon, which, at the height of flEOS 

1^ became enveloped in clouds, above which waa a vast ospanae of 

. MD snbwi with euormoua mountnin-like mosses, humiahod at every 

mmnit by the •mm of the sun, which shone most briliiautly from a 

iHp blue sky. The aeronauta rose 11,711 feet, at wbich ho'^t they 

iaara the report of a gun, and could distinguish the metropolis. At 

Ite lilgfaeat elevation, 19.000 feet, clouda were still visible, otid the at- 

~ alll^WEis filled, with fine cryetidBuf snow: those aeronauts fouml no 

Scuify in breathing. 

Four «soonts were made in 1852 with Mr. Green, in his NoBsau Bal- 
by a Committee o£ the Britiah Aaaoclation, which reported to tho 
■ Sooiety the meteorological ohaervatJooB obtained: tho air soV- 

llke plcvaiion hu ilaca Iiccd sClalniid by UU. Bejnl aDa.mi\o.-^^ 

a Kcaroely diSbreil from Uutt at tlie carOi a 

The aerial phenomBoa witaoased by Mr. E. VirinD, M.A,, ill abol- 
loon-ucent frum the metropotii. nere, tha olljtude of the horizjii, wUch 
ramofaied practical); on n tevel with the eye at an aloTatioit of two miles, 
OTusing the Buriaee of the Barth to appear ooncaio instead of oonvei, 
and to reoeda durine the rapid aaoent, whilst the horiion and tbe bsl- 
loan woined to be stationair: tbe definite oDtlinea and pin's Eolouiing 
of olijeotti directly beoeath, althoui^h reduced to microscopic propor- 
tioaa; Ihenohooratdnationof ray« bunrting throiwh clouds, and ijaviOB 
the Him'fl disc for their fociia, coiatraHted with shadowa upon the eHrl£ 
Which radiate frum a vanishing poi tit on tbe borizon, the muTow shadows 
Of elonda and aminenoea, anoh a« Harrow and Richmond, being projected 

flcenery of the upper aiirfaceB of eloud, still Illumined at high altitudes 
bf the cold silvery my, oantraated with the rich hues of clouds at lower 
1bt»1«, and the darkness of the earth after sunset. 

In aoouBtica, several interesting phenomena were notioed. Tbe 
aound of London rolled westward as loj- as Ha smolie, but was lost 
above the clouds, where the moat iotenee silence prevailed, as alBo near 
the surface of the earth, ahowing that sound s»»nda. 

It is now time to mention Paroehntes, expedients by wMdi 
an aeronaat is enabled to lower himself from a, balloon to the 
eftrth. The Parachute resembles a vast nmbrella, to the handle 
of which ia attached a basket to support the aeronaut. When 
it ia first detached from the balloon, it is shut up; but, aa it 
deaoendB, the air causes the folds to expand. 

The idea of using a parachute to break the &I1 is not nev. 
Two centurieB ago two umbrellas were seen used as parachutes 
in Siam. lu France, in 1783, M, le Normand used an um- 
brella as a parachute in jumping from a house to the ground. 

Blancliard, in his first ascent frum Paris in a hydrogen bid- 
loon, March 2, 1784, added wings aud a rudder, but found 
them useless; and lie fii'st carried a />arorfM.(e, or open nmbrelh, 
attached above the car, to break the &1I, in case it Eeparated 
from tite balloon. 

In October 1797 M. Gamerin ascended from Paris, and 
when at the height of 2O00 feet, disengaped from his balloon 
tt parachute, in which he descended: at first the motioit im 
slow and steady, then oscillatury, but he reached the earth itt 
safety, as related at page 69. 

A most disastrous descent was made July 24, 1837, by | 
Mr. Cooking, in a parachute constructed by him, and attadifla J 
to Mr. Green's Nassau balloon. The parachute resembled 
tmiertei/ open umbrella; and when Cocking cut the connect _ 
rope from the balloon, the panichute collapsed, he descended to *J 
the earth with great velocity, and was taJieu up dead, at Lee, \ 
near Blaokheath, sis miles from the scene of his ascent. "''" 
result Aad been nearly equally fatal to the persons in t~ 
' Oreeu 's bailooo, which shot up ao ibl5\4\^ , X'taJ, the g 

Steering -Balloomi 

d out, and for nearly five rainuteB they suffered great pain. 

t luckily, thej bad provided a lurge silken bag full of at- 

iDOBpheric air, aud furuished with two metal tuliea ; these they 

liKpplied to their mouths, and -were thus enabled to breathe: 

twtthout Euch a precaution, suffocation would have been in- 


In September lt<3S Mr. Hampton ascended with a para- 
chute, attached to a coal-^s bnlloon, &om Cheltenham, to tile 
height of 8000 feet ; he then cut the connecting cord, when 
the balloon rose Bonie hundred feet, and hurst ; Mr. Hampton 
Bafely descending in the parachute within thirteen minutes, 
the collapsed balloon having reached tlie earth before him. 
"We conclude with notices of a few of the more ingenious 
nietim of contrivances which have been made for uavigatiog 
le air in the pi'eseut century. 

Id 1843, Mr. Monck Mason proposed to propel balloons by 
te Archimedean Screw, so successnilly applied to move vessels 
farough water. He accordingly constructed a lai^e egg-shaped 
«moon, placed upon a wooden frame in the form of a canoe, 

the ceutre of which he suspended an oblong car. At the 
lead of this car he placed, at the end of an iron axle, a portion 
S an Archimedean Screw ; and at the stern of the car was a 
wge oval-shaped rudder, to guide the balloon ou either side, 

pr horiKontally. In a model, Mr. Mason set the screw in motion 

J clockwork, which propelled the balloon rouud the room ; hut 

Q teft it to others to devise machinery for practical working. 

A BttU bolder draft upon credulity was presented in 1843, 

tdth all the appliaaoes which the graphic art could lend to 

4edgn. This was the " Aerial Transit Macliine," patented by 

pi BJr. Henaon, aud to consist of a car attached to a huge reet- 

~galar wing-like frame, covered with oiled silk, or canvas ; the 

■clfpe to be propelled by a steam-engine in the car, work- 

g two vertical fan-wheels with oblique vanes ; while a frame, 

Efi the tail of a bird, was to net as a rudder, and make the 

pnatos ascend or descend. But, as Mr. Heuson had not 

Dvided for the buoyancy of all this machinery, the " Aerial 

tauat Machine" never rose but in the region of the brain of 

be ^)6culative inventor ! 

In 1844, there was constructed in Paris, by M. Matey MoDge, 

1 immense balloon of sheets of copper the SOOth part of an 
ail thick, in exteut about 1S<:X) yaida; the sheets were sol- 
md by bands, like the ribs of a melon : the machine weighed 
M pounds, and was to be filled with hydrogen gas. M. Monge 
ibiidtted hia pi'oject to the French Academy. By substituting 
amer for silk, he maintained that the aeronaut mighi tem&As^ 
a toe air for any length of time, and thus I* ena.\>\e4 Vi sSmA^ 

Qis aiiaospheric cwreuta; and by connecting ttve \iai\ooQ.V3 ^ 

Aerial Chariots. 

metal wire with the earth, Monge expected to oonduot tha 
electric matter from the olouda, aud thus preveut the formation 
of hail, which ia so destructive to agticuJture. However, the 
project entirely failed. 

In 18C0, M. Julien, a watchmaker of Paris, construated a 
model fatdloon, in the form of a fish, which floated against ths 
vrind hy clockwork moviug a pair of wings. The model was 
of goldbeater's skin, filled with gas, and was four yards loDg. 
Twenty years previously, Mr. Egg, the celebrated gunmakec, 
constructed iu a building erectedfor the purpose, at Kuighta- 
bridge Grove, a huge fish-shaped balloon of goldbeater's skia, 
which could not be tiavigated iu the air, although the exp^- 
mentH with the model were successfuL 

Oo May 34, 1850, Mr. H. Bell ascended from Kennington, 
in an " Aerial Machine," shaped like an elongated egg, which 
he propelled with a single screw, and steered by an apparatus 
for nearly thirty miles, and descended safely at High Laver, 
Essex. This is one of the feiv successes of steering. 

In 1850, M. Petiu designed, at Paris, "a System of Aerial 
Navigation," consisting of a vast framework, 162 yards long, 
holding four balloons, each 90 feet diameter, and four para- 
chutes, at two levels, the whole worked by two horizontal 
helioes and wheelwork ; the platform for several persona.* 

Bishop Wilkius has his followers in our time. In 18ST, 
Colonel Viney patented a Char Volant, to be drawn by Kites, 
oooasionally tandem fashion ; aud in the Qreat Exhibition of 
1851, there was shown a £ile Carriage, which many years pre- 
viously had been experimented with on Durdham Powos, near 
Bristol. It was impelled by the air aoting upon large kites, 
at the rate of twenty to twenty-live miles an hour. In ISfiT, 
I>ord Carliugford patented an Aerial Chariot, of very Ught woo^ 
with three wheels, two network wings, and a tail, the j^lter 
worked by "au aerial screw," turned by a winch acting oo 
three multiplying wheels : possibly, adds the inventor, two 
eagles may be trained to draw the vehicle, like the Chariot of 
Jupiter I 

The problem to be solved in aerial navigation is, to n 
through the air in any desired direction. Until this be acooift' 
plished, the Balloon will remain a toy, to amuse u crowd, tai 
not productive of any gain to science. The accounts of tlw 

ascents made during the last thirty-nine years would filial 

volume ; and the details of the catastrophes include the de 
of several of the aeronauts. 

• In less. Ihfin vm Cdnstnictci stSew York hd " Aariil Ship." IlielialEU ■ ' 

afst Pxul-a Cathalral. London, sjiil piovlftei wSlh l \\St\nM. MWched Hi a* I 

au-: Ills aGmaaul, T. S. C. Lone, BD>iec1ineuici<»&'^[>Q t.fiUL>^()«KSL<iiL«K t 

rati machiDe. j 

(Koger llaCDU. Fnin s scarce pHut bj .Ssidluii Sadeler.) 


r of the early worker 

J have been e 

BtnmKeljr- ' 

eeented as Roger Bacoa, the philosopher of the thir- 
h century, but, until lately, more popularly known as the 
IT Bacon" of the Btory-booka, and the legend of the Srazea 
1, which he ia said to have made to epeafc. Yet )ie was 
r of upwards of eighty scientific and philosophical 
es, and the reputed iiiveutor of gunpowder and of spec- 
Tradition framed his character on the vulgar notiona 
ttiiued iu hia day of the resulta of exnerimeutal aoieuce : 
B regarded as a learned monk, Hearching for the philo- 
n' stone in his laboratory, aided only by infernal spirits; 
s the BagaciouB advocate of reform in education, 
;, and reasoning; and, what was equally rare, the real 
r into the phenomena of nature. Bacon died at Oxford 
leyear 1292, where existed, until nearly our owu 1.«ae,s. 
ditionary memorial of " the Wonderful Ilootor," m \ift '^aii 
e of hia coa (emporariea. On ftrandpoii.'s., ot 'fio* 

Roger Bacon at Oxford. ^^H 

Old Folly Bridge, at the southern entrance into Oxford, stood 
a building, called " Friar Bacon's Follj," from a belief that 
the philosopher was acciistoiaed to ascend this building in the 
night and "study the atars." It was entirely demolished in 
1778; and the bridgu, of whidi Wood saja "no record can 
resolve its precise beginning," was taken down in 1825, aod 
rebuilt in modem style ; but you have only to look across Christ 
Church Meadow to the pinnacled tower of Mertou College, to 
be reminded that this was the earliest home of science of a 
decidedly English school, and that for two centuries there was 
no other foundation, either iu Oxford or Paris, which could at 
all come near it iu the cultivation of the aciencee.* 

Roger Bacon belonged to this distinguished foundation, 
although there is a doubt whether he was not of firasenoee 
College. Qe was bom near Ilchester, in Somersetshire, in 
1214, the year before the signing of Magiin Charta. He was 
educated at Oxford, next studied at Paris, and returned to Ox- 
ford with a doctor's degree, which was confirmed by the latter 
University, He next took the vows of a Franciscan, iu a con- 
vent possessed by thut orderat Oxford ; from which time, 1240, 
he closely studied languages and experimental philosophji 
His brethren soon grew envious of his success; the lectures 
which he gave in the University were prohibited, aa well aa the , 
transmission of any of his writings beyond the walls of his cod- 
Tent. The charge made against him wns that of practiring 
mwic, which was then frequently brought against Ihoee who 
Btuditd the sciences, and particularly chemistry. Yet, in his 
tract De Ifidlitftte Ma^itE, Bacon declares that experiments! 
ioience enables us to investigate the practices of magic, not 
with the intent of confirming them, but that they may be 
avoided by the philosopher. 

Meanwhile due allowance must be made for the times in 
which Bacon lived. Even his astrology and alchemy — thoH 
two great blots upon his character, as they are usually called?- 

Roger Bacons Opus Majus. 

nben conridered \>j the eide of a later age, irrattonal onm 

unproved, aud neither impoBsible nor unworthy of tl 

_iition of a pbiloeopher in the absence of pi'ecediug e; 

imentB. According to Dr.Hutton's laborious inquiries, !feoo 

uied in tweuty years' researches some 20UU^, a very la^fl 

for the time, supplied by aome of the heads of the u™--* 

< That Bacon was hj £ir the truest philosopher of the a 

js, is now generally admitted. He was fully acquainted w 

) works of Euclid, and he displayed great knowledge in 

xed mathematica. He is said also to have understood GreeJrS 

To Pope Clement IV. we owe the produotiou of Bacoa^-' 

St work, the Opus Majus. Clement had previously been 

f,i6 in England, where he had heard of Bacon's discoveries, 

1 earnestly desired to see his nrilings ; but the prohibition 

Ibe Franciscans prevented his wish being complied with. 

After his election as head of the church, Biicoii, conceiving 

that there would be no danger or impropriety in diaoheying his 

immediate Buperiors at the com'maQd of the Pope, wrote to 

Glemeut, statiug that he was now ready to send him whatever he 

pihed for. The answer was a repetition of the former request ; 

K Bacon accordingly drew up the Opits Mnjan, of which, it 
be presumed, he had the materials ready. The book was 
^ordiugly sent, hut waa hardly received by Clement before 
mw seized with his last illnesa. 

Bacon enjoyed freedom from open persecution until t 
ir 1278, when, in his sixty-fourth year, he was summon 
ktte a council of Franciscaua at Paris, who condemned b 
itings, and committed him to close confinement; the p 
^~ ground of Accusation being the charge of innovationi 
ng to some, but, according to others, his writings upog 
ilogy. During ten years. Bacon tried to procure h' 

K.ment, but without success ; at last, however, he w 
berl7, through the intercession of some powerful noblid 
h the Pope; but who they were is not nicntioued. Soma 
tllat Bacon died in prison ; but the best authorities statfj 
it be returned to Oxford, where he wrote a compendium o 
lology, and died in 1292. He was buried in the church a 
^^ Pranoisoana at Oxford. The manuscripts which he had le^^ 
iod bim were immediately put under lock and key by thafl 
■B-fearinK Eurvivors of his order, until the documents are^ 
to have Deen eaten by insects. 
lit. Hallam considers it hard to detemiiue whether or not 
BrBaooniaentitled to tho honours of a discovei'er insolence, 
two great points by which tie is known are, bifi t%^u^«^ 
* Lbmoe with Gunpowder and the Telescope. \.\\\i\6 Opu* 
detonating misture, of which B^lpetre ift aawv- 

VV Roger Bacon's Discoveries. ^^H 

credient, is Bpoken of as common]; known; ftud in his De 

Stcretia Optribiit, be expressly metitiuHB sulphur, oharcoul, and 
saltpetre as ingredientB. But independently of the cluims of 
the Ohiuese aiid Indians, Marcus Grsecus, who is mentioned 
by an Ambio physician of the ninth century, gives the recipe 
for gunpowder. The discovery has sometimes been given to i 
Schwartz, the Qerman monk ; and the date 1330 aunexed to j 
it, which is much posterior to that claimed for Bacon. 

Bacon's discovery of Optio Leusea has been established be- 
yond a doubt ; and he eoneeiiKd the Telescope, though there is 
no proof that he carried hia conception into practice, or tn- 
vertled the instrument. He truly describes a telescope : bnt if 
he had constructed one, he would have found that there we 
impediments to the indefinite increase of the magnifying power, 
and still more, that a boy does not appear a giant, ^tliough 
he attributes these propertiee to the telescope. At the Rame 
time, Bacon asserted that a small army could be made to ap- 
pear very large ; and that the sun and moon could be made to 
descend, to all appearance, down below, and stand over the 
head of the enemy ; — ideas which, in after times, produced 
either the telescope or some modiScation of it, consisting in , 
the magnifyini^ of images produced by reflection, and that be- ] 
fore the date either of Jansen or Galileo. 

Whether the invention of Spectacles is due to Bacon, or 
whether they had been introduced just before he wrote, is 
doubtful. In his Opue Mojin he writes: " This instrumenti 
a plano-convex glass, or large segment of a sphere, is useful to 
ula men, and to those who have weak eyes, for they may see 
the smallest letters sufficiently magnified ;" whence we may 
conclude that the particular way of assisting decayed sight was 
known to him. The invention is commonly attributed to Alex- 
ander de Spina, a monk of Pisa, who died in 1313. Friar Jor- 
dan de Rivalto tells his audience, in a sermon published ia 
130S, that "it is not twenty years since the art of making 
spectaolea was found out ;" tf us placing the invention in 1288, 
seven years before Bacon's death. Amongst other iuventiMU 
attributed to him is that of the introduction of the Arabic ou- 
merala into England ; but this has been completely disproved. 

" The mind of Roger Bacon," says Hallam, " was strangely 
oompounded of almost prophetic gleams of the future coune 
of Bcience, and the best principles of tlie inductive philosophy, 
with a more than sacred credulity in the superstitions of bis own 
time. Some have deemed him overrated by the nationality ot 
the English. But if we may have sometimes given him credit 
for the discoveries to which he had only borne testimony, then 
can he no doubt of the originality of bis genius." He bean a 
singular resemblance to LotA Baooo, iitiX, o\iVi m I'nft character 

"Bacon's Folly." ^^^^^^1 

of his philosophy, but in several coincidences of expreesioa; 
Snd tlie ktler has even been chai^d with haying borrowed 
loach from Roger Bacon, without having acknowledged his 

. There is little reason to suppose that Roger Bacon's writings 
e read much out of his own University. But to those who 
Mill etudj them, there iR, even at this daj, a combiuatioii of 
implicit; of style and independence of thought alti^etber 
UiUflual in his time. Uia Opus Majits contains books un the 
teoessity of ndvaticing knowledge ; on the use of phiioEOphy ia 
Jieology J on the utilitj of grammar and mathematics : in the 
tter of which he runs through the various sciences of as- 
momj, chronology, geography, and musia. The work also 
ludea a treatise on optics and experimental pliilosophy, be- 
» diacussiona npon the connectiou and cauees of phenomena 
11 treated in a manner greatly in advance of the learning of 
le thirteenth century, — the dart age in wtiich the wisdom of 
" was as a light hidden beneath a bushei-measure. 

Discoveries of Leonardo da Vinci. 


H. in the middle ages, espedally in the fifteenth centurj, lend 
B some counteuauce to this opiuian. Leonardo himself speaka of 
^K the Earth's Auiiual Motion, in a treatise that appears to have 
^kbeen written about 151U, as the opiuiun of many philosophers 
^nin his age." 

^B Mr. Hallam adds, in a. note, " The manuscripts of Leonardo 
Wr da Tinci, now at Para, are the justification of what has been 
r^ said in the text." Our hietoriau then quolea from a short ac- 
count of the Msa. by Ventuii, published at Paris iu 1797, a few 
extracts, whence we select the following: 
- In Mechanics, Viuci was acquainted with, among other 

tMngs, 1. The theory of applied forces obliquely to the power 
f toe lever. 2. The respective resistance of beams. 3. The 
« of friction, afterwards given by Amoutone. 4. The infiu- 
iQ of the centre of gravity upon bodies at rUEt and iu motion. 
-, In optics, he described the Camera Obacura before Porta ; he 
lo taught serial perspective, the nature of coloured shadowa, 
.6 movements of the iris, the effects of the duration of visible 
npressions, aud many other phenomena of the eye which are 
t to be found in Vitellio. Lctstly, Yinct stated all that Gas- 
ii, in an age after him, produced upon the motion of water, 
d thus gained the reputation of having been the first who 

Kied the new doctrine of motion to hydmulics, on which 
Bct he was long con^dered as the earliest writer of the 
q;»erimental school. 

Leonardo must therefore be placed at the head of the 
titerB on the physico -mathematical sciences, and of the true 
lethod of study by the modems. The lirst extract Yenturi 
ires is entitled, " On the descent of heavy bodies, combined 
ith the rotation of the earth." He here asanmes the latter, and 
Mioeives that a body falling to the earth from the top of » 
pwer would have a oouiponud motion in consequence of the 
atrial rotation. Yenturi thinks that the writing of NicoUa 
] Ousa had set men speculating conceraing this befora the 
time of Copernicus. 

Tinai had very extraordinary lights as to mechanical motions. 

■e savB plainly that the time of descent on inclined planes of 

. joal height is as their length ; that a body descends along the 

WC ofaoirole sooner than down the chord; and that a Tiody 

i^MOending on an inclined plane will reasuend with the same 

rolooity as if it had fallen down the height. He frequently re- 

Htfl that every body weighs in the direction of its movement, 

i. weighs ihe more in the ratio of its velocity; by weight 

idently meaning what we call force. He applies this to the 

bntrifogal force of bodies iu rotation: "Pendant tout ce tem^ 

Be pdse sur la direction de sa mouvement."^'ilai.TOftyax 

pale^Kaothei- passage, aud adds, that i£it bcnotaaXxmiivwiiSil 

Instruments of War. 

expressed ns we ahotild find it in the best modem books, : 
seems to contain the philoaophicsU theory of n " 
equivocnllj as any of them. i 

Leonardo had a better notion of Qcology than most of his 
oontemporarieB, and saw that the sea had covered the mountains 
which contained shells. He seems also to have had an idea of 
the elevation of the Continents, though he gives aa unintel- J 
ligibie reason for it. 1 

He exphiined the obscure li(;ht of the iinilliiminated part of I 
the Moon hj the reflection of the Earth, as Mteatlia did long 
after htm. 

Vinci understood Fortification well, and wrote upon it. I 
"Since, in our time," he says, "artillery has four times tiiB | 
power it used to have, it ia necessary tliat the fortification of ] 
towns should be strengthened in the same proportion." He wu 
employed on several great works of engineering. So wondarfal 
was the variety of power in this miracle of nature,* 

His aouuirementH are told in his own words, in a letter to 
Lndovioo il Moro, Duke of Milan, when he offered him his sev- 
Tices : " Most illustrioua Signor, — Having seen and sufficiently 
considered the specimens of authors who repute themselvaa i 
inventors and makers of Iiatruments of War, and found them I 
nothing out of the common way, I am willing, without dew- 
gating from the merit of another, to eipkin to your excellent 
the secrets which I possess ; and I hope at fit opportunities to | 
be able to give proof of my efficiency m all the following nr"' 
ters, which I will now only briefly mention : 

" 1. I havo means of making bridges eWrHmely lig-ht and pnrtahla, 
both for the piiranit o^ or the TatrMt from, an enemy ; aod olben 
that shall l» very Btrong- and fire-proof, aod eaij to fix or take Vf 
again. And I bare means to biim and destro; those of the enemy, 

% In cane of a Hiege, I can rsmuTe the water from the dHohMi 
make ecaling-ladderB and all other neeeflsary inabnimenta for Huoh AH 

3. If, through the height of the tortlllcationj, or the strenpiill of 
the position of any place, it cannot be effectually bombarded, I ' 

4. I can alflo make bombs raost convenient and portable, wUdl 

hi o/ Evrapc, fiflb editfnn, vol. L pp. 
peeled tbsia. irera returneil to Mllui i 
thit Napnleon I. carrted thna ml 
lowing anj one to lonch them. Sfr - 
TheBeareminB"). Whenftoj-irB* 
■mesLoTEnKland la iwldtohtn 
(nearly 10,000!.) ; hot tliiB putJioHt 


Zeonnrdo da Vinci. 

oovored wagtrns, whioh ahall be proof a^ 
into tbo midat of the onemy, will break any 

if necBsanry, malco bombs, mortare, or fieW-pieoos 
lefu] sliaptjs quite out of tbe oommon method. 

8. IT bomhe cannot be brought M bear, 1 oan make orasB-bowH, 
and other mnst sfBciont instruments ; indeed, I can cnnstract 

maohinas of offence for any emergency wboterer. 

9. For naTBl operationa, 1 oin bIho construct many inatrnmODta, 
th of oReDce and defemte : I can make vessela that shall be bomb- 

10. In times of peace, I think I can, ns woTl as any other, mate 
dgDB of bnUdin^ for public or for pnyatc purpcaes ; I can alEio oon- 
r yiaiertroin one place to another. 

I will also undortako any work in Sculpture — in marble, in bronEO, 
ta terra ootta ; likewise in Painting, I can do wbot can be dune oa 

> horses to be erected to the memory and 
IF, and tbe renoirtied houae of Sforaa. 
things nhould appear to any one imprao- 
3 prepared to make esparimenta in your 
K, or Bcy omer piace m <nbicb it may please your eicellenoy, to 
nn I moat humbly recommend myself, kv." 

There is no date to this letter : it was probably written 
nt 1463, or perhaps earlier. The Duke took Leonardo into 
Bervice. Why he choee to leikve Floreuce ia not knowD ; he 
[.made several propoaitioDs for the improvement of the oity 
[ the state, which were not listened to : one of hia projects 
I, to convert the river Arno, from Florence to Pisa, into a 

To the above may be added the evidence, diacovered in 
~'l among Da Vinci'a manuscripts, of his knowledge oiiteam 
<er applied to war/are, accompanied by peu-aud-ink sketobes 
' the apporatue of a "ateam-gun," wliich he deaignatea tbe 
PBfaitonnere, a machine of fine copper, which throws balls 
fa B loud report and great force. One-third of the inatru- 
loit contains a charcoal tire, to heat the water, which being 
He, S ecrew at the top of the veesel muat be made quite tight. 
I the water will t)ieu eactipe below into the heated portion 
the inBtrument, and be immediately converted into a vapour 
abundant and powerful, that the machine will carry a ball 
talent in weight. This invention Leonardo attributes to 

ible and impoaai 


This andaciouFi Swiss charlatan and daring innoTator waa born 
at the close of the fifteenth, aud died in the middle of the 
sisteenth, century. His family waa noble thougb poor, and 
be waa early initiated into the secrets of Astrology and Al' 
ohemy by his father, a physician, and by the AbM Tritham. 
Hb passed his youth in visiting mines, curing diseases, fore- 
telling the future, and seeking the Philosophers' Stone. Surii^ 
a journey in Poland he was made prisoner hy the Tartars, from 
wnom he is said to have learned some arcana of Alchemy. He 
then went to Egypt, where he was initiated into further my»- ( 
teries. Thus equipped, he wandered through Europe, liguring 
among the doctors, astrologers, and quacks; picking up Btr»y | 
secrets from old women, gipsies, magicians, and headsmen. A 
Mripatetic philosopher, not a bookworm, he read but little: | 
lewas never regularly educated, and bad a horror of languages, 
insomuch that at one time he did not open a book for ten yean 
together. But he talked and listened to all classes, and amassed 
ft strange medley of knowledge, which he poured forth in his 
lectures with amazing facility. Alchemy at this period was fiist 
falling into discredit, when Paracelsus undertook to revive and 
rehabilitate the study : his enthusiasm, his eloquence, and his 
audacity, produced an impression, created a public for htm, and 
therefore ruined him through his yanity. 

In 1626 he returned to Switzerland. A lucky and strik- 
„ cure fised on him public attention, and led to his beii^ 
appointed Professor of Physic and Surgery at Basle. He set 
himself iu opposition against all traditions, dechiriug himself 
the rival of all doctors, past and present. His audience had no 
means of criticism. They took him at his own valuation ; and 
the delighted students so thoroughly entered into his polemic 
against the schools, that they burned the writings of Hippo- 
crates, Galen, Avicenna, and Averroes, in the very court of the I 
Univei'sity. He lectured to students in his aud their natim I 
Jaogaage, instead of in the barbarous style and Latiuity theu 
uairer^l. Some lucky cures confttnieA \via te^'o.^a.lvni ; 
&iIurea,aB usaal in such caaeB.werepaaaBiQ-J^i:- '^'™''^.,_^- 
talted aad enriobed him ; Bg^|^a^^£^g^^^^*2j 

Discoveries of Paracelsus. 8S 

it Paracelsus reigned only a ehort time. Success ruined him : 
liierto ho bad lived temperately, but uow he took to drinkiDg 
1 debuuctierf. Success had raised him euemies, whu drove 
D at last from his professorship ; aud he otice more resumed 

Cfesgion of a. wandering empiric. In a few jears he diedj T 
conclusiou of a debauch, struck bj apoplesj, .' ' ' 
r^-eighth year. 

As a medical reformer, Paracelsus propounded a physiolc^ 1 
^(h was novel, aud in those days striking. The leading idea-1 
ts an application of Astrology to Physiology. lu the stais I 
[placed the orgau or the vital force. The Sun acts upon the, 
rt and abdomen, the Moou upon the brain, Jupiter oil thr ' 
d and the liver, Saturn on the spleen, Meroury on the lungi 

Klu on the loins, Alc. Man, being a compound of body anu^ 
t, can only act upon his spiritual part by means beyonAV 
I <»diDary terrestrial phenomena. Dreams will reveal medl'B 
)] but the culmination of tha medical art is in Mngie; ^fl 
st only can life be restored, liut health prolonged indefi"] 
[7: yet this boasted possessor of the PbilosopberB' Ston 
A the Blixir of Life died in poverty, at an early age. 
• fieverthelesa, Paracelsus had genius enough to make posto*! 
f forget his errors aud absurdities, as a glance at his dixl 
reries will show. To him we owe the idea of employing.J 
hona as medicines; for he knew that, physiologically, thet^fl 
IB a profound difference between a large dose and a moderaf " 
^oftfae same substance. He also made known t " 
,ious preparations ot antimony, mercury, iron, &c. 
i^ed preparations of lead for diseasea of the skin, and first ni 
fier, arsenic, and sulphuric acid as medlcauents. lie kneH 
i when oil of vitriol acts upon a metal there is an air di* 
"iged, which air is a constituent of water. He knew, mor»<| 
. , that air is indispensable to the respiration ol 
1 the combination of bodies ; that is to say, he w) 
Mshold of the modern doctrine of combustion. Further, t 
nr that digestion was a dissolution of the Eiliments, tiu 
3«&ction was only transforuiation, and tiiat all which livetl 
■ only to resuscitate under another form. He maintained 
.it the virus of smallpox is a ferment, and that the fevo^ 
lioh accompanies eruptions is a sort of boiline which separate 
i impure from the pure elements of the blood. By a bold 
Dwansation, ho placed man at the head of the animal seriel 
nrting that his organisation was closely allied to that c 
tmals ; a position on which rests the whole science of Com 
Mitive Anatomy.* 
" The vaunts of Paracelsus af the power of his chemiQl| 

Canaenieil |with InleiTinljilfonjI frnm a puper on Eludti Bw!)iaphiiiy*»,iH 

^^» Cures by ParaceUui. ' 

remedies and elixirs, and his open condemnation of the ancient 
phannacj, tmcked as they were by many Burprising cures, con- , 
TiDced all rational phyaiciunB tiiat chemietty could furnish 
many excellent remedies, unknown till that time ; and a num- 
ber of valuable experiments began to be made by phyHiciiina 
and chemists desirous of discovering and describing new 
chemical remedies. The chemical and metallur^ic arts, exer- 
cised by persons empirically acquainted with their secrets, be- 
gan to be Beriously studied, with a view to the acquisition of ' 
rational and useful knowledge."' 

The original discoveries of Paracelsus, Brande considers to 
have been few and unimportant : his great merit liea in the 
boldness and audacity which he displayed in introducing chem- 
ical preparations into the MaUria Mediea, and in subduing 
the prejudices of the Galenical physicians against the produc- 
tions of the laboratory. But though we can fix upon no par- 
ticular discovery on which to found his merits as a chemist, 
and though his writings are deficient in the acumen and know- 
ledge displayed by several of his contemporaries and immediate 
SQCcessurs, it is undeniable that he gave a most important turn 
to pharmaceutical chemistry; and calomel, with a variety of 
mercurial and aiitimonial preparations, as likewise opium, 
thenceforth came into general use. 

Paracelsus performed most of his cures by mercury and 
opium, the UGe of which latter drug he had learned from Turkey. 
The physicians of bis time were afraid of opium, aB beii^ 
" cold in the fourth degree." Tartar was likewise a great &- 
Tourite of Paracelsus, who imposed on it that name, " Decausa | 
it contains the water, the salt, the oil, and the acid, which 
bum the patient as hell dues j" in short, a kind of couutei- 
balance to his opium. 

Mr. Hallam, in taking leave of the absurd and mendacious 
paradoxes of Paracelsus, sagely observes : " Literature is a gar- 
den of weeds as well as flowers ; and Paracelsus fonus a link in 
the history of opinion, which stiould not he overlooked." 

If he found hundreds of admirers during his life, he ob- 
tained thousauds after bis death. A sect of Paracelsists spt&ng 
up in Prance and Germany, to perpetuate the extravagant 
doctrines of their fouuder upon all the sciences, and alchemy 
in particular. 

(John Napier, orMerchtaU 


_ r of the results of Epecuktive Bcieoce have been so soundly 

ipreoiated as the inTeutioii af Logarithnia, by John Napier, 

uIt in the Beventeentli century. His iugeuious aud con- 

■*™'ig rniud did uot, however, rest satiBlied with thesa put- 

; for a paper with his signature, which is preserved in 

e library at I^mbeth Palace, asserts him to be the author of 

tain " Secret inventions, profitable and ueueseary in these 

'8 for the defence of this islau^, and withstanding of st rangers, 

des to God's truth and religion." Of tliesc, the first is 

d to be " a Biiruiiig Mirror ^r burning ships by tlie sun's 

" vt which Napier professes himself able to give to the 

the " invention, proof, and perfect demonsti-alion, geo- 

d and algebraical, witb an evident demonstration, of 

n'or who atfirm this to be made a pumVAic ut^viia.''' 

m^^^MiTOT fer produdng the Bamo rfEeal. \>^ ' 


B Napier's Secret Ifvenlions. ^^^^^^^ 

beams of a material lire. The third is a piece of Artillery, cOft- 
trired eo as to Bend forth its shot, not in a single straight line, 
but in all directions, in such a mHuuer as to destrDjeveiy thing 
in its neighbourhood. Of thie the writer asserts lie can pre 
" the invention and visible deinoDBtration." The foarth and 
lut of these formidable machines ia described to be "a round 
Ohatiot in Metal," ODnstmoted so as both to secure the complete 
nfety of those within it, and, moving about in all directions, 
to break the enemy's array, '*bj continual charges of shot of 
the arquebuse through sraali holes." " These inventions," the 
paper concludes, "besides devices pf sailing nndei' water, and 
divers other devices and stratagems for harassing the enemies, 
bj the grace of God and work of expert craftsmen, I hope 
to perform. John Napier of Merohiaton, anno dom. 1698, 

From this date it appears that Napier's head had been oc- 
cupied with the contrivances here spoken of, long before he 
niade himself known through those scientiSc labours by whidi 
's now chiefly rememhared. Some of his aiinounceraenb 
BO marvellous, as to lead us to suppose that he intended 

.Jiis paper rather to state what he conceived to he possible 

than what he had himself actually perfonned. Yet several 
of his expressions will not bear this interpretation, and othen 
confirm what he asserts as to his having really constructed 
some of the machines he speaks of. Thus Sir Thomas Upqn- 
hart, in a strange work, The Jewd, first published in 1693, 
evidently alludes to the third invention as " an almost in- 
comprehensible device;" adding, "it .is this; he had the skill 
(as is commonly reported) to frame an engine (for iuveiition not 
much unlike that of Archytas's dove), which, hy virtue of some 
Beeret springs, inward resorts, with other impleroeiit^ and ma- 
terials fit for the purpose, enclosed within tlie bowels thereof, 
bad the power to clear a field of four miles in circumference of all 
the living creatures exceeding a foot of height that shooldbe 
found thereon, how near soever they might be to one another] 
by which means he made it appear that he was able, with tha 
help of this machine alone, to kill 30,(KiO Turks without tbd 
hazard of one Christian. Of this, it is said, upon a wager, ha 
gave proof upon a large plain in Scotland, to the destruction 
of a great many heads of cattle and flocks of sheep, whereof 
BOme were dtstnnt from others half a mile on all aides, ant 
some awhole mile." Little faith is attached to this statement, 
that Napiei' actually piit the power of his machine to the proof; 
but, taken in conjunction with Napier's own account, it see ~ 
topnive that he had imagined some such contrivnnae, andei 
that his having done bo was matter of general notoriety ia 
own day, nnd some time ulter. It a\i.(ni4 'W *4iad, \ 

a proof; 
it seems 
mdeveiL J 

Napier's Burnhig Mirrors. 89 

wh Sir ThoraaB Urquhart was bom in Ifil3, BOme years 

I Hapier'B death, The Jeted was uot publishud until W52, 

3 years after the reputed inventor a decease. Urquhart 

■ms us, that Napier, wheu requested on his deathbed to 

rereal th<j secret of this engine for destroying cattle, stieep, 

and Tarke, refused to do bo, on the score of there betug too 

itruineuts of miichief in the world already for it to be 

PieES of any good mau to add to their number,* 
)le writer in the PhUoiopkUal Maffazint, vol. xviii., has 
several notices of ftohievenients Biinilar to those which 
lb mathematician is asserted to have performed. In 
the mirror for aeltiug objects on fire at a great distance 
hj the reflected rays of the buq, he adduces the well-known star; 
(rf the destruction of the fleet of Marcellua, at Syracuse, by the 
boming-glassea of Archimedes; and the other (not so often no- 
ticed), which the historian Zonuras recordB, of Proclus having 
ooDsumed hy a similar apparatus the ships of the Scythian leadw 
Titaliaii, when he besieged Constantinople in the beginning of 
the »xlh century. Malaba, another old chronicler, however, 
Bijs that ProoluB operated on this occasion, not by buming- 
glasaes, but by burning sulphur showered upon the ships from 
machines. The possibility of the mirror- burning feat was long 
disbelieved ; but Buffon, in 1747, hj means of 4(X) plane mir- 
rors, actually melted lead and thi at a distance of rifty varda. 
tad set tire to wood at a still greater, and this in March ana 
April. With summer heat it was calculated that the sBina 
effects might have been produced at 400 yards' distance, or 
more thiin ten times that to which, in ail probability, Archi- 
,d to send his reflected cays. " It may be concluded, 
, that there is nothing absolutely incredible in the 
t Kapier gives of his first invention. "t 
papier'a second auuouncement is, however, more startling : 
JpoEesses to have tired gunpowder by a single mirror ; but 
. e only record of the kind we possess is of gunpowder being 
lighted by heat from charcoal collected by one concive mirror, 
»nd reflected from another. Napier's fourth invention, the 
obariot, bears some resembhince to one of the famous Marquis 
of Worcester's contrivances. Sailing under water, the object of 
Napier's last invention, was performed in his own day by the 
Dutch chemist Debrell, who is reported to have construoted a 
vessel for King James I., which he rowed under the water of 
the Thames. It carried twelve rt 
gers; tiie air breathed by whom 
re^irable hy 


. hesides several paasen- 
it is said, was made again 
liquor, the composition of 

of Iba old eutle EBii la ^u.i 

90 Napier'i " Logarithmi." ^1 

which Boyle asserta that he learned from the only pereon ti 
whom it bad been divulged by Debrell. 

Another acheme of the iuveutorof LagarithniB ie the manor 
ing of land with salt, as inferred &om the following notice in 
Btrrell'B Diary, Oct. S3, 1 398: " Ane proclamation of the Laird 
of Merkiatoun, that he tuik upon hand to make the land muir 
profitable iior it wes before, be the sawing of salt upon it." 
The patent, or gift of office, as it is called, for this discovery, 
was granted upon condition that the patentee should publiui 
his method in print, whioh he did, under the title of The nea 
Order of Oooding and Mann-rijiff all torts of Ficld-tand teiih 
common iSaU. This tract is now probably lost; but the aboTB 
&ctB establish Napier's claim to an agricultmu! improvement 
whioh has been revived in our day, and considered of great 
value; while it proves that Napier directed bis speuulatiuiu 
OOCasiunally to the improvement of the arts of conmiou life, W 
irell as to that of tlie abstract sciences. 

Beverting to the Logarithms, we may observe that among 
the persons who had the merit of tirst appreciating the value 
of Napier's invention was the learned Henry Brigga, reader of 
the Astronomy Lectures in Qresham College, who was "U 
Burpriaed with admiration of them (the Logarithms), that he 
coiud have no quietness in himself until he had seen the noUe 
MTson, the Lord Murohistou, whose only invention they wewi 
When they met, almost one quarter of an hour was spent iu SMjll 
beholding the other, almost with admiration, before one wo(d 
was spoke. At last Mr, Briggs began : ' My lord, I have un- 
dertaken this long journey purposely to see your person, ud. 
to know by what engine of wit or ingenuity you came first H' 
think of this must excelleut help into astronomy, viz, the Logit- 
rithms; but, my lord, being by you found out, I wonder noboi^ 
else found it out before, when now known it is so easy.'" 

Before his invention of Logarithms, Napier deviaed a method 
of performiug multiplication and division by means of suuU 
rods, having the digits inscribed upon them according to sudt 
Em arrangement, that wheu placed alongside of each other, in 
the manner directed, — iu oiiier, for instance, to multiply anr j 
two lines of figures, —the several lines of the product presentM . 
themselves, and had only to be transcribed and added up to. | 
give the proper result. These rods, or bones, are thus alluded 

to by Butler ia hie Hud ibras, where ho r '- ' '" ' 

nagiug of Sidrophel ;" 

■' A moon-dial, with jVhjjmt'j i 

A set of the boties used by Napier is preserved in his fiimily. 
Sir Walter Scott, in his Fortunes of H^u/et, makea Davie Bamsty 
swear hf "the bones of the imuiortal Napier," the noveUll I 
' iawfl^aii indistinct remem\jia\n^ ot'N^ia.^iwiHsa " Wiaea"i 


1 all future 

small ; aud 

ncKj viewed 

du uot 

g olaim of this wonderful man to rank as a, discoverer in 
e will scarcely be allowed by tboGe who queetiou the title 
wJaa predecessor, aud, in some respects, prototype, Roger 
^°Hi, to that dietiiiguifihed honour. Neverthelesa, Francis 
m. Lord Verulain, " bj hia hours of leisure, by time hardly 
ed from ttie laboiiouB study aud practice of the law, ttud 
n the aasiduitiea of a courtier's life," became the &ther of 
Um science, and will be juatly looked upon i. 
i 08 the great reformer of philosophy. Ilis 
tributions to the stock of physical truths wure 
f obseryalioua and esperimenta in physical soit 
pe the results obtained by his immediate succet 
ear to great advantage ; nor c«n we compare them at all 
h the briUiant discoveries of his contemponiry, Qalileo. It 
" " wheu viewed in reference to the fftiierul state of kuow- 
_ L his own times, that Sacon'a recorded experiments and 
itdwervatious can be fairly esttmatad. To glance at thenie cba- 
iscteriatics of his philosophic mind, and at the effect of his 
labours, rather than deiail the labours themselves, is all that 
vsal here be attempted. 
.- E^nuia Bacon was horn in York House, on the south aide 
Iftlie Strand, in 15EI1, Hia health was very delicate ; and to 
Oiitnunstaiice may be partly attributed that gravity of car- 
_ i, and that love of sedentary pursuits, which distinguished 

I from other boys. We are tuld, that while still a mere 

cMld, he stole away from hia playfellows to a vault in St. James's 
Kelds, for the purpose of investigating the cause of a singular 
ecbu which he had observed there. It is oei-tain that at ouly 
twelve years of age he buaied himself with very ingeuiuus ape- 
cuUlioiis ou the art of legerdemain ; a subject which, as Ptro- 
(esaor Pugald Stewart haa most justly observed, merits muoh 
more attention from philosopbere than it has ever received. 

Id his chirteetith year. Bacon was sent to Trinity College, 
Osmbridge, where he studied with dihgence aud success. l>i 
Hawley, his chaplain and biographer, relates that " while li 
waa commomiit at the university, about sixteeu je^Ta olai 
JH^f Ilia lordebip hath been pieased to impait unb>n 

The Novum Organum. ^^H 

first fell into tbe dialike of the philosophy of AnBtotle, — not 
for the worthlesaness of the author, to whom he would ever 
ascribe all high attributes, but for the uutrutlifuItieBa of the 
way — keitig a philosoph; (as hia lordship used to bh.J') only 
strong for diipuUtions and conteiitiunB, but barren of the pro- 
daation of works for the life of man ; iu which mind he oon- 
tinued to bis dyin^ day." Thus early Bacon is said to him 
planned that great intellectuat revolution with which his mune 
IS inseparably connected. 

In hia grent work on the Instauration of the Sciences, he firet 
made a survey of knowledge aa it then existed. In its second 
part, the JVovam Organum, in the first book, the niain objeet 
of science ia pointed out, its true end being " to enrich human | 
life with new discoveries and wealth," Iu the second book^ 
Bacon explains the mode of studying nature which he proposed 
for the advancement of science. The kst division includw 
the UBe of instruments in aiding the aensea, in BubjeoCing ob- 
jeots to altenition for the purpose of observiup: them better, and 
itt the production of thait alliance of knowledge and powa 
which has in our day crowded every part of civilised life wiA 
the moat uaeful inventionB. Tlia great merit of Bacon un- 
doubtedly conEiatB in the eystematic method which he 1^ 
down for prosecuting philosophical investigation ; and at tlie 
present day, those especiallj who bus; themselvea with pbyU' 
cnl pursuits would often do well to recur to the severe and 
rigorous principles of the Orffanam. Experience aud observa- 
tion are the guides through the Baconian philosophy, by which 
ita author ao largely contributed to the existing knowledge in 
matters of fact. Of his far-seeing anticipation we quote u 
ioatance. Bacon, after remarking that every change and eve^ 
motion requires time, has the followiug very curious antioipft- 
tion of facta which appeared then doubtful, but which sab- 
sequent discovery baa aacertained: * | 

The conaidenitioii of these things produced in me a doubt lUp- 
namelyp whetlier toe faoe of the serene and ai^ilf 


lO leas than a true place and an Apparent pIM^ 


^ . of pBJ^h 

that the speciea or rays of the mlestiiil bod 
mense Interval hetvreen them end ua in »n 
even require some cenEideraMs portion of 
" The meaaurement of the velocity of light," Professor Playftk* 
subjoins, " and the wonderful consequences arising from ib 
are the beat commentaries on this passage, aud the h^hcp' 
eulogy on its author." 

It must not be forgotteiv how much is due for the fonndi- 
tioa of the Royal Society to liOT41ia(»n.,\iVo indoaiy thirto 

Lord Bacon's Death, 

E years before its incorporation. In his J^fovum Orgarvam, 
j^ctiBg BfUogisLn a.a a mere instrument of disputtLtioD, and' 
r^plttiDg uo trust in the hypothetical GyHCetn of aucleut pbilo> 
Bophy, he recommendB the more slow but Butisfactory methoCl 
of induction, which BubjectB natural objects to the test of oh- 
servatiou and experience, and subdues nature by experim^ 
and inquiry; and "it will be seeu howrigidly the early Fellows 
of the Boynl Society followed Bacon's advice." It is, however, 
in his Nfa Atlantic that we have the plan of such an ingtl 
tntion more distinctly set forth ; and Sprat considered thi 
there should have been no other preface to his account of th« 
Boyal Society than some of Bacon's writings. 

After the glory of Bacon had set for ever, and hia name had 
beoome tarnished with infamy, he was stripped of hisoffice^^ 
banished from the court, heavily fined, and imprisoned; bat 
then, discharged and his sentence commuted, his ruined for' 
tunes were never repaired ; and the record of his frauds, dft^ 
oeits, impoBtures, bribes, corruptions, and other mal-practice^" 
is one of the blackest pages in history. He passed the remain> 
ier of his days iu the society of the few friends whom adversilgf 
^nd left him, Scientiiic pursuits were his consolation, and U 
Ugjt caused his death. The father of experimentnl philosophjK 
^■t the martyr of an experiment. It had occurred to him 
BJKt Bnow might be used with advantage for the purpose ot 
'vRiventing animal substances from putrefying. On a very cold 
day, early in the spring of the year i62<!, he alighted from 
his coach near Highgate, in order to try the experiment. Stf 
went into a cottage, bought a fowl, and with his own hands 
staffed it with snow. While thus engaged, he felt a suddoa 
ohill, and was soon so much indisposed that it was impossible fbi!> 
him to return toGray's Inn. The Earl of Arundel, with whom be 
WBB well acquainted, had a house at Highgate. To that house. 
Baton was carried. The Karl was absent ; but the servants 
who were in charge of the place e-howed great respect and at- 
tention to the illustrious guest. Here, after an illness of about 
a week, he expired, early on the norriing of Easter Day IGSSi, 
Hia mind appears to have retained its strength and liveliness 
to the end. He did not fot^et the fowl which had caused his 
death. In the lost letter that he ever wrote, with lingers which^ 
aa he said, could not steadily hold a pen. he did not omit to>' 
mention tliai the experiment of the buow had succeeded ' ex- 
cellently well.' In this letter, Baeon calls himself the 'martyp 
of science,' and compares himself to Pliny the elder, whoso* 
4eath was caused by his over-zealous observation of Vesuvius. 

In hia will. Lord Bitcoti " expressed, with singular hte'nbg^ 
toergy, dignity, and patho^ a inouniful couBciuusiiefs ^^Ei^ttS 
^^ — 9 had not been each as to entitle liiin to i.he es^.ewo, i 

94 The Baconian Pkihgophy, ^^H 

those under whose ahservation his life had heen passed ; and ftt 
thu same time a proud confideuce tbat hia nritiDga had secured 
for him a high and permanent place among the heDefactoTS of ' 
mankind. So at least we UDderstaud those striking words 
whioh have been often quoted, but which we must quote once 
more : ' For my name and memorj, I leave it to men's cha- 
ritable speecheB, and to foreign nations aud to the next age.' 

" His confidence was just. From the daj of his deatb his 
i&me has heeu constantly and steadily progressing ; and we 
have no doubt that his name will he uamed with reverenoe 
to the latest ages, and to the remotest ends of the civilised 

The great practical value of the benefits which have resnlted 
from the Baconian philosophy has been thus eloquently illus- | 
trated by Lord Maoauky : I 

Ask a follDwer of Bacon what the New PbiloBophy. »a it was oallBd 1 
ID the reign of Charjoa ILj hfu effeoted Sot maQkind, and his aoswat '" 
Fondy : " It boa lengtbenQd life ; it haa mitigated pain ; it has exti 
gidshod diseoaM ; it liaa increased the ferUUty af ihe Soil ; it has gir 
n«w soouritiea to tho marinor ; it haa fumishod new arms to the « 
rior I it has spaDDod groat rivam and eatuariea nith bridges of ftirm 
unknown to oarlhtherB ; it has guided thethunderboltimiocuouilTfrafi 
heaven to earth ; it has lighted up the night with the aplenMor of 
the dny ; it haa extended the rajige of hiimaQ vision ; it has mnlti[4iAl 
the power of human muBcles ; it luia acaeleratod motion ; it has ann'" 
lateil distance 1 it has faiilliatiwl intercourse, oorreapOJidenoe, allfrten 
offioea^ all despatch of business ; it lias enabled man to deaoend to 
depths of tho sea, to soar into the air, to penotrats soourely iota 
DDiiouB rccoBSes of the earth, Xa traverse the land In car^ whioh « 
alont; without horses, and the oiiean in ships wliioh nm ten knola m-m 
hour against the wind. Those are but a part of itn fruits, and of Ik I 
first-fruits. For it ia a philosophy which never rests, which haa W 
attained, which is never perfect. It* law is progrena. A point iri 
yoaterday was invisible ia its goal to-day, anil will be its Btartiag-| 

The same brilliant writer denominates the two leading pi5»- 
ciplee of the Baconian philosophy to be wtility and progrett : ' 
which there cannot be more direct evidence than iii ' " '" 
that the writings of Lord Bacon have been more ex 
read in England during the lB£t forty years than in 
hundred years which preceded. 


B ill-Btarred soldier of fortune, bom in 1G19, and nephew 

'ing Charles I., was a man of distinguifihed talent Rud 

ary, but lacked " the better part of valour" — discretion! 

I dieakered fortanes are prominent in the records of the 

U Wars ; and we have here to glance at his later life, when 

^mpetnoBitr of the soldier had subsided into the oaimness 

Be philoBopher ; and it is to the Prince's peculiar readineai 

ha change of employment and pursuits that we trace tho 

cable close of his hasj life. 

" !r his reconciliation with Charles II. , Rupert took up his 
e with the Elector of Mentz ; and here, says Mr. Rliot 
ton, in tlie first leisure of his manhood, his mind re- 
A with a sense of luxury to the philosophical pursuits in 
Ii even his youth had taken pleasure. Ue now found new 
MB of nneshausted interest in the forge, the laboratory, 
■the painter's studio. 

s during this lull in the stormy life of Rupert that he 
id or improved upon his art of Mezzotiuto, So long 
lu 1637, when immured in the castle of Lintz, he had 
Based his active genius in some etchings that still remain, 
■ bear that date. He wai long said to have discovered the 
wf Engraving in Mexzotinto, stated to have been suggested 
J^m by observing a soldier one morning rubbing off from 
^barrel of his musket the rust which it had contracted from 
g exposed to the night-dew. The Prince perceived, on ex- 
amination, that the dew had left on the surface of the steel a, 
oollection of very minute holes, so as to form the resemblance 
of a dark engraving, parts of which had been here and there 
already rubbed away by the soldier. He immediately conceived 
the idea, that it would he practicable to find a way of covering 
a plate of copper in the same maimer with little holes, which, 
being inked, and laid upon paper, would undoubtedly produce 
a black impression ; while by scra[>ing away in different de- 
grees such parts of the sur&ce as might be required, the paper 
would be left trhite where there were no holes. Pvwwraijttwi- 
thought, he at laet, after a variety of experiments, mvettWi. " 
^ofMteel roller. (wrer^mtJyjinj^BaUeiit te6t\i, ^Ui ' 


? ■ 


Inventionx of Prince Rupert. ^^H 

being pressed against the copper-plate, indented it in the man- 
ner he wished; and then the roughness thus ocGajsioned had 
onlj to be scraped down, wliere necessary, iu order to produee 
any gradation of shade that might be desired. Tliia aueodota 
obtained curreucy from its being related b; Lord Orford, in hii 
&mi>us work upon the Arts ; as well as from the avidity wiUl 
which origins of the arts are commouly set down as the results 
of accident. 

The discovery of Mezzotinto has likewise been claimed lot 
Sir Christopher Wren j but his communication to the Bojal 
Society upon the subject ia of date four years subsequent to 
the dute of the earliest of tlie mezzotinto plates engraved by 
Prince Rupert. 

The real inventor of this art was Louis von Siegen, a lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the service of the Landgrave of Hesse GaH^ 
from whom Prince Rupert learned the secret when iu HoUaiid, 
andbrought it with him to England, when he came over aseconS 
time in the suite of Charles II. Some curious and veir lan , 
prints, purchased on the Continent, and now deposited in 'UiB | 
British Museum, place the claims of Von Siegen beyond doabt 1 
Id this collection is a portrait of the Princess Amelia Gliai^ i 
beth of Hesse, dated 1643, which is fifteen ymrs anterior to tlB 
earliest of Prince Rupert*s dates: there ia another portrait l(. 
the same date ; and auother by Ton Siegen bears the most cmBp 
elusive evidence uf its having been produced in the very in* 
fancy of Che art ; be.'^idea which is the ftict that Von Kegn 
frequently attaclied the words " priiMu inventor" to hisplaua 
There are also works by FarstenDurg, dated 1(138. 

Prince Rupert's plates, however, evince a more raatwfd 
knowledge of the power of Mezzotinto than those of its ^\ 
ventor, Von Siegen ; and Rupert by himself, or with the «("^ 
Hstanoe of Wallerant Vaillaint, an artist whom he retained il 
his suite, is thought to have improved the mechaiilcal modejj 
laying the mezzotinto ground : but this observation doe» IK 
apply to the principle of the art. 

The PriiscB was, in the fullest sense, a working im . 

he laboured heartily at his own forge, and applied himself H 
the practical as well as the theoretii^ details of science, 
writer of his funeral ode describes him as forging " the t1 
derbolts of war his hands so well could throw." The Tt- 
aatians of the Ro-yal Socieii/ record his mode of fabricaWnj 
gunpowder of ten times the ordinal^ strength at that ti 
used ; likewise a mode of blowing up rocks iu mines, or an 
water; "an instrument to cast platforms into perspectiven 
an bjdrauiic engine ; a mod« of making hail-sliot ; and an ir 
provement in the naval i\ua.4ra.\it,. Amouggt his mechan" 
^iniiira are also to bu teckonei tea VBi^^o-Ntia-aili. \.( ' ' 

" i'rince's Metal," ^^^^^H 

of firearms, and his guns for liiBohorging Beveral buIletB very 
npidlj. Ammigst his chemical discoveiies was the composi- 
, tioa now called Prince's Metal, of which candleeticlcs and 
k small kitchen pestles and mortars aj:e made ; this is an alloy 
Ejpf copper Bud zinc, which conta iua more copper than brans dues, 
K^id IB prepared by adding this metal to the alloy. To the list 
Frfthe Priuce'a invoutioDS must be added a mode of rendering 
■ black-lead fusible, and re-changing it into its original state- 
To him also has been attributed the toy that beara hie name as 
" Kupert's Drop ;" that curiouB bubble of glass which has long 
amused childrea and puzzled philosophers. 

The Priuce also discovered a method of boring guns, which 

'M afterwards carried into e:ceoutiou in Romuey Marsh by 

^ Bpeoulator; but some secret contrivance of aiinealiug the 

~ tal was not understood escept by Rupert, and the matter 

d with him. His mode of tempering the Kirby fish-hooks 

!■ amougst his lesser discoveries. 

ITor must Rupert's pursuits in Glass-mating be forgotten. 

e Prince had at Chelsea an experimental glass-house, which 

penned Chelsea College ; for we find by the Council Minutes 

JEUie Royal Society, that the college and lands " might have 

a well disposed of (before 1G82), but for the anaoyaoce of 

loe Rupert's glass-house, which adjoined it." Sir Jonas 

Moore wrote to the Prince, at the request of theoounoU, urging 

Wn to " consider the Society, on account of the mischief that 

n glass-house was doing to the college" (Weld's IIIKot}/ of 

if Bmal Society, vol, i. p. 279). 

After the Restoration Rupert was received with honour by 

~« king ; aud Mr. Warburton tells us that the Prince " eata- 

' lied a seclusion for himself iu the high tower iu Windsor 

* which he soou furnished atler his owu peculiar taatfi. 

« set of apiu^meutE forges, laboratonr iustrumeuts, retorts, 

d crucibles, with all sorts of metals, lluids, and crude ores, 

f Strewed around iu the luzuiious confusion of a bachelor's 

a other rooms, armour and arms of all sorts, from 

^t which had blunted the Damascus blade of the Holy War 

■ tiiose which had lately clashed at Marston Moor and Naseby. 

^■sotber was a library stored with strauge books, a list of._ 

h may still be seen in tbe Marhian Miscellany" 

i>r Castle, of slilchCliu'] 

i II. ■; 

Thbsb philosopiiioal toys, to which we have just alluded, 
their English uame from hiiviDg been firat made known in 
land by Prince Rupert, and not from his having invented t 
OS commonly supposed. 

Their origia has been much disputed. Seckmaiin cons 
it more than probable that these Drops, &nd the siugnlar 
perty which they possess, have been known from time in 
jQonal. All glass, when suddenly cooled, becomes brittle, 
breaks on the leikst scratch. On this account, as fiu- bai 
the history of the art can be traced, a cooling funiaaa 
always constructed close to the fusias furnace. A drop of 1 
glass falling into water might easily have given rise to th 
ventiou of these Drops ; at any rate, this might have beei 
case in rubbing off what is called the navel — that piece of , 
which remains iidbering to the pipe when any article has 
blown, and which the workman must rub off. 

It is, however, certatu, that these Drops were not knon 
experimental philosophers before the middle of thesoveate 
century. Munconys, who travelled ia the year 1(166, wu 
sent when some experiments were made at Paris befc 
learned society, which assembled at the house of Mommor, 
well-known patron of Qaasendi ; and in the same year he 
similar experiments made by several scientiBc persons in Lon 
Beckmann then shows it to be probable that these Dro^ ' 
sent to Paris from Stockholm by Chanut, who was then Fn 
ambassador at tlie Swedish court. About fifteen yeare bd 
that ia, in 1641, the first glasa-houses were established inf 
den, and iu all probability by Germans ; and it is possible 
when the blowing of glass was first seen, glass-drops may 1 
excited attention, which they had not met with iu QennI 
where glass-houses had been long established. It can OS 
theless be proved, that the Drops were known to the Geti 
glass- bio ners much earlier. In 1695 Schulenburg, oftiu 
thedral sqliool of Bremen, published a Qemiaii dissertatiol 
glass-drops and their properties, in which he says, that hs 
informed by glass-blowetfl worthy of credit, that thessDl 
had been made more ttiou. ee^eaty years before at the KeH 

" Prince Rupert's Drops." ^ 

ifeBBor Reyher of Kiel states, that Henry Sievers, teacher 

Ltfaenmtica at Hamburg, had assured him that such glass- 

tps were given to hia lather by a glass-maker so early aa the 

^ 1637 ; and that hia ftither had exhibited them in a oom- 

la offriende, who were much astonished at their efTeots. 

IjUier adda, that he himself had se«n at Leyden, in l(iS6, the 

^ of these glass-drops wiiioh had been made at Amsterdam, 

Mre he afterwards purchased some of tlie same kit)d ; but in 

ftBf he procured for a triflinj:; sum a great many of them from 

t ^1&BB-hou9ea in the neighbourhood of Kiel. It is worthj* 

unarfc, that Huet, who paid considerable atteution to the 

^ of inventions, sajB that the first glasa-dropa, which ho 

seen also in the society held at the house of Mommor, were 

" ht to France from Germany. According, however, ia 

ioj le Grand {Bi/Uoria Naturalk, 1680), they came from 

ia. The French call these "glass tt^rs" tarmfs Bata- 

m, fixim the statement of the first being made in Holland j 

iline to think that as the Drops were the r^ult of 

operation ia glass-houses, their property may have 

. aci oommonly known among glass-makers, but not so early 

irved by philosophers. 

gSie Drops were first brought to England in 1660, and in tha 
peediugs of the Royal Society occurs this entry : 
Ing. 14. Sir Robert Moray brought in ginss-dropa, an ncoount of 

"" -■ — d to be I'egistored. 

lOrdingly, the first volume of the register-book contains a 
f-long account of them and their manufacture. They were 
rell known when ffudiiras was wiitten, as to be used by 
' in popular illustration. In part ii. canto S, we have : 
Hoaaui' is like that gUaay bnbble 
That DndB pbilosophera sucli trouble ; 
Whose least part oracfc'd, the whole does flj, 
Aud wita are crock'd to find oat why. 

_ e Drop appears to have been first brought from the Oon- 
it by Prince Rupert, and hence asBociated with hia name. 
^luilt, in his Phyiica, calls the Drop a kind of miracle in 
^Je, and Bays : 

•Ed. Clarke lately discovered and brought it hither from 
and, and which haa travelled through ^ the universities 
lUope, where it has raised the curiosity, and confounded 
"Maon, of the greatest part of the philosophers." 
e accounts for it as follows ; " The Drop, when taken hot 
. the fire, la suddenly immersed in some appropriate liquor 
i water, he thinks, will break it'); by which means the 
~ u the outside are cloaed, and the subetaaoB Cii &« ^un 


" Prince Rupert's Drops" 

condensed ; while the inBide not cooling so fast, the pores ■ 
left wider and wider from the sur&ice to the middle ; so tb 
the air, being let in, and Ending no paeaage, bursts it to pieoe^l 
To prove the truth of thia explication, he ohflerves, that if yon! 
break off the very point of itj the drop will not burst ; because | 
that part being very slender it was cooled all at once, the pores 'I 
■were equally closed, and there is no passage for the air into 
the wider pores below. If you heat the drop again in the Sre, 
and let it cool gradually, the outer pores will be opened, and 
made as large as the inner; and then, in whatever part yoK I 
break it, there will be no bursting. He gave three of the drop! I 
to three several jewellers, to be drilled or tiled ; but when th^ 
had worked them a little way, — that is, beyond the powil' 
which were closed, — they all bvirst to powder." -I 

The Drop is thus described in the Philosophical Tranta^l 
(io»», vol. xlvi. p. 175 ; ( 

" The bubble is in form somewhat pear-shaped, or like %\ 
leech ; it is formed by dropping highly-refined green glass, wheMJ 
melted, into cold water. Its end is so hard that it can HcarcdM' 
be broken on an anvil ; but if the smallest particle of its tapcHJ 
end is broken off, the whole flies at once into atoms and oia? 
appears. The theory of this phenomenon is, that its partioles 
when infusion, are in a stateof repulsion; but on being droppa 
into the water, its superficies is annealed, and the particlM n 
turn into the power of each other's attraction, the inner i 
ticles, still in a state of repulsion, being confined within tl 
outward covering," 

Though simple in structure, these Drops are difficult t 
make. They may be purchased of philosophical-instruio 
makers, and at a few toy-shops; but we remember Bupe 
Drops, or "hand-crackers," as they were called, ( 
fiiirei as well as " candle-bombs" (a little water in glas 
metically sealed), which are mentioned by Hooke in his Mien, 
graphia, 16G5, but were known in Germany before that date. 


records of the ingenious men of the Beventeenth 
tie life of Sir Siunuel Morlniid is entitled to special 
the glimpsei which his mechanical inventions afford 
cience of the period, as well aa for the circumstaaces 

1 Morland was horn in Berkshire about the year 162S. 
»d his education at Winchester School and Cambridge ; 
led at the University ten years, but never toot a ae- 
on after leaving college, he was sent on the famous 

the Queen of Sweden, in company with Whitelooke, 
lis journal, calls him "a very civil man, and an ez- 
liokr." On. his return, Morland became assistant to 
the secretary of Oliver Cromwell ; and he is said to 
1. j>rivy to Sir Richard WiUie's plot agiunst King 
rhich he overheard while feign.iiig sleep in Thurloe's 
in Lincoln's Inn, and whicli he divulged to the King, 

1 him a knight, and soon afterwards a baronet. Mor* 
iklready shown his genius for mechanical science ; and 
jstoration, Charles made him Master of Mechanics to 
ij. In 1677, he took a house at Vauxhall, where he 

hirge collection of mechanical contrivaiices. Mor- 
etjuently removed to a house near the Thames, at 
mith, where he died in 1695, hating spent his lost 
P8 very wretchedly. Poverty and loss of sight com- 
n to rely, almost solely, upon the charity of Arch- 
Evelyn, in his Dinry, describes, 25th October 1695, 
nth the archbishop to Morlaud, " who was entirely 
very mortifying sight." Eveijn says : " lie showed 
'ention of writing, which was very ingenious; also his 
Jendar, which instructed him all by feeling; and other 
[useful inventions of mills, pumps, &c. j and the pump 
wcted, that serves water to hia garden, and to pas- 
ith an inscription, and brings from a filthy part of 
ee near it a most perfect and pure water." 
iBcription to which Evelyn refers was a atDue \.!ii\W. 
b^m^ and is Btm f reserved. Tlie io'U.oirLn% '^ ^ 

The Speaking-Trumpet. ^^B 

copy of it ! " Sir Samuel Moriand's Well, the use of which he 
freely givee to all persons : hoping that notie who shall coma 
after him will adveDture to incur Qod's dispIeiiEure by denying 
a Clip of cold water (provided at another's coat, and oot ibeir 
own) to either neighbour, stranger, paaaenger, or poor thirs^ 
beggar. July 8, 1695." 

ilorland, ahdrtly before his death, as a penance for hia past | 
life, buried iu the ground, eix feet deep, 200^. worth of mumo- 
boota, being, as he said, love-soogB and vanity. ' 

From mia& correspondence between Morland and Dr. John 
Pell, preserved in the British Mmeuui, it appeal's that Sir Sam- 
uel, aa early as lGi)(!, had inteuded to punliBli a work on the 
quadrature of the curvilinear spaces, and bad actually printed 
two sheets of the work, when, by the advice of Dr. Pell, bfl 
laid it aside. About thia time also Morland invented his Arili- 
metical Machine, which he describsa in a small work. Its opoa- 
tions are conducted by means of dial-piates and amall iniUcei, 
movable with a steel piu. By these means the four funda- 
mental rules of arithmetic are very readily worked, and to 
use the author's own words, " without charging the memory, 
disturbing the miiid, or espoeing the operations to any u 
tainty." His " Perpetual Almanac" is given at the end, v 
was often printed separately. 

We are indebted to Morland for the Speakiiig-Trumpet in 
its present form. The ancient contrivances of thia kind resem- 
bled hearing rather than speaking trumpets. Some have c( 
sideredthe great horn, described in an old manuscript in I 
Vatican Library as having been used by Alexander the Onst 
to assemble his army, to be the oldest apeaking-trumpet on 
record ; but the description does not expressly state that Alei' 
ander ^oke through the horn. 

Sir Samuel's claim to the credit of the in^ 
contested by Athauasius Kircher. MorLaud, in 1(171, deecribei 
bis invention in a pamphlet of eight pages. He first made i 
trumpet of glass iu IGTO, by which he was heard speaking at 1 
Tery considerable distance, when it oonsiderabty multiplim tbt 
voice. The nest he made was of bniss, about 4^ feet lon^ U * 
inches in diameter at the lai^e end, and only 3 inches at ft( ' 
small end; towhich was affixed amouthpiece, " made somewM " 
after the manner of bellows," to move with the mouth, aw ' 
thereby prevent the escape of the breath. This was tried il . 
St. James's Park, and rendered the voice audible at a disBmCI ' 
of near half a mile. The third instrument was of copper, re- 
curved in the form of a common trumpet ; its total length WH 
k IG feet 8 inches, the large end 19 inches, and the small &" 
M mobeSfin diameter: with thia the voice was heard about ^ 
'and 3 iaif. Morland mada othei toua^ftte-, ■^v^L.k oi 

small eoU i 

Morlaiid's " Qnench-Jlres." 103' 

t, tried at Beal Castle, the voice was conducted a distanoe 
ietween two aod three miles over the sea. He very ex- 
«bly exaggerated the " uiauifold uses" of hia iustrumeut, 
jleven said that it might be improved bo as to carr j the voica ' 
-the distance of ten miles 1 Kircher asserted that he badi 
blished the descriptiori of a speaking-trumpet several jeait- 
Sore Norland's pamphlet appeared ; but his invention mom 
iCmbles a bearing-tmoppet, aud he doea not appear to hava 
id a proper speaking-trumpet till about 1673. There is one 
Mr &inael'B original trumpets preserved in Trinity- Collega 
nry, Oambridge, about six feet loug, in bad conditbn. In 
RdTSTtiBement of 1671, it is stated that Norland's " tubes" 
e Bold bj Moses Pitt, a bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
'iQ price of 21, 5i. 'The invention excited much general ii 
it Bit the time, so Butler inakeiS Uudibras say : 
I heard a forrnidable toicb, 
Loud a& tha SteDtophonlc noiBQ. 

Morlaud was Long claimed to be the inventor of the fire- 

'ne. But aa early as 1090, Cyprian. Lucar described a rudo' 

engine, precisely like a huge squirt Evelyn also ineDtiona 

ro-eugine, invented by Oreatorix in 1656, t^n years befoTSi 

»w the " guench-lires," as Morland's engines were called." ■ 

She principal objects of Sir Samuel's study were water* 

inea, pumps, &c., which he carried to high perfection : hit 

ipB mODgtit water from Blackmore Park, near Wiukfield, 

£e top of Windsor Castle. There is in the Harieian Gol- 

loii 01 MsB., in the British Museum, a short tract on tho; 

m-euf^e, in which " the Principles of the New Force of 

I," invented by Morlaud in 1632, are thus explained : 

" Water being converted into vapour by the force of fire, 

W vapours shortly require a larger space (about 2000 times} 

1 the water before occupied, and rather than be constantlj 

Sued, would split a, cannon. But being duly regulated, ao- 

bording to the rules of status, and by science reduced to mea- 

Bure, weight, aud balance, then they bear their load peacefidiT 

[like good horses), and thus become of great use to mankind, 

" "3ularly for raising water, according to the following table, 

1 shows the number of pouuds that may be raised 1800 

IS per hour to a height of six inches by cylinders half filled 

h water, as well as the different diameters and depths of the 

^"hen follows hia table of the effects of different-sized cylin- 
This indicates a perfect knowledge of the subject; and 

Ion rsmlnd* m Ihst In the rnstrj of tbe cliiircb < 

lOi Morland and Vauxhall Gardevt, ^^H 

to Morl&Dd'B great credit also, let it not be forgotten th^ lie I 
has correctly stated the increase of volume that water ooen- I 
piea io a state of vapour, which must have heen the result tt I 
experiment: bis researcbee, however, seem to have bad little ia- j 
fluence on the progreBs of tbe practical applicaCiou of Eteam. i 

In one of bis letters to Archbishop Tenison, dated 2Sth Jufy 
1688, and preserved in Lambeth Palace, it appears that Mor- I 
land then had an iuteatioii of publishing the first nix books of 
Euclid, for the use of pubhc Hchools. 

Morland is said to have written a Treatiae on the Barometer; I 
he is also said to have invented the capstan to heave up anohora ; j 
but he must have been rather the improver than the inventor j 
of that machine. 

Morisnd'a house at Vaushall was built upon the site of , 
Tauxhail Qardena, which appear to have benefited from his in 
ventive genius. Aubre; tells us thai Sir Samuel " built a fin 
room at Taux-hall, anno 1667. the inside all of Locking-^aa^ 
and Fountains very pleasant to behold, which is much viaited 
by Btiangers; it stands iu the middle uf the Garden." la 
167S he obtained a lease of Tauxhail House; and about tlie 
jear 1794, there was removed from the premises a lead pniap 
inscribed S. M. 1694. The njom mentioned by Aubrey is be- 
lieved to have stood where the orchestra was afterwards built; 
■ud it wa£ probably erected bj Norland for the entertainment 
of Charles U., when he visited this place with his ladies. The 
gardens were planted with trees, and laid out in walks, for 
Sir Samuel, as we see tliem iu a plan uf 1681. Their embel- 
lishments have, from the earliest date to our time, consisted 
of whimsical proofs of skill in mechanics, such as Morland in- 
dulged in. The rococo orchestra, which was only removed on 
tbe clearance of the (Hardens in the autumn of lS59, had plastio 
ornaments of a composition resembling plaster -of- Pans, but 
known only to the architect who designed it. The model pic- 
tures in. the Gardens, too, had their mechanism, as artifidsl 
cascades, a water-mill, and a bridge with a mail-coach and k 
Qreeuwich long-stage passing over ; an animated cottage^scen^ 
with figures drinking and smoking by machinery, were in ex- 
istence in 1820; and bushes and subterranean musical soundi 

King's Master of Mfclixmict may have originally set the fashton 
of tbe curiosities of Vauxhall Gardens, which existed a oenturj 
and a half after Morloud's death. 

IB famil)' plclure by Vandyke.) 


3 touriat pusses hj the right of the Ahergnveim]' or I 

t road from Monmouthflhire iuto Wales, he will scarcely I 

Bto notice the picturesque remains of lUglnn Castle, '' ' 

^ perfect Decorated stronghold of which this country con I 

1 romance in stone ttnd liio-e." Its historic interest can ] 

i through five centuries ; but its culminating point I 

E daring the time of Henry, fifth Earl and first Marquis of I 

ester, who, in his eighty-sisth year, made here a dea- I 

e struggle in &vour of King ChorleB I., Englan being the l 

fc cafltle tMoughout this broad realm which defied the power | 

■Cromwell. In 1642, the Marquis raised and supported an J 

ly of 1600 foot, and near 500 horse, soldiers, which he plass " 

ifir the command of hia son. Lord Herbert, vj'ko, aaciii " 

■ &ther, beeaaie better known aa the Msirqiue of ^ ci< 

The Marquis of JFor 

ffho left in manusoript the Century of Invmiiom. During the 
civil commotions, Churlea sevei'al vuits to Raglan, and 
on these occastona particular Ij difltinguiBhed the joung Lurd 
Herbert, whom hia Majestj subsequunlly iovested with the 
oomnmnd of a large body ol' troops. His braverj a,nd devoted- 
uess to the rojat cause led to his being eommissiDiied by the 
King in Ireland, failing in wiiich the Marquis embarked fijr 
Fnnce. Meanwhile, Ragku was surreudered to the Parliamen- 
tary forces : we do not hear of the young Marquis until 1664, 
when we find him attached to .the suite of Charles II., who thai 
resided at the court of France ; aud in the following year he 
was despatched by the exiled monarch tu Loudon, for the pot- 
pose of procuring private intelligence and supplies of mon^, 
of which the Eiug was in the greatest need. Worcester wa^ 
however, speedily discovered, aiid committed a dose prisoMi 
to the Tower, where he remained in captivity for several yean: 
he was set free at the Kestoraiion. Of his lordship's private 
life we find few records. He probably found leisure for the 
Boieutifio pursuits to which b« was much attached during bis 
Bojouru in France, where he wrote the tirst manuscript of his 
derUury of InvnUiom, the notes of which he appears to have 
lost ; but he re-wrote them, it is said, after his committal to 
the Tower. This we infer from the manuscript now in the 
poseeasion of the Beaufort family, which opens thus : 



friend, fi.d«^uS 

During the usurpation, Worcester House, in the Strand,' 
the London residence of the Marquis, was sold by Parliament! 
but at the Restoration it revert^ to his lordship, who lesMl 
the house to the great Lord Clarendon, who resided here until 
the erection of his new house at the top of St. James's-streeti 

In J663 appeared the first edition of the Marquis's GeriWt 
of Inventiom ; and on April 3, in the same year, a Bill ml 
brought into Parliament for granting to Worcester and hit 
successors the whole of the profits that might arise from ths 
use of an engine described in the last article in the Ce 

" Century nf Inventions." 

i Orford describes this Bill to have passed on the b 
mation of the discuvery that he (the Marquis) hoA c 
it the journals of the Lords and Commoiis for 106D-4 shoM 
ere were no less than seven meetings of ooimiiittecs on thT 
lgeot,compoB«<iofsomeofthemoBt learned men in theHuuB(( 
ha, aftar oonsiderabla amendments, Giifilly passed the £ 
U 12th of Maj. 

there is anecdotic evidence of the latter portion of the Cen' 
i(y at leaet being vrrjtten by the author while confined in 
tS Tower. It is said that he was preparing some food in his 
1, when the cover of the vessel, having been cioHC^ 
I, bj the expait^on of the steam, suddenly forced off, m 
A driven up the chimney. This circumstance, attracting tl 
's attention, led him to a tram of thought which te 
in the completion of the ahove invi:ntion, which J] 
,.__IiUDated a " Water-commanding Engine." 
Lotd Worcester's engine was shown in operation; andwheS 
MDO de' Medid, Grand-Duke of Tuscany, visited England ifl 
IBS fat which time the Marquis was a close prisoner iu tl 
feV(B^, his invention was exhibited at lambeth, as thus r 
Med in the Qmnd-Duke's Diaty : 
Hb Highnesa went "beyoud the PalaoeoftheArclibiHhop of Canto 
i; to see an hydraulic maohine. Invented by my Lord Snmerset, tf ~ 

I ofWoroBBter. tt rfnea water mora tlinii forty gaometrical ' 
Ihs power of one inall_ only ; and in a Tarj short space of timi 
~ up foor TSssals of nnter thraiigh a tuba or channel not more 

n in width." 
PreeiBel}' four years after the Bill kbh brought into Pa 
tioA for seauring the above invention, viz. upon April 3, 1 
the Marquis died in retirement near London ; and liis ren 
mn conveyed with funeral soiemnity to the vault of the Beao^ 
^ &inil7 in Raglan Church. 

WorceBlcr has been illiberally described as a " fantastic pi 
ICtor," and hia Century' as " an amazing piece of folly." 
!r. Partington, in hia edition of the work published in It _ 
|8, throughout an able series of notes, fully demonstrated ni 
"if the practicability of applying the major part of the huj 
Hd inventions there described, out the absolute applicati^ 
rmasy of them, though under other names, to some o"' 
it Dseful purposes of life. It is surely injustice and ii „ 
'a to apply the name of a " fantastic projector" to them 

tot of Ow Pire Engine far raising Water." ll S» iMiA, new '3 
* iP™. "' "'^ , ^*« mhia i reprint from the GIsbbo* ■»«. -^IS^ 
''^^^^Mt^^'i%^if""' ""* "toning, b^^perm-- '' 


" A Century of Inventiom." 

who firat diBOovered a mode of applying Bteam as a mechanical 
ageDt, — an iDvcution alone Baffieieot to immortaliae the age in 
wiiich he lived. 

Many of Worcester'a contrivancea have since been brought 
into geiienU use : among theni may especially be mentioned 
Stenography, telegraphs, floating baths, speaking statues, car- 
riages from which horses can be disengaged if unruly, combi- 
nation locks, secret escutcheons for locks, candle-moulds, &c. 

We have not space to do more than quote the table of the 
Inventions, which will convey some idea of their great variety ! 

No. No. 

A. knotled-atring Djphabet. 
A fringe alphabet. 
A bracfllfit alphabtit. 
A pinkeil-gloTB aiphBbet. 
A Biere alphabet, 
V ■>--- — -Jphabflt. 

C. yaried eigQiScantly to all Uis 
tirentj-fiiur lelteis. 

8. A innta and parfeet diacuurae 
by ooloora. 

7. To bold the same bj ninht. 
a To level cannons by ni«lit. 

9. A ship^efltroyiiig engino. 

10. HDwtobefftstened&omaloo: 

15. A boat driTing s^ 
and tide. 
10. A BeK-sailingfoit. 

17, A plea 

Dg engine. 

18. An bi 

19. A aaacb-ai 

50. A balance 
al. A bucket fountain. 

S3. An ebbing and flowing river. 
23. An ebbing and Hairing csstia 
84. A Btrength-incTBasing spring, 
as. A doufale-drawiag engine tor 

as. Alo-and-fro lever. 

37. A moBt easy level dnnght. 

98, A portable bridge. 

29. A mnvttble forliflcalion. 

3D. A riEing bnlwark. 

51. An approBching blind. 
83. An unlvarsal obaracter. 

• Mott prohabfy the geometrloal stall 
^ (fna ofn sinxll fliahl of alalra in Ihe ce 

A most conceited tindspbci. 

An ai^cial bird. 

An bonr water-b^ 

A screwed asoent of stairB.* 

A babaei:o-tODgH enrane. 

S2. A mystieal jangling of ba 
63. AnhoUowingofawateiBOi 

Oe'. A donble water screw. 
G6. An advanUgeoUB olumgi 

ST. AEDnntsntwalarflowinaait 
ehbinn mutiuu. 

oflfu-diacharging piiloL 

1 espec! 

A Basic oharger. 

A way for muBqQals. 

A way for a har^uehns, • 

For B^era and minyona. 

For a whole aide of Bhip-mm 

Forguarding several av 

" A Century of Inventions." 

T. For masqnelooDs on horas- 

8. A fire wBtei^work. 
tS- A biangle koj. 
tW. A rose key. 
n. A sqiure key with a tuniing 

'Vs. An emmtcheon for all locks. 
~l A lr«08niill(ililB gallary, 
L A oonoeiiBcl door. 
A. A diioDurse voveu oa tape oi 

M. To write in the daii. 
'17. A fiying man. 
18. A coDtmasllT-gning vaWh. 
" ' total loekuig of oahinol 

88. A naping mill. 
ei, As anthmedcnl inRtrun 
%. An imUothBume pear. 
HI. An impriaoning chair. 

8Ti A canlle'iDoald. 

A coining engine. 

AliraaflD head. 

Itimero sloTes. 
n. A dieina box. 

An utificiiil cing-borae. 
_ . A gravel engine. 
*S. A fliip-nuBing angine. 


.,. A doable croas'how- 
M. A irqr for aea- banks. 
Vf. A pBTapaotiie inslrnniant, 
18. An engine, so conaivsd, 
It worirmg the jjrimam moJi/i 
mid DT bsckvard, apward or 
nnnid, circularly or oomer- 
M, to and tta, atraighl, upright 
dDVIlTiglit. yet the preCended 
■' ■' -id Bdv- - 

ilndT, and >r 
K&iy allai 

hnl t 

liarmony ai 

Bupplying the 
■a nitli sufficient to n- -— '- 

a, and for the lieltcring of landa 
the way it runs; aith niuiy 
-e BdTsntageoos.Bndyet greater 
Ota of profit, Bilmiration, and 
Bflquenee : bo that deservedly I 

open any labonrs, to reward my eipenaea, 

inwayoffiirtWliiventions. This 
making up the whole Century, n: 
preventing any furOier ' ' * 

ble trial all and every of these 

of nil thinga belongiiig if 
shall he printed by braaa 
BeBideBmanyomittediSnd _ 

as not Hi \o bo divulged, lest 
nae may be made thereiif. hut to 

within my knowledge,! iifll\iBtB 
-- — cy^heT setti ioimo 

110 7?ie Marquis of Worcester ^^H 

The last three inventions, says Mr. Partington, may juatlf 
be conwdered as the most important of the whole Century; 
and when united with the 88th article, they appear to surest 
nearly all the dikta essential for the conEtruction of a m^em 
Btaom-engitie. The S8th article ia aa followa : 

An admimble and most (brciUo wny to driTa up water bv fire, not 
tif drawing or tiuckiag it a|jward8. for tbat inu«t be, as the pbiloaopher 
oolletb it, infra ipliaram acliviiatii, which a but nt such a distanoB. 
But tfaU waf bnth no bounder, if th« tosscIj be atrDOK onangh ; for I 
ham tatBH a piooe ot a whole cannon, whereof the end was bunit, uid 
filled it ihrM-qiiarta™ full, stopiiiiig and acrBwinR up the tirolton end, 
u alin the toiichhnle ; and making a oonatant are under it. withto - 
twenly-foar honra it burn, and maile a ereHl crai 
fbimd a way to make my venelB, ao that they ore ntreDgtheoed bf tlM 
fbreo within them, and the ono to fill after the other, hay "- 

a! water, rare&ed by fire, drivetb up hnj of cold water ; a 
tlut tends the work in but to turn two docks, tbat one losse 
hcdng conantaud, another begins U) force and refill with iMthi ^ 
no Buooesaiyely, &c. 

The Marquis has aUo fumiBhed iia with a. " DefinitioD" d 
the above engine, wliiah is exceedingly rare, as the only copy 
known to be extant is preserved in the British Musetini. It K 
printed on a nngle sheet, without date, and appears to have 
been written for the purpose of proouHog subscriptions fori 
Water Company, then about to he established. The inventHO 
is desoribed as 

A. atupeadooB, or a n-ater-comnaanding engine, boundleEs far h^fit, 
or QuanUty, requiring no ertema!, nor even aiiditioniJ help or fbnwto 
be set or continued in motion, tjut what intrinaically ia aflnnled tat 
its own operatjon, nor yet the twentieth part thereof. And tbeengiM 
ooDdatetb of the followiug particulars : 

"A. perfect counterpoise for what quantity soever of water. 

" A. perfect countervail for wtat height soever it is to be bmo^ 

" A primuta mofiile, commanding both height and quantity, ngv 

"A vicegerent, or oouDtervail, supplying the place and peribnnilfi 
the full force of man, wind, beast, or mill, 

" A helm, or ttera, with bit and reins, whereirith any child BC 
gdAe, order, and corlrol the whole operation. 

" A particular magazine for water, aoiording to the intended quUP 
lity cr height of water. 

"An aqueduct, capable of any intended quantity or height ofv.^. 

"Aplacofor the original fonn tain or river to run into, and natunijl 
of its own accord incorporate itself with the risinR wt'- -- ■" -' *" 
very bottiim of the aqueduct, though never so big orbii 

■'By Divine Providence, and heavenly inspiration, 
pendouB water^mmmandiDg engine, boundless for height and quuitin 

" Whoaocvar is roaster of weight, is master of force ; wbosoOTB*] 
master of water, is master of both ; and consequent!/ to him all ~ 
aalioaa snd atchievemsnUi aio ea£\e." 

Among the documenta in tte yiMfimsm.iJl'Owa'OMke of j 

^F and the Steam-engine. It 

ifl the fallowing impreseive memoriiil of tlie saccess of Ul 
~ " and the pioua gratitude of the inventor : 
e Lord MaTgnate of Worceiter'i tjamLlatonf a^ldel:^eBiporaT«tkaJ^t 
giti^ Prayer, wAen/inf wi'lA hi» mTpoTaleya he did me finiihed i 
Jtafmi trial afhii Watir-cemnaniiing Sn^ne, deligh^ul attd tti^A 
tc ^ehtiMoecer lutih in recmniRemlaiioii eUhtr tHO-wledge, pr<^, a 

Ob t infinitely omnipoteat Gad ! whose merBieB are fathomleBBe, an 
-ma knowledge is immonoe and inexbaustiblo ; next to my creation bb 
unptian I render thee most humble thanks from the very bottom i 
hsart and bowels, for thy vDuchaofing me. (the meniieat m midar- 
idine,) an in^ght In soe great a secret of naturo, bsneflcent Co ~' 
ddnd, as this my watar oommamling engine. Suffer me not to 

id oS, yea unpurauelsd inientions, ttyals. and eiperimente. B 
ibla my haughty heart, by the true knowledge of myne own igni 
, waake, and unworthy aature ; proane to all efrill, O moat mer 
Father my creator, most compasaionailjne Sonne myreduomer, a 
at ofSpiritle, the HmctiGer, three iliuina persons, and one Gc 
me a further concurring grace with fortitude touilce hould of tb^ 
- 'a the Qud that whatever I doe, unanimously and 
BOrVB my kind and country, to disabnae, reutifie, am 
ledsrTod, yet wilfully inoreduloua enemyes, tu rein 
ny creditors, to roimmuiterate my beuefacterB, to 
iey (Gstn^ssed family, and nith complacence to gratifie laf 

1 "tifidiog friends, may, vuyda uf vanity or aelfa ends, bs 

thy honour and glory everlastingly. Amen. 


As the pensive tourist etraye amidst the 
[ TDOflesB halls of lUgkn, or views &om its battlementB tb 
den KloricB of sunset, he maj reflect upon the vicissitudes i 
I noDle owners of this " famous castle line ;" and should tb 
itor extend his walk to the barial-place of the Beauforts i 
;laD church, he will there see the arched stone vault whie 

■emaius of Edward Marquis of Worcester. 
Of his greatest inveatiun no record has heen preserved b( 
"' the articles to which reference has been made in th 
it pricis at his labours j but in our day Professor Milling; 
1 has desigued an engine on similar principles, and which 
ha few iterations, might he made availatile for the pur* 
M recommended hy our author. 

la the Tra-nmctions of the Society of Am, vol. iii.p, 8, 
naunended to the attention of every mechanic the Ventar 
riiich, on account of the secmiog improbability of disoove 
[ nmnf thiugs mentioned therein, has heeu too much a 
d; but when it is considered tliat someofthecootrivance^ 
jntly not the least abstruse, have by close application 1 
a found to answer all that the Marquis says of them, and 
it the flrst hint of that most powerful machine, the Steam- 
nne, is given la that work, it ia uimeceBBBTj 'it ' " 

tMimyoSk." - ~ •^~- -■-■ --'■- 


Th> improvemeut of Clocks hy the upplicatioii of the pendu- 
luin was not more essential than the iiaproveiuent id Watcbu 
b; the application of the btLlance-Gpring, The honour of this 
inventiou is claimed by three "very eminent men, — Huyghena, > 
DutctUDan ; the AbbI Hautefeuille, a Frenchman ; and oni 
o?ni countryman, Dr. Hooke. The balunce-Bpring was HNffl 
universally applied, and even watches on the old oonstrudJon 
were altered to receive it. 

It was now found that the old vertical escapement, (stiH 
used in common watches,) did not produce sufficient ucea- 
nioy. Hooke, Huyghens, HautefeuiUe, and Tompiou, thae- 
fore, introduced new principles ; but as neither succeeded, 
probably from imperfect eseeution, the old crown-wheel was 
again adopted. 

The talent and parsevei'ance of these great men were not, 
however, lost, as each of their principles hH£ since been suD- 
ceaafuliy applied. Hnyghens's escapement is used in prodao- 
ing the motion of the weU-known bottle-jack ; Hauteieuille^ 
escapement appeared about sixty years ago, under the name of 
the patent (rack) lever ; and Hooke's idea has since been fullj 
developed in the duplex escapement. 

The first real improvement in escapements was made bj 
Oraham. This is called the horizontal or cylinder OEOspe- 
ment : it was introduced in the beginning of the last centu^, 
and has been successfully applied up to tlie preseut time. 

Qeorge Graham was bom at Horsgill in Kirklington, Cum- 
berland, in I67ri, of parents belonging to the Society of Friendi. 
At the age of thirteen he was apprenticed to Mr. Tompion, tta 
celebrated watchmaker, who kept shop at the comer of Wate^ 
lane, Fleet-street. Graham soon evinced inventive fitness for 
tjie art he had chosen, conjoined with stroightfoi-ward characta 
and high principle ; qualities which endeared him to his tiiaattf. 
who treated him like his own ofTspriug. By bis inventive skill 
and careful work, Graham became an excellent watchmakn 
and mechanician ; and by obtaining a sound knowledge of 
praatioaJ astronomy, he perteotd wierai -nwam fur the niH 

Graham's Watches. 


RiTement of time, und invented ostronomiail iDatrumentB 

»t-rate precision and scouracy. This was an era in the 

lOiy of clockwork. The expanaion and contraotion of metal 

I been known above fifty years ; and although the use of 

he clock for astronomical purposes demanded some compensa- 

ion for the iengthenmg and shorteniu^ of the pendulum bj 

lent and cold, art had not supplied this desideratum, until, 

n the year 1715, Graham, by substituting ajar of meroory tor 

he pendulum ImU, Bucoeeded in retainiug the point of bub- 

lenaion and the centre of oscillation at the same distance 

rom each other. To guard against breakage of this pendulum, 

hua provided the oppoeite expansions of different metala 

tcompensation by the dead-b^t escapement, with which, 

■* gndiron, or merouria! pendulum, having a heavy ball 

Dg in a very small arc of vibration, timekeepers are made 

IB ftTBrnge variation is less than a quarter of a second daily. 

fhese inventions still continue to be employed, in all their 

w«B>I)lioity, in the construction of the best astrouomioal 

Dn of the present day. Graham's horizontal escapement is 

Bextenvvely used in the Swiss and Geneva watches ; but in 

itter sort of those of Kndish manufacture it has been 

eded by the duplei, and recently by the lever, which 

liiag more than the application of Graham's dead-beat 

, ment to the watch, though patents have been taken out 

Wioiifl persons who have claimed the invention.' 

"be excellence of Graham's work is attested by the bou^ 

I qnadrant, which was made under his inspection, and 

"d by his own hand, for Dr. Ealley, at the Royal Obser- 

, Greenwich. He also invented a sector, with which 

dley discovered two new motions in the fixed stars ; 

|(' Graham supplied with instruments the French acad»- 

■"""HM in their voyage to the North Pole, to ascertain the 

» of the earth. Graham's watches were highly prized. It 

1 that when the French mathematician, Mapertuis, 

kde prisoner at the battle of Molwitz, and taken to 

, the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, afterwards Emperor, i 

i him with much kindness, and asked him whether he 

ted the loss of any particular portion of his property 

h the hussars had taken from him. Eeing much pressed, 

d^oaopber acknowledged that; he wished to save a watnh | 

"' I, of which he had made use in his aatrouomical ob- 

The duke also had one by the same malter, bat I 

Ried with diamonds : " See," said the duke, taking the i 

bfrgm his pocket, " it was but a joke; they have brought , 

ksk^ and 1 now return it." 

" 1 le Boy. the celebrated French hoiolo^at, siat>\i 


Viv The Orrery iiivenled. ^B 

teatimonf to the perfection of Oraham's natehes. In 17ZS hi 
procured one, said to be the first hori;tontal watch seen in 
Paris : it was presented to Mapertuia, after having been fall; 
proved b? Le Boy. Graham distinguished himself as a FeUo* 
of the Bojal Society: he was also one of the discoverers of 
the very remarkable fiict of the contcmponkneous occurrenm 
of magnetic disturbances over large portions of ths earth's sat- 
fece. This discovery was made on the 5th of April 1741, bj 
the preconoerted observations of Celsius at Upsala and Graham 
in LoDdun.* The investigation of this phenomenou has since 
been pursued with great Buccess, especially by the establislh 
meat of miiguetic observatories, first proposed by the illustriDis 

Desaguliera believes Qraham, about the year 1700, to havt 
first invented a movement for exhibiting the motion of tlift 
earth about the sun at tbe same time that the moon revolvul 
round the earth. This machine being in the hands of At 
iuHtniment-maker, to be sent with some other instruments to 
Prince Eugene, he copied it, and laado the first for the Bui 
of Orrery, and then several others, with additions ofhisowib 
Sir Richard Steele, who kaew nothing of Graham's machiMj 
in one of his lucubrations, thinking to do justice to the fint 
encourager as well as to the first inventor of such a curiow 
instrument, called it, after the Earl, an Orrtri/, and gave Mi> 
J. Rowley the praise due to Mr. Grabam.t 

We find, however, earlier mention of an Orrery than the 
jlbove, in the Journal of Dr. Rowland Davies, Dean of Ems 
(printed for the Camden Society, in 16S7). The entiy, nnd« 
1689, isaafoUows: 

Beotmler lUh. In the evening Mr. Milbonmcame nnd Bstwith ms, 

and showed roe an aosouut ofno automaton projeoted aud made byH^ 

• lU ro-aLacoveiy in [he present century Is flue to > Bdrioa o! coirespendliij 

sbiervatLiiTia undcrlalcen \iy Ar>^ In Paris and KupfTer In Kai^itn, in the jeu) 

lere died Intelyii 

aelf-wuglit txOL^ 

ilred in ibe prinidpl 

He »fter"»rdH rpmnvsil In t.nndim, and was BniplQ)cil In (lie eBtaMilhnU^lf 
Mt. Bate, tlic nell-liii.iwii niuHiemalical-lnstnimtnt milier in the Ponttrjl. 

him*ull,:ii . .■iiiiy iiriangnages: lis becniue a KDoii^rSS 

denblii ki,. ■,lLMi\i)46aly.WannMMnn\T,Em«iBera, Ma pme- » 

ragltv. lU' ,r..- I,.- |.. . .,i;a™, ana\v\a-¥\Etj,DWv™Atoi\0,m»^Ml a 

/•/Mae la «iu eslinintlt.ii ol his ftlfnd*. H\b teiiWV iaSltft VVm ftitwien. tiMMfot.' 
VplieMtioB, and ■iiugariagillneaB liiQUElil,WmV)»-™m-e«-t«i-"ii «.-^- •—*■ 

■ Grave of Tompion and Graham. Hal 

■ yf^mn of CoYBiitry, whoroby all tie Etars' motionfl and planota wore 
■.■BBCilyrepresoQtBd in clockwork, and all thoprablems and observatJooB 
^^U utronom; thereUi fully amiwsred. 

Qrabam continued hia useful luboura far the lieuefit of Bci' 
ie till bis death at hia honae in Fleet-atreet, in 1751. He 
1 buried in the nave of Westminster Abbe)', iu the same 
Mre with hia friend and master Tompion ; and over their 
OiliiiB was placed a slab, with the following inecriptiott : 
"Here liea jo body of Thomas Tompion, who died November 2lWi, 
3, aeed 76. Abo Geo, Graham, watohmaker, and F.R.S., whose 
loua inTeDtlotiB do honour to ye British genius, whose aoourate per- 
mBOcsi are ye atandard of mechaoic skill. Ho i^ed ye ISth of 
wnaber 1751, in ye 78th of bis age." 

Lt thia tnemorial no longer exists, it havinf; been taken up, 
1689, bj order of the Dean. Mr. Adam ThomEon, iu Ms 
teaeating volume on TiW ami Timekeeper», 1842, anyB; 
iWBtchmakers, the writer amoug the number, until prevented 
' Mcent restrictions, were in the habit of making frequent 
-limageB to the sacred spot : from the inscription and the 
B th^ felt proud of their occupation, and man/ a secret 
lb to escel has arisen while eilentlj aontempiatiiig the 
(ting-place of the two men whose memory they so much re- 
ted. Their memory may last, but the slab is gone. Who 
mid suppose that on a small lozenge- shaped bit of marble 
i» all that was left to indicate where lie the bodies of 'the 
irof Giockmaking,'Thomas Tompion, and 'Honest George 
un;' greaterbetiefaotors to mankind than thousauds whose 
Iptnred urns impudently emblazon merits that never es- 
id t" Graham was a man of strict integrity, and of kind and 
beroUB nature. Many pleasant anecdotes are related of his 
Is to science in communicating to others iu the same path 
B results of his own experimeuts. In money-matters he was 
taaX and open-handed; andrather than invest hia saving, be 
pttbem in the house, ever rea.dy to reUeve the necessities of 
Bening applicants. Theae are traits oCloving-kiuduess which 
jiiire no monumental marble to perpetuate their memory. 

There is not, probably, any example of human skill which 
IDUidB higher qualifications thau a perfeot watch. And 
irQload does not exaggerate when he tells us that "to he- 
me a good watchmaker it is necessary to beanarithmetician, 
order to find the revolutions of each wheet ; a geometrician, 
idetcrmine the curve of the teeth ; a mechanician, to find the 
■ces that must be applied ; and an artist, to be able to put into 
Boution the principles and rules which these sciences pre- 
ibe : he must know how fluids resist bodies in motion, the 
ecte of heat and cold ou different metals, and in additiuo. ta 
ase aoquirementB, he must be endowed bj n&Uue 'w.'Od, « 
vppj gsniae." 

The method of aacertaiDing Longitude by means of tlie Witel 
is briefly as follows- If & navigator has a. chrouometer show 
iDg him the exact time at Greenwich, the inBtant that thi 
Ban comes to his meridian it is twelve o'clock, and the Hi 
ferenoe between this time and the hour marked by the cbrms 
meter dves him his Longitude ; or, when the time is know 
at whien any particular star passes the meridian at Greenwii 
if the navigator marks the instant at which the etar comes t 
hie meridian, the difference between this time and the time i 
wonid appear at Greenwich is the difference in Longitude. 

Thia problem had, however, been hut inaccurately solve 
for want of good watches. Huyghens is supposed to have bee) 
the first who thought of conetmctiag timekeepers for this pm 

C; but at that period, 16(i4, aufBcieut attention had do 
paid to the effects jn^uced on metals by the vaHadon 
of temperature in different climateB, and he unfortunately fxila 
ID bis experiments. Maritime nations had already prondsei 
rewards to any one who should moke the discovery. In 169 
Philip III. of Spain offered a prize of lOIX) crowns ; the Dtrtd 
followed this example ; the Duke of Orieans, Regent of PranM 
oiFered in the name of the king 100,000 livres ; and the Freud 
Academy awarded annually a prize to those who made the moa 
useful discoveries connected with the subject. The En^idi 
being the greatest navij^tors, were must interested; and.)! 
1714, Parliament appointed a committee to consider tie qne^ 
tion, foremost of whom was Sir Isaac Newton, who at onoe mg 
geeted the discovery of the longitude by the dial of an aoenni 
timekeeper; and upon their recommendation the legislatuie^ 
Queen Anne, in 1714, passed an act granting 10,000^. if A 
method found discovered the longitude to a degree, or 60 (M 
graphical miles ; 15,000?. if to 40 miles, and 20,0ml. if to » 
miles ; to he determined by a voyage from a port in Ore* 
Britain to any port in America. At length, after the golM 
promises of sovereigns, and the researches of the greatest pU 
losophers of the age, had foT aea.cly a century and a half &1L91 
aat discoven. it ■waa itoAb '\i^ a. (^-\a»j^ e" ~*" 



■ The first Marine Chronometer, 117 

who waa bred a. village carpeatar, and never acquired any as- 
quaintatice with literature. 

John Harrison waa bom at Faulbj, near Pontefract, in York- 
shire, in 1(>93 ; he was the bou of a carpenter, wldch occupation.' 
lie folloived for several years; yet he very early mauifested ai 
taste for mathematical science, said to have been first awakened] 
b; a. copy of some lectures of Saunderson the blind mathema- 
tician, that accidentally fell into his bands. Be was aUo fond 
of mechauical pursuits ; and before be was twenty-one he bad 
luade two woodeu clocks by himself, and without haviog re- 
Guved any iustruction in the art. His residence in view of 
the sea is said to have led him to devote himself to the con- , 
structioa of marine titnejiioccE, and in 1726 he first came upj 
fa) London to piosifcute this ubjeot ; in 1736 he completed I 
I the first chrouoiiit-tcr used at Kca — it neither varied from chauge I 
^^temperature nor the motion of the vessel. Having obtained 1 
^Tifiaites of its exoellenci; from Halley, Graham, and others, 
I' timekeeper was placed on board a ship of war f^ing to 
I, the captain of which attested that Ilarcisoti had cor- 
an error of about a degree and a half upon thilr return 
a English Channel. The Parliameutary Coaimissiouen 
' "eBented Harrison with 50(1^., to enable bim to proceed J 
& experitDeuta. In 1739 he produced a smaller chrouo- 1 
r, whidi promised to give the longitude with even greater J 
, lu 1741 he finished a.nother smaller than eithei^ J 
e Fellows of the Royal Society considered to be mor« | 
J, and less likely to be dei-angcd; and in 1749 Harriso*! 
Bmd the Society's gold medal. I 

Staving much improved and corrected this third chrOQO* | 
T, Harrison claimed a trial of it ; and the commissioneii. J 
, in 1761, sent out his son WiUiam in a king's ship 1 
After eighteen days' navigation, the vessel wav f 
d to be 13° 6t)' west of Portsmouth, while the watch/ J 
J 1S° 19', wus condemned as useless. Harrison, how- 4 
KSUuntained, that if Portland Island were correctly marked 1 
le chart, it would be seen oa tlie following day; in t' ' 
rdsted so strongly, that the captain was induced to ci 
W in the same course, and accordingly tlie island was ois- 
"~" '"" text day. Tins raised Harrison and his watch in 
u of the crew, who otherwise woulduot have been 
■to procure the necessary stoi-es during the remainder of 
Tfiyage. In hke manner, Harrison was enabled by his watch 
nounce ail the islands in the order in which they would 
ftbi with them. On hie arrival at Fort Royal, after a voyage 
^^y-one days, the chronometer was found to be a.\)trtit ^Nt 

Is t^ftw ; and on hh return to Portsmoutb, s.fleT % Ni^'ja^% 
■e months, U bad kept time within about one tmauW tsfe 

seconds, which gives an error of iibout eighteen miles. 
was much within tlie limits of thirtj miles prescribed bj tte 
Act of 1714, and Harrison claimed the reward; but sevenl 
objections being taken to the proofs, William Harrison made 
K second voyage, which left no further doubt of Hftmson'a 
ol&iin, his ohrononieter having determined the position of Bar- 
badoes within the limits prescribed bj the Act. The sam of 
aOjOOOi. wns then awarded to him— 10,00(W. immediately on 
his explaining the principle of construction, the other half oa 
its being ABcertainCHl that the chronometer could be made In 
others. Liberal as this reward appears, it must be remembered 
that Harrison devoted upwards of forty years before his inten- 
tions were perfected, or their general merit fully eBtabliahoi. 
The most important of these improvements are the gridiron 
pendulum and the espansion balance-wheel ; the one serviuj 
to equalise the movements of a clock, and the other those of* 
watch, under all changes of temperature ; and both depending 
upon the unequal stretching, under change of temperotuK, 
of two different metala, which are so employed to form the 
rod of the pendulum and the circumference of the wheel) 
that the contraction of the one exactly counterbalances tlu 
expansion of the other.*' Another of Harrison's important 
inventions is the going fiitce, by which a watch can be wounJ 
np without interrupting its movement. This curious machine 
tu well oa the other timekeepers of Harrison, is still preserved 
at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Being discovered thOT 
in a very dilapidated state several years ago, it was put in 
repair at the expense of Measrs. Arnold and Dent. Exciting 
the escapement- wheel, all the wheels were of wood, — nteiely 
flat discs with wooden teeth. The pinions also were of iTOoi 
Mr. Dent states that the arrangements for obviating frictiw 
were so admirable, that on the removal of part of the esaj*' 
ment the train of wbeele ran down with great velocity, althMP' 
they had not revolved for more than a century before. 

Harrison died at his houee in Red Lion-square in I77S, ^ . 
his eighty-third year. On mechanics, and subjects connwtrf , 
with that science, he could converse clearly; but he foiH* ' 
great difficulty in expressing hia aentimeuts in writing, as 8 
evident from a work which he left ou the construction of tiW 
pieces. 8till his labours present a remarkable instance of iriu' h 
natural genius can accomplish in one particular line wit""' 

It should, however, be added, that the complexity of HB' 

II be /innd [i 

Rewards for Chronometers. 1191 

■tm's timekeeper, and its bigh pri ce, 4fl02. , left to be invented, 
(practical purposes, an inatrument of greater eimplioitj, iu] 
e timekeeper of John Arnold, for which he and bis sou re- 1 
JTed the Government reward of 3DU0/.* In this iDachinQfl 
part performs unuhecked the office assigned tu it ; anditsi 
erne variation in twelve months has bocn Jii-huudredthsfl 
. It is therefore liighly honourable to the English art-'l 
that by their ingenuity and skill they have accompliBbedfl 
tsreat object which had occupied the attention of the learned ■ 
'Europe for nearly 300 years, namely, tlie means of dis*j 
Vering the Longitude at Sea. I 

In 1793 a aommittee of the House of Commons gave to 1 
Mudge, a London watcbtuaker (or to bis son for him), 
dtion to the opinion of the Board of Longitude, a re- 
'of 3000/. for inventing a reunontoire escapement for cbro- 
tera, " not worth a ferthing," says Mr. E. B. Denison, 
d, as indeed it turned out, worth a great deal less to Mb 1 
who proceeded to make tlie chronometer," Mr. Deniaoii 
' ' that Thomas Eamsbaw brought the cbvouometer t« 
n which it has remained for the last eighly jetu& 
til scarcely any alteration : the chronometers of inferioi 
■"ats were always beaten by his, whenever they came intQ^ 
■petition ; and these artists afterwards copied Eamshaw's; 
Wmtions, and did their best to prevent bis being reward"' 
^ them. 

The English chronometers, ou the whole, enjoy a reputa 
n BQperior to those of any other nation ; nevertheless tb 
tor have attained high excellence. One of the New-Yor 
Kilometers supplied to the Griimell Arctic Espeditiov — 
iQ'eoted to all sorts of exposure to whiah such inatru 
I liable in a Polar winter ; but was so esquieitely provided 
^Th atyustments and compeusa.tions for the very great ox 
mes of temperature to which it had been subjected, that i 
■ returned with a e/mnge in iU daily rate, diiring a vear eta 
mlf, of mdy the eighteen-tkouiandth. part of OJte second of iivb 
. anould be borne iu mind, that the temperature r^stei 
tring the winter in Wdlington Straits was actually 4r" "■ ' 

» Df tto ainilleit re 

i^Bsted tho hours, qr 

■tod the naA 

teld Air tht» DUriom « 
fjUdarmui Culsr, < 


Ths discuvery which haa given an imperishable gloi 
name gf Harvej, places turn in the higher rank o 
philosophers. "The same services which Newton a: 
rendered to optioa and nstroDomj b; his theoriea of li 
Knivitation, Hurvey conferred upon anatomy and me "' 
bis true doctrine of the Oircolaition of the Blood. "* 

The early life of Harvey, and the opportunities of ic 
oatiou, led him step by step in the bnlliant career o'^ 
Tcatigation, till it was finaliy crowned with succera. 
descended from a respectable family in the county of K 
was bom at Folkestone on the let of April 1578, in 
dbir Btone j which Ilarvey left by will, together wi 
land adjoining, to Ciuus College, Cambridge. At ten y 
age he was Bent to the Oraraniar- School iu I 
^faaving there laid a proper fouiidation ofclaGBioal lea 
'eemoTed to Oouville aud Caius College, Cambridge, k 
Blitted as a pensioner in May 1393, After spending fii 
«t the University, he went abroad for the acquisition o 
oal knowledge; and, travelling through France nud G 
fixed himself, in his twenty-third year, at Padua Uu 
Here be attended with the utmost diligence the leo 
Fabrioius ah Aquapendente, the Professor of AnatOB 
taught the existence of valves in all the veins of thu . 
and from that moment Harvey endeavoured to discover ti 
of these valves, his success in which inquiry was the ti 
Hon of his aftar feme. He took his doctor's degree at 
1 1602, when he was only twenty-four yeare of agaj ii 
Line year he returned to Guglaud, a^in graduated a' 
bridge, and settled in the practice of his profession in I 
In 1604 be was admitted of the College of Physicians ; a 
1615, when thirtj-seven years old, he was a[^KiintedT< 
the anatomical and surgical lectures at the College. ] 
seriously prosecuted his researches on the Circottion 
Blood, and it was in the course of these lectures that fa 

mlation of ike Blood. 


ielj announced his new doctrines ; but many years of ex- 
bneiital verifioatioa elapsed before he ventured to conunit 
W doctrines to the press. Nevertheless, there is historical 
'ence to prove that, although Harvey discovered the fast 
\6 Circulation of the Blood, he did iwt discover the covrtt 
t the eatiteJt of the circulation. He knew that the blood 
P eairied from the heart through the arteriee to the tis- 
f, and from the tissues, through the veins and lungs, back 
~n to the place whence it atarted. But he knew not hov) 
J blood passed from arteries to veins; he knew not wAy 
Vl)]ood thus moved. In our day, science is in possession oi 
X^act courne of the circulation ; but the exact causes are 
■ aader questiou. We know that the circulating systeni 
~tB of heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, and IjinphaticB. 
If knew uot the capillaries and lymphatics ; bo that his 
^dge of the course taken by the blood was neceeearUj 
lajdete. To form an estimate of what Harvey actuaJlj diSn 
^M,we will first take a rapid view of the Circulatiou. 
P^Qie heart, es the great centre, shall be our point of de- 
It is composed of four cavities : two ante-chambers, 
!e^ and two chambers, or vmUrklet. Into the tight 
IB tbd blood is poured by the veins ; it passes theucQ into 
'{bt veutride, and ia driven therefrom by a alropg cen- 
X along the pvlmonari/ artery into the lungs. Here it 
in contact with the oxygen of the atmosphere, and 
Uiges from venous into arterial blood. It now pas-ses along 
tiie fnihitoiiary veiitt into the left auriole of the heart, thenco 
iDtu the left ventricle, from which it ia driven by a power- 
^ ooutraction into the arteries. The pulsing torrent rushes 
throngh the arteries to the various tissues, where it passes 
into the network of capillary vessels. Having served the pur- 
poses of nutrition, the blood continues its course along theie 
cspillaries into the veins. Here the stream is joined by that 
ef (lie lymphatics, which, like the roots of a plant in the earth, 
•heorb lymph from the organs in which they arise. This oon- 
flnence of streams hurries on till the blood is emptied iuto the 
light auricle, from wliich it originally started ; and thus is the 
tircait completed."* 

The story of Harvey's discovery is one of the most intereat- 
^ and instructive in the whole range of science. Its episodes 
jBtend over not less than seventeen centuries ; and the two 
joenturies that have elapsed since Harvey's discovery have not 
jlufficed entirely to complete it. Three capital errors, for sis- 
Men centuries, masked the fact of circulation. The fii'St was, 
mt the arteries did not contain blood. The second eTtot 'W'i&, 
■UHAe Ctro c/ioinbera of the heart comnmnicated v(Vl\i. eiwii. 

^L • ^b'i-^in-^r Jmiuiuryh aiugab^e. Ko. 5U. .J 


Harvey's Discovery. 

other hj means of holea in the eeptum dividing them. 
third error was, that the veins carried the blood tc ' ' 
parts of the body. The first of these errors was 
aricte by Galen's proving that the arteries did carry blood J9 
the composition of the atmosphere being uulcnown in hUlir 
it remained for modern Bcienoe to prove that atmospheif 
is not contained in the arteriea, but only the oxygen fl 
of, with a slight amount of nitrogen and a certain anuni 
carbonic-acid gas. The second assertion, of the holes ll 
septum, was disproved in 1S43 by Fesalius, the fether o 
dem anatomy. The third error, that of the veins carryiil 
blood to the tissues, was disproved by Michael Bervetua 9 
ing that the two blonds, venous and arterial, pass one 
other ill the lungs, or by the pulmonary circolation. 
showed in a work which was burned by the theologianB H 
Servetug luinsulf was subsequently burned for speculation 
another kind. Two copies of Serretus's work still exist 1 g 
reddened and partly consumed by the flames, is in the Imtf 
Library of Paris. Nothing can be less eqoivoral than il 
Boription of the passage of the blood from the heart i 
lungs, where it ia agitated, prepared, changes its cdottf 
is poured from the pulmonary artery into the pulmoo; 
Still, tbia WHS but a lucky guess, without iuQuence, i 
forgotten. Sis years afterwards Realdo Colombo re-di 
the pulmonary circulation ; and then Cffiaalpinua, ' 
botanist, unaware of what Colombo had written, 
the same discovery, and was the first to pronounce the J 
" Circulation of the Blood." 

But nearly every thing remained for Harvey to d 
So hj from any one having had a clear idea of the tn 
no one had even accurately conceived the true theo 
monary circulation ; for, although Servetus, Colombi 
CECsalpinus knew that the blood passed through the lun 
&noiM only so much passed as was necessary for the h 
of the " vital spirits ;" a quantity which their predeoesE 
cied took its course through the perforated septum of the ll 
But they had no conception of the entire mass of bloi 
versing the lungs. 

The finding that the veins had valves, opening and a 
ing like doors, brought the discovery of the Circulation «M 
compass. It was mado in 1574, by Fabrioius, under ivhoniH 
vey studied at Padua. These valves, preventing any fioirfi 
the heart, but admitting the flow to the heart, ought tojS 
Baggestf:A to their discoverer the true interpretation c^j| 
Hse; but five-and-forty years t\*.^sflA. \idoTe ■ms.-^ one T^ 

frbo bad the sagiicity to perceive 

.e TMi •JiiM.fe «L 'C( 

laical structure in respect to t\ie\i\<JQ4-twnB5A,»- "^i«ia«S^« 

Overthrow of Galen. ^1 

ugh every thing that had been discovered or aurmiBed n 
iag the Circulation was familiar to every anatomist of the 
Paduftn school in which Harvey atudied, nevertheless, 
' he promulgated his theory, it was vehemently opposed, 
except Harvey had, for nearly half a century, seen the 
nice of the ; and he not only conceived a clear idea 
a process, hut described it minutely and accurately, " 
n the successive contractions of each auricle and i 
, which forced the blood into the ventricle when the 
e contracted, and forced it from the ventricle into the 
when the ventricle contracted ; a process repeated on the 
[de vfith the aerated blood. And at each passage of the 
from one cavity to another, there were the valves, ' 
le doors,'' opening to let the cnrrent pass, and cIosii._ 
event its reflux. He described the course of the blood 
the arteries, which he attributed to the pulsations of 
"»rt ; and in this, instead of Galen's " pulaific virtue," ' 
tiled the cause of the blood's movement. 
le overthrow of ancient authority was now completed. 
dared no longer swear by Galen ; they awore by Harvey, 
\bA discovered the greatest fact in the animal economy, — 
totally unknown and unsuspected by Galen, or any other 
Dt. The opposition to the new system was loud and vehe- 
j but it has been greatly exaggerated by historians. I' 
hat the Faculty rejected the doctrine, but eminent n 
ted it. If Guy Patin was cau^stic in opjiosttion, MoU^ 
ed at Quy Patin's prejudice; and Boileaii ridiculed the 
ty. Some anatomists accepted the doctrine, and the great 
rtes warmly espoused it. Swammerdam and Malpighi, 
fthe greatest names of the century, speak of Harvey with 
^noe; and soon no one spoke of bim in any other tone, 
ig his admirers was the writer of certain verses, " To the 
apantble Dr. Harvey, on his Book of the Motion of the 
I and Blood," in which these lines occur ; 

ThsTB didst tluni trace the blood, and firiit behold 
What dl'Cams niistnkGn sngea coined of old. 
For till thy PoBsaua the fountain bmlco, 
The crimson blood was hut a crimson lake, 
Which iirst from tbae did tyde and motion gaine. 
And veins Ijecame its chnnnelj not its choiDo. 
With Drake and Ca'endish hence thy liays are ouri'd, 
Fam'd circulator of the leeaer world. 

be epithet eircvlator, in its Latin invidious signification 
t), was applied to Harvey by many iu derision. To an in- 
B fiiend he complained, that, after his book ot Vne Coiwi.- 
Dut, he feJI considerably in ¥\a pTWJt\c«, «.vi4 ' 
bf the rulg&r that he was crack-\iiauie4. "Sw^ 

ISi Researches with the MicTOSCope. 

thelesB, about twentj-five jears after tke publicatioa of hit ^ 
tem, it waa received iii all the uuiversitiea of the woild; ■* 

HobbeB has observed, Iha^t Hnrve; was the q\Aj m»n, perla_ 
wlio (!ver saw his own doctrines established in bis lifetune. 

The QQUTse of the Circulation was not, however, Icuown to H 
"SBj; nor, with the means at hia disposal, could he have tt 
it. The Microscope waa needed; and the first to employ fl 
instnimeut in such reeearchea waa Malpighi, who, four f" 
after Harvey's death, iu 1661. detected those capillaries wl 
ibrm the channel of communication between the arteries K, 
veins. Kevertheless, in ItiGS, Leuwenhoeck describes them d 
if they had been previously q^uite unknown : this was in. ^ 
tail of a tadpole. "A sight presented itself," says LeuweuhoeA^ 
" more delightful than any that my eyes had ever beheld; iot 
here I discovered more than fifty oircnlationa of the bioad in 
different placea. I saw that not only the blood in many places 
was conveyed, through exceedingly minute vessels, from the 
middle of the tail towards the edg^, but that each of these 
Teasels hod a curve or turning, and carried the blood back itp 
wards the middle of the tail, in order to be conveyed t '^" 
heart. Hereby it appeared plainly to me that the bluod-vi 
I now saw in this animal, and which bear the names of arteiiet 
and veins, d/e, in fact^ out and the same, — that is to say, that 
they are properly termed arteries so long as they convey the 
blood to tne iarthest estremities of its vessels, and veins when 
they bring it back towards the heart." Thus, then, was the de- 
monstration of the course of the blood completed ; and wa must ' 
confess, that it is with surprise we find all historians overlook- 
ing the great gap iu the doctrine which had been left by Harvey J 
a gap only filled up by Malpighi and Leuwenhoeck iu their dis- 
covery of those capillaries forming the true passage of arterial 
to venoua blood. 

Harvey waa appointed physician to Charlea I., and was in 
the habit of exhibiting to nim and the moat enlightened per- 
eons of his court the motion of the heart, and the other phe- 
nomena upon which his doctrines were founded.*' During the 
OivilWarne travelled with the King; and, while staying a short 
time in Oxford, was made by him. Master of Merlon CoUwe, 
and received the degree of Doctor of Medicine. lie held the 
mastership only for a few months, when be was diaplaced by 
the Parliamentary party, his honae was plundered, and aeveiat 
unpublished works, of which wo have only notices in his other 
writings, were destroyed. He and his brother, who wu i 
Turkey merchant, dra,uk coffee before ooifee-houses came into 
iiafij'oo inXondon. HiaviMlatoVia^t\«Qt«\ie.tiiTuJLe.ij\itenft. , 

■ Xc. Uannab Lui painted tb 

Cause of the Circulaltov. 


dt, with a foot-doth, his man following on foot, in the eame 
njiiiwhich the judges were tben accustomed torido to West- 
Kirter Hall. In 1654 he was elected President of the College 
|rl%f Hiciuna ; hut, from age ttnd inHrmities, he declined th< 
lea. He died June 3, 1657, in the eightieth year of his flgej 
id was buried at Hampeted ia Essex, where he is Inpt in lead^ 
)& on hie hreast in large letters was to he read, Dn. William 
There ia ft fine portrait of Harvey by Jansen in 
/ of the College of PhysicianB; here also are preaerv 
e of the nerves and blood-veesels used by Harvey in 1 

1 thu Circulation, which he delivered in the houM 

vFthe College, then in Amen-corner : he built also a Mueeui 

in the adjoluing (inrden, upon the site of the present Stationert 

Hall. The old College huildiuip were destroyed in the G™ 

Kre. The Harveian Oration (in Latin) is dehvered a 

'pa Fellow, usually on June 25. 

J The real oiwk of the Circulation, however, remain 

laWufaed. That the heart puraps hiood ince.'satitly into t1 

B, and th\iB drives the stream onwards with great f( 

o doubt. This, however, is not the sole agent. 

r Draper supplies the answer by an hypothesis groundc 

Ea -well-known physical law, namely, that if two fiuida con. 

niinte in n capillary tube which hnTe different degrees cj 

Imtj for the walls of that tube, the fluid having the higheB 

ktitf forthe tube will drive the other fluid before it. The 

oSlads in the blood-vessels are arterial and venous, and the 

er affinity of the nrterial blood for the venous tissues 

9 it to drive the venous blood onwards. 

L In conclusion, Professor Draper's hypothesis is briefly this; 

J» Brterial blood has an affinity for the tissues, which causes 

■ to press forward in the capillaries ; and no sooner ia that 

*" "^sfttislied, than the blood becomes venous, and is pressed 

rd by the advancing column. In the lungs venous blood 

B forward to satisfy its affinity for the usygen which is 

) air; having satisfied this, and become ai-terial, it is 

d on by the advancing coluinn. 

t The reader who is desirous of pursuing this subject more in 

II, is referred to an able exposition in BtachcootVs Edin- 

\ Xagadne, No. 514, pp. 148-164, — " Circulation of the 

i, its Course nnd History;" the writer availing himself of 

lourens' Jliitoire ie In DHovverte de la CiTCulation du Sang, 

■ompleting his labours by a masterly reasoning 

a this very curious and intricate subject. To tliis paper we 

n mainly indebted for the &ctB and new views in the present 

Few of the m:iny thousand ilia frhich human flcBh is heic K, 
have spread euch devastation aroongst the family of man Rl 
Small-pox. Its univurealitj has ranged from the untold tnbcl 
ofaavageB to tbe eilkeu baron of dTUisatiou ; and ita rongM 
on life and beauty hnve be«n ahown in many a ead tale H 
domestic suffering. To stay the destroying hand of eadi I 
scourge, which by aome has heen ideatilied with the Plagufi (n 
A.ttienB, W&3 reserved for a genial spirit of our time: such 1 
bene&otor to hia species ivaa Edward Jenner, the discoverer bI 

The great fact can, how«ver, he traced half a century bdon 
Jeunei's time. lu the Journal of John Byrom, F.R.S., undei 
date June 3, 1725, it ia recorded that, 

" At a meeting of the Royal Society, Sir Isaac Kewton pf 
Biding, Dr. Jurin read a case of Small-pox, wliere a girl *!w 
hud been inoculated and had been vaccinated, was tried ami 
had them not a«ain ; but another [a] boy, caught the snail' 
pox from this girl, and had the confluent ktud and died." ' 

This case occurred at Hanover. Tbe iuoculation of tbe^ 
BeeTiis to have failed entirely; it was suspected that she bM 
not taken the true small-pos : doubts, however, were removal 
as a boy, who daily saw the girl, fell ill and died, " having Iw 
a very bad enuiU-pox of the confluent sort." This is tliellll 
use of the word Vaccination., or more familiarly. Cow-pox, whw 
is an eruption arising from the insertion into the aystem d 
matter obtained from tbe eruption on the teata and uddenft 
COWB, and especially in Gloucestershire : it ia also frequeatlf 
denominated mccinf matter; and the whole affair, inoooWi* 
and its consequences, is called Vaccination, from the IdA 
wtcca, a cow. 

It is admitted that Jenner's merit lay in the scientifio tf 
plication of his knowledge of the fact, that the chapped buw 
of milters of cows soinetiiaes proved a preventive otsmatl-po*! 
and from thoso of them whom he eudeavoored to inoculate Tt 
Bisting the infection. These results were probably known 6" 
ba^nd Jenmw'a lange, aaA Von&^«SOT6\o&^sissR•, fatw '^ 

Jttwages of S-mall-pox. 


actable teetimoii^ of their having come within the observa- 
11 of a Cheshire gentleman, who had heei> informed of them 

rtlj after eettting on his estate in Prestburj parish, 
. Lit 1740. This does not in the least detract from Jenner'i 
■it, but shotTB that to his genius for observatioD, analog; 

experiment, we are iudebted for this application of a sim 
^ only incidentally remarked hy others, but by Jeuner r 

i the Btepping-stoae to his great discovery, — or, in other 

esteuding its benefita from a single parieh iu Qlouces- 

e to the whole world. 

We agree with a contemporary, that, " among all the n 

Uoh OQght t<D be consecrated by the gratitude of mankind, 1 

tt of Jenuer stands preeminent. It would be difficult, wft^ 

t inolined to say impossible, to select from the catalogue sFM 

' &ctors to human nature an individual who has contributed^ 

_ "_ the preservation of life, and to tlie alleviation ot'M 

aig. luto whatever comer of the world the blessing otM 

)d Knowledge tias penetrated, there also will the na 

<r be fiiiniliar ; but the fruits of bis discovery have ri 

. s soils, where books have never been opened, sai 1 
B the savage does not pause to inquire from what souroo 1 
IB derived relief. So improvement in the physical SDiencea 1 

1 bear a parallel with that which ministers iu every part rf 1 
f globe to the prevention of deformity, and, iu a great pro* 

Jtioo, to the exemption from actual destruction. "t 

VTbe ravages which the Small-pox formerly committed, i 

■roely conceived or recollected by the present generation, j 

■instance of death occurring after vaccination ia now eagerlj 

ed and commented upon; yet seventy years have not elapsed ] 

le tbis disease might Sairly be termed the scoui'ge of n 

1 enemy more estensive and more iasidioua t 

)d the plague. A family bhgh ted in itsiairest hopesthroui^ I 

^terrible visitation was an every-day spectacle : the imperiall 

B of Austria lost eleven of its offspring in lifty years.J T 

B ioHtance ia mentioned because it is j^istorical; but in the I 

e and unrecorded scenes of life this pest was often a still I 

e merailess intruder.^ 

IS the third son of the Vicar of Berkeley I 
loBoeBtershire, where he was bom May 17th, 1749. Beforft 1 
be years of age, he showed agrowing tastefornatutri. I 
nforming a collection of the neats of the dormouse i.| 
Hvhen at school at Cirencester, he was fond of searching i 

KPatUgrew. In' hill Livao/BritUh Mtaidana and Surgrrmt, 1830 
' TidhthBrntMiirUThoreSBdied uf ll, wrappaa, bj' order ■ 

Jenver's Hhcovert). ^M 

for fossUa, which ahoimd in that neighbourhood. He was ar- 
ticled to a Burgeon st Sudbury, near Bristol, and at the end of 

Wb apprenticeship came to London, and studied under John 
Hunter, with whom he resided aa pupil for two jeara, and 
formed a lasting friendship with that great man. In VTTZ he 
returned to his native Tilla^, and commenced practice as ■ 
surgeon and apothecary, with great success. Nevertheless, he 
abstracted from the fatigues of country practice sufficient time 
to form a mmenm of speciraens of comparative anatomy and 
natural history. He was much liked, was a man of lively and 
simple humour, and lored to tell his observation of Nature in 
homely verse; and in ITSS he communicated to the Roja! 
Society his curious paper on the Cuckoo. At the same time, 
he carried to London a drawing of the casual disease, as seen 
on the hands of the milkers, and showed it to Sir Everard Home 
and to others. John Hunter had alluded frequently to the fiutl 
in his lectures; Dr. Adams had heard of the Oow-pos both from 
Hunter and Cline, and mentions it in his Treatiae on Poitmu, 

fiublished in 1796, three years previous to Jenner's own pub- 
ication. Still, no one had the courage or the penetration to 
prosecute the iuquiry except Jermer. 

Jenner now resolved to couiine his practice to medidM, 
uid obtained, in 1792, a degree of M.D. from the Univemtj 
of St. Andrew's. 

We now arrive at the great event of Jenner's life. WhHe 
pursuing his professional education in the house of his master 
at Sudbury, a young countrywoman applied for advice ; and the 
subject of small-pox being casually mentioned, she remarked, 
she could not take the small-pox because she had had cowpoi; 
and he then learnt that it woe a popular notion in that distriet, 
that milkers who had been infected with a peculiar eruption 
■which sometimes occurred on the udder of the cow, were cwn- 
pletely secure against the sioall-pox. The medical gentiemen 
of the district told Jenner that the security which it gave m 
not perfect; and Sir George Baker, the physician, treated it •• 
a popular eiTOr. But Jenner thought otherwise ; and althoit^ 
John Hunter and other eminent sui^eons disregarded the ffl* 
ject, Jenner pursued it. He found at Berkeley that hhM 

eirsons, to whom it was impossible to give Bmall-poK by inoOO" 
tion, had had cow-pox ; but that others who had had eo*- 
pox yet received small-poi. This led to the Doctor's diacOTOT, 
that the cow iTas subject to a certain eniption, which hadtM 
power of guarding from sniall-pox; and nest, that it might Ic 
possible to propagate the co'w-pos, and with it security fton 
thesmall-pox, first from the cow to the human body, and Ihenei 
from one person to another. Here, then, was an important 
discovery, that matter from t'ae cow, m^'n'C\.OT«Si7j\D»STted into 

Vaccination dh core red. 


body, gave a alighter ailment than when received other- 
S, and yet liad the anne effect of completely preventing 
Jl-fMiK. But of what advautage was it for mankind that the 
8 o! Oioucestershire possessed a. ntatter thus singularly pow- 
il How were persons living at a distnnce to derive benefit ■ 
B this great discovery ! Dr. Jeuner, having inoculated Be- / 
|I persons from a cow, took the matter from the human I 
[Am thus produced, and inoculated others, Ad others front I 
n again; thus making it pass iu succession through many I 
vidlials, and all with the same good effect iu preventing 1 

a opportunity occurred of making a trial of the latter o 
r I4tD, 17D6 (a day Btill commemorated by the annual f^ i 
i at Berlin), when a hoy, aged eight years, was vaccinated 1 
1 matter from the bands of a milkmaid ; the experiment I 
1, and be was inoculated for small-pox on the 1st of | 
r following without the least effect. I>r. Jenuer then e: 
led his experiments, and in 1T9B published his Grstmemo 
he subject. He had originally j.ntended to communicate h 
|Hb to the Royal Society, but was admonished not to do si 

it should injure the character which he had previously ai 
led among scientific persons by iiia paper on the natural his^ | 
' of the Cuckoo. In the above work Dr. Jenner anni 
security against small-pox afforded by the true cow-pox, I 
also traces the origin of that disease in the oowto aaimihir | 
idou of the heel of the horse. 
Hie method, however, met with much opposition, ur 
frilowing year, thirty-three leading physicians and forty 1 
tent surgeons of Loudon signed an earnest expression (» I 
t oonfidence in the efficacy of the cow-pox. The Royal Fa- I 
> of England eiterted themselves to encourage Jenner : the 1 
e of Clarence, the Duke of York, the King, the Prince of J 
M, and the Queen, bestowed great attention upon Jenuer. ^ 

inoalculablB utility of cow-pox was at last evinced ; and • 
rvation and experience furnished evidence enough to satisfy I 
Baillies and Ueberdens, the Alonros and Gregorys of Bn- 

~a well as the physicians of Europe, ludia, and America. 

Practice now began to supersede the old pltm pur- I 
3 Small-pox Hospital, which had been founded fov.l 
ulation. The two systems ware each pursued until IBOS, | 
n the Hospital governors discontinued small-pox. 
k Committee of Parliament was now appointed to cc 
daamsof Jeuner upon the gratitude of his country. It was 'J 
^ proved that he had couverted into scieutitio demonstra- 1 
>ft tradition of the peasantry. Two parliamentary grantH-l 
JLOOlM. and 20,0(ffli. were voted to him. 1b. \'^», ■Cftft'S*^' 
1 Vaccine Establi^biuent was funned \ij 0oveti«ii'4Wt, » 

Character of Jenner. ^^^^^H 

pUoed under his direction. Honoura were profiiset; sbowerod 
upon him by various foreign princes, bb Hel! as b; the prindpil 
learned bodies of Europe. 

Dr. Jeuner passed the remainder of his years principally U 
Berkeley and at Cheltenham, continuing to the Jiist his in- 
quiricB rin the great object of his life. lie died at Berkeleyjia 
February 1823, at the green old a^e of seventy-four ; liig re- 
maiiiB lie in tke chanoel of the parish-church of Berkeley. JL 
marble statue by Sievier lias been erected to his meoioryintlH 
nave of Gloucester Cathedral ; aud another statue of liim hit 
been nlaced in a public building at Cheltenham. Five medali 
have been struck iu honour of Jenner : three by the German 
nation ; one by the Sui^eons of the Britieli Havy ; and the fittl 
by the London Medical Society. 

No monument of Jenner has been placed in WestminstH 
Abbey, whose proudest inmates would be honoured hy sodi 
companion ship. It was, hovever, at length determined' t« 
honour this good and great man by placing his statue in tbe 
metropolis. A suhscriptiou for this purpose was originated iu 
England ;* hut nearly half the amount {340i.) was collected bj 
the Philadelphia Committee. The statue — which was inaugu- 
rated in Trafalgar-square, May 17, 18S8, the huudred-nnd-nintli 
anniversary of Dr. Jeuner's hirth^was modeled by Mr. CaWor 
Marshall, B.A., and is cast in bronze. As a composition it U 
successful, the sitting positioii and the reflective attitude beinx 
very characteristic of Jeuner's placid and amiable nature. TlH 
Doctor wears his university gown, and is seated in a clMsC 
chair, which is ornamented ndth the wand of .^sculapiue. Tltt 
pedeEtal is of gray granite, and is simply inscribed Jbnneo.^ 

Dr. Jenner waa endowed with a rare quality of mind, whioli 
it may be both interesting and beneiicial to sketch. A singulv 
originality of thought waa his leading characteristic. Be ap- 
peared to have naturally inherited what in others is the rwut 
of protracted study. He setsmed to think from origiutilitj c* 
perception alone, and not from induction. He arrived by » 
glance at iuferences which would have occupied the labonoiu 
conclusions of most men. Iu human aud animal pathology, io 
comparative anatomy, and in geology, he perceived facts «ii" 
formed theories instantaneously, and with a spirit of inventiw 

Cetration which distanced the slower approaches of inoM 
ned men. But if his powers of mind were singularly gK»l< 
the qualities which accompanied them were still more felimtoul- 
He possessed the most singular amenity of disposition with Itt 
highest feeling, the rarest simplicity united to the highest go- 

^^ Statue ofJenner. 131 

'n the great distinction and the roperior aociety to 
ia disoovery introduced him, tte native cast of his oha- 
as unchanged. Amougat the great monarcha of Europe, 
len in Great Britain, solicited his acqimiDtanae, he was 
Itered Dr. Jeuner of his hirthplace. In the other moral 
)f his character, affection, friendship, beneficence, and 
T were preeminent. In religioii, hia belief was equally 
from laxity and fanaticism ; and he observed to an in- 
Hend, uot long before his death, that he wondered not 
i people were ungrateful to him for his discovery, but 
surprised that they were ungrateful to Giod for the 
of which he was the humble m 


Ij^osiBB Eui.BR, one of the most distinguished mathemntii 
of the eighteenth century, waa born at Basle iu 1707, ai? 
educated iTi tlie university of that city. In 1730 he oUj 
the ProfesBorship of Natural Philosophy iu the AcademTi 
Petersburg. Iu 1736, a very intricate problem in mathM 
having been propounded by the Academy, he oonipleted u 
lutionof itin three days; but theesertlouof his mindhr^ 
BO violent, that it threw him into a fever, vihich eudan^ 
life, and deprived him of the uee of one of his eyes. IE 
by invitation of Frederick the Great, Euler weut to Berlin,] 
the Friuceea of Auhalt, the king's niece, received Iroin h 
gtmctionH in the vrell-known facta in the physical a 
and on his return to St. Petersburg, in 1766, Euler p 
hia celebrated work, LetUra to a German Frincets, in v 
discusses with clearuess the most important truths in 
nios, optics, souud, and physical aatronomf . This v 
been translated into moat of the languages of Europe, 
had previously published several isolated treatises and 1 
hundred memoii'a on mathematics. Curing his residenoe S 
Berlin, the king often employed him in calculations relative to , 
the Mint and other aubjects of finance; in the conducting of 
the watevs of Sau Bouci, and in the inspectiuu of canals and 
other public works. By invitation from the Empress Catharine, ' 
Euler returned to St. Petersburg, to end hia daya. Shortly 
afterwai-da he lost the sight of lua other eye, having been for 
a considerable time obliged to perfonn his calculations with , 
large characters traced with chalk upon a slate. Hia pupils 
and his oliUdren copied his calculations, and wrote all his me- 
moirs from hia dictation, .To one of his servants, who was I 
quite ignorant of mathematical knowledge, he dictated his Elt- 1 
meats of Alqeira, a work of great merit, niid ti-aaahtted into | 
English and many other laoguages. I 

Euler now acquired the rare feculty of carrying on in his S 
mind the most complicated analytical and arithmetical ol-C 
culations ; and his powers of memory wonderfully increased E 
even iu hia old age. M. d'Alembert, wheu he saw him at Ba^ W 
lin, w&B aatouiahed at some exa-ni^Xe^ <>l %v^V% v^cnlatiiig V 
povrera which occurred in their co\i.\etwi.t\Qii.- 1q v»sSmsli.'~^J 
.gnuidciuldreii iu the estiaction olTWite,"S.ii'M^ara«a.^«H 

Euler's Blindness. 133 J 

I the first six powers of all numbers, from 1 to 100; and he 
»Uected them with the utmost accuracy. Two of hia pupiU 
viiig computed to the 17th term a comphcated coiiTergins 
pries, their results differed one unit iu the SOth chapter ; auo 
m appea! beiug made to Buler, he went over the calcutation 
in his mind, and his decision vraa found correct. His principal 
unuBement, after he had lost his idght, was to mtike artiliinal 
'^atones, and to give lessons in. mathematics to one of his 
dohildren who evinced a taste for science. 
n 1771 a dreadful fire broke out at St. Petersburg, and 
hed the house of Eulerj when Peter Crimen, a native of 
e, having learned the danger in wliich his illustrious coun- 
cil was placed, rushed through the flames to Euler's apart- 
t, and brought him away ou hie shoulders. His iihratj 
luB furniture were consumed, hut his manuscripts were 
i bj the exertions ot Count Orloff. 
Buler underwent the operatioQ of couching, which happily 
^^~- ' hig sight ; hut, either from the negligence of his 
eon, or from his being too eager to avail himself of his 
oigana, he again lost it, and suffered much severe pain 
1 Ule rdapse. His love of science, however, continued un- 
ed. On September 7th, 1783, after having amused himself 
: calculatiu^ upon a slate the law of the ascensional motion 
lUoons, which at that time occupied the attention of philo- 
ert^he dined with his relation, M'Leiell, and spoke of the 
et Hersohel (tiien recently discovered), and of the calcula- 
I by which its orbit was determined, A short time after- 
la, as he was playing with one of hia grandchildren, his 
fell from his hand ; he was stiMck with apoplexy, and es- 
1, in the seventy-ninth year of his age. 
^er'a knowledge was not limited to mathematics and the 
ioal sciences. He had oarefuUy studied anatomy, chemia- 
» and botany, and he was deeply versed in ancient literature. 
Ke could repeat the ^neid of Virgil from the beginning to the 
md, and he could even tell the flrst and last lines in eveij 
■e of the edition which he used. In one of his works there 
1 learned memoir on a questiou iu meelianics, of which, M 
m bimself informa us, a verse of the .Xueid gave him the first 
He amused himself with questions of pure curiosity, such 
, le knight's move in chess bo as to cover all the squares. 
■ TaiioUE researches have gone far towards creating the geo- 
' y of situation, a subject still imperfectly kiiowu. The fol- 
ig is one of the questions which Euler has generahsed ; 
KQnigsburg in Prussia, the river divides into two branches, 
1 isumd m the middle, connected by seven bridges mitb. 


AtHoiniug shores ; it vras proposed to detemnue ^iovi «.' 

dtismfso as to p;ias over each bridge once, Mi4 oi 



Tbb boyhood of Mr. Bidder will be remembered among thfl 
fevr records we poBsees of the higher class of mental calculator. 
The youth his now matured as an. emiueut eugiueer; and in 
18S6 Mr. Bidder delivered to the Institution of Civil EnginMrt > 
two addresses, conveying that process of reasoning, or action of ' 
the mind, by which, when a hoy, he trained hiniseif in Mentil 
Arithmetic; and thus laid the basis of that professional skill 
which he has exercised so beneficially in his great engtneeriiig 

Mr. Bidder is convinced that Mental Calculation can 'be 
taught to children, and be acquired with greater facility uid 
less irksomeness than ordinary arithmetic. Still, the emment 
mental calculators have been extremely few during the last two 
centuries, among whom Jedediah Biixton and Zerah Colbcme 
were the most remarkable; but even their powers have not 
been usefully employed, in consequence of their not haviiiK 
Bubsequeutlj had the opportunity of receiving a mathematical 
education. It baa been commonly thought that Mental Calca- 
lation is an art naturally engrafted upon peculiarly constituted 
minds; it has also been attributed to the possession of great 
powers of memory; and it has been generally imagined that Mr. 
Bidder himself has been indebted to unusual powers of memory 
and a naturally mathematical turn of mind for the celebrity he 
has acquired. Now Mr, Bidder emphatically declares this not 
to have been the case; he has sought every opportunity of 
comparing himself with boys and men who possess this focul^, 
and, except so (s.t as being carefully tmined and practised m 
ijie cultivation and use of figures, he has not found that bia 
memory was more than ordinarily retentive. In &ot, whilst kt 
school and at college, ho had some difficulty in maintaining i 
decently respectable position in the mathematical class. 

Mr. Bidder enunciates, as a principle, that there is not any 

I royal or short road to Mental Calculation, All the rules which 
Ae employed were invented bj him, and ace only methods of so 
inunging caJcnlation as tfl fe^litaie \,\ie ^o-wex uIt<;^«jtW,vsq.\ 
io Act, be thus arrived at a sort o^-na.tai»i.iiiB3tita^MBaat,a(i»»i 
tumbers in the place of symbo\a. 

Mr. George Bidder. 

He belisves that, wben bo be^a 
t leamoil to read ; and certeicly long' after that 
hBymbolical numboFB from Iho faos of a watoh. 
tiim is that of uouuting up to 10, then op to 100 
; then, by intuitive prooess, be taught hi 
rtating the labour of counting ^arriving, in fact, at t 
Itqilication of nmnbora into eaon other, attributing to eaub 
indiTidual rpjue. 

manner the actual value of eTery numbor, up k 

^ iipoD Ilia memory ; and he then proceeded onwardy, scnimm, 

to a milUoD. It vas hie pmctioa to count numbers praotically by 

Quurblea, or aliota ; to cumpoao rectangles of various values, an^ 

noting tjiem, tho multiplication- tjLhIe was ultimately the reault of 

With Diimbera a 


'0 places of figures befi)re 

ieJ Hitii each utliec by a, tBUEibla prooeea, 
ana oi umi lormiuuuiB character under which it was nenarally 
^it before the yuuuK student. 
B this wayhe learned tu multij , ^ 

newthe Bymbolioftl characters ofthe figures, oi „ .. .__ 

t ''multiply ;" an, instoad of the term " Tmiltiplying 27 by 73," ho * 
anderslood the eipreBsion " Z7 limes 73." " 

Utile varietJea of numbers uji toamiUiun being ropresented by six- 1 

of thousands, and hundreds of thousands, th^ I 
tations were omy eighteeu in number. A boy, therefore, vrhoj 
b» multJplioation-tBblB up to 10 times 10 iWiaters 50 facta at-\ 
id. and mth the permutations above mentioned, has only to Htora 4 

^'he iKiliQary multiplication-table of 12 times 12 ^Ivea hi 
I H) store, or 1 additional facta. The machinery, therelure, n 
lo enabie him to mollaply (o 6 plaoes of figure* eoDsisls ' 
required to enable bun to carry the muhiplioi 
in his mini]. 

u opplioation of this, when fairly acqoired, may be thus U 
i ; for eiampie, multiplying 173 by 387, the following process fi 

100 k SOT =39.700 

= 21=68,881 

le regititered by the memoi^.l 

biAddition and Siibtmction tbe same principle, aa alreaxlv explained' I 
JfUlt^lioation, is adhered lo, viz. that of oummeneing with the I - ■" 
^ (Ug, or Uia )ai^ oumbsrs, and adding siiooeasiclj, ^[ee'^g 
iboafy-lB tbe miad. 

SWifon is, oa in onJinnryarithmetie, much more diffi. 

03 it aiiiat be a ttiiitative prooeBB, and is Dcij camai ii™S.\i^ 

136 Mr. Gearge Bidder 

a. BBilea, mora or \ms, of )^eaiira ; but iu> doubt, in Uiis renieet, Ute I 
training arrired at by Mautnl Arithmatic giyea lie power of goeasbig 1 
to n gnntter oXUiat tluui ii UBiiBil; ntlaiaed. aod affords a oortte^xx/luag \ 
faoility in the [iiw^ssi, Suppoiin^, for iustance, it is ueoessorf to lUilda 
"'.m by'" - •■■■ -'• ■-- *■ ■■" -.--I-*-. 

fl by 17«. thu following will be the 
1 of the factor: 100 times ITfi an 

iiDoCM : 100 niui 

fieiire of the factor: 100 times ITfi an known at onoe to be 17,600: 
silbtraclini^ Ihnt Ci-om 25,n96, then remuns 80»6. Ic is peroeired tllil 
m iis tho next immlier in the taator; 40 times \16=10i0: tharetb- 

1050; tliat, it ie immediately pi ■ - ■ .. - 

^.,J_._ ._ .„ ,.^ -u... .„,. 

mind at a 

to keep regutered In tho naiad two results which are always chan^ng, 
Til. the nunaiadorof tbo number to bedirided, and the numberaSth* 
factor, as they are determinad : but if it is known, as in the pi 

ioUanoe, that 176 is the exact fJutor, without lay remainder, li , 

eut the firat factor— 100, which is perDeired at a Klaiico, it is knuinii 
that there are only fbur nuniban «liith, multipliedty 70, can predow 
n result tonninating ia »6, vis, 21, 48, 71, and SB; and therefore tin 
immediate mterence ia, that it mnst be 46, aa 121 must be too littb, 
and 171 must be too much, theraroni IMmust he the faotor. Tim, 
the only fiicility afforded by Mental Paloulation is Ilia greater power a 
guBBsiii? at eteiy step towards the result. 

Mr. Birlder recommends, bs the true eoune in teaching arithmslKV 
that before any knowled^ or fljiures is symboltDally acquired, tbe prsr 
□ess of conntjng up to 10 should be mastered, than up to 100, and «^ 
a«]U«itly to 1000; then the miiltipUcation-tabls, up to 10 times 1.. 
should be taught praoticidly, by Clie iise of peas, morblCK, or shots, en 

" ~rina thus induced tboBtiident to teach himself the mnltiplic^Joa^ 

tion of 17>!l3""eaaily foilDm,~bQS^ydi<T7+3~'tTo'+3"i77' fhii"Sata(f 
executed, it only romidna for him. to uraotise multiplicatioQ upt ' — 
places of fignu-es. Concurrently with this should be taught the pt 
tations of 100, 1000, he. into each other, amt thus will be lidd «!>»' 
baiiB of Mental Calculation for whatever extent, the individual studml 
raljind: upon hia own rcaourees for framing his rules fi 

brsjioh of arithmetic. In order to do this, however, his n. , 

stored with a certain number of fiusta, which must be completely tt bb 
oommnnd; and odTantage should be taken of the morie of ^ving IdBi 
an insight into natural aUrabra and geometry. With this fiew, UK 
training should be extended ; and there would be uo difficult; in «Rb- 
veving to young minds the knowledge of certain leading facts ounneotad 
with Sio Hcienoea, long before they ware oapahle of ooinprehending Uw 
boautiru! trains of reasoning by .which their truths were establishsd. 
There ia no difficidtj Id impressing pormHuontly an approciation of 
the relative projmrtion of the riiameter to the oircumforence of a oipole; 
of the beauljfiil property of the square of the hypothenuse of a rigit- 
as^ed triangle being equal to the squarss of the two sides contai^f 
" ■ ' ■" ' or of the oquidity of the areas of triangles on the BUM 
between the same parallel; and many others wbieh 

a all geometricians. 

with respect to the pnjpcrtiefl of se 

■ i+ai-3, &c„ ov aH^l'la^wlw■« 


on Menial Calculation. 137 

[r. Bidder sng^BstK tlint hia mode of proDeeding; iireBents ndTan- 
■ of muuh greuter importance tlias orsti the teaching of Eguroa, 
lly, the oulltTatiou of the reiaoaiiig powers in Keneral. He would 
iak thifl meaiiB introduce a boy to ni^tural geometry and algebra, 
allots or Rny small aymmetrical objects on the oircuoiferenoa 
' circle, be ■sm be able, by actual observation, to u< I 
ir relative proportions. He may siniultaneoualr be j 
at ths relation aftbo area of the circle totha area of the square. I 
nay also be taken of tbis made to develop nuinyothBrldeafl 1 
til (reometry; aa, forinstiiuee, that ail thaauglea subtended J 
mo chord in the circle are equal. This may bo shown hf J 
a Broull luigle cut in jnateboord, and fitted to every posaibla 
_ . in which two lines can be drawn witbiu the oirole upon tha 
t ebard. Ee may also be taught that the rectangles of the portions 

f & feeling for the beauty of the properties of figtures, — Biinnisinj, I 

I tv his own eflbrts may incite him ifl further iniestigntiODs, and 1 
le bim ia trace out hiit own path iu. the Bcieoce. 

"As nearly as I can recollect," eaya Mr, Bidder, "it ■ 
^out the age of six years that I was fii-st iutroduaed to 
lee of figures. My father was n working -man, and in]r I 
r brother pursued the same calling. M; first and ovlj f 
tu figures was that elder broUier; the instruction r 
^^ B coinraeoced bj teaohing me to count up to 10. ' 

biK aocomplistaed this, he induced me to go on to 100, nnd 1 
e oe stopped. Having acquired a certain knowledge of 
tbers by counting up to 100, 1 amused myself br repeating 
jHMoess, and found that by stopping at 10, and repealing 
every time. I counted up ti^ 100 much quicker than ^ 
r Bbraigfat through the series, I counted up to 10, then 

again=30, 3 times 10=30, 4 times 10=40, and so on. 

1 Bifty appear to you a simple process, but I attach the ut- 
t importance to it, because it made me perfectly familiar 
I. numbers up to 100; they became as it were mj friends, 
I knew all their relations and acquaintances. ¥ou mutt 

'o mind, that at this time I did not know one written or 
1 figure fi'um another, and my knowledge of language 
aa restricted, that I did not know there was such a word 
tamltiply;' but, having acquired the power of counting up 
DO by 10 and by 5, 1 set about, in my own way, to acquire 
nmltiplicfttion -table. This I a-rrlved at by getting peas or 
Ides, and at last I obtained a treasure in a small ba^ of 
. I lued to arrange them into squares of 8 on each side, 
then, on counting them throughout, I found that the whole 
iber amounted to 64 ; and that fact once established, has 
atned there undisturbed until this day, and I dare say it 
remain so to the end of my days. It was in this wa,^ ^ba.\. 
pquired the whole miiJtipJi cation-table, up to 10 tniie&Vi,^. 
" d whiob Ivever went; it was ail I req^iiirei. 1 


" At the period referred to, there resided in a house o[^ 
rite to my tkther'E nu aged blacksmith, a kind old moo, who, 
not having any cliildren, hod taken a nephew as hig apprentice 
With this old gentlemim I struak up an earl; acquaiutunct, 
and was allowed the privilege of running about his workehop. 
As taf strength increitsed, I was raised to the dignity of being 
permitted to blow the bellows for him ; and on winter eveniiigs 
I was allowed to perch myself ou his forge-hearth, listeniug to 
his stories. On one of these occasions, somebody by chuta 
mentioned a sum, — whether it was times 9, or what itwai^ [ 
do not now recollect ; but wliatever it was, I gave the anaws 
correctly. This occasioned some little astoniBfament ; they tba 
asked uie other queatious, which I answered with equal fedliq. 
They then went on to ask me up to 2 places of tigures: 11 
times 17, for instance. That was rather lieyood me at the lunaj 
but I had been accustomed to reason on figures, and 1 said, 13 
times 17 meiuis 10 times 10 plus 10 times 7, plus 10 times 3 
and 3 times 7. I said 10 times 10 are 100, 10 times 7 are 70, 
10 times 3 are 30, and 3 times 7 are 21: which, added toge- 
ther, give the result 221. Of course I did uot do it then as 
rapidly as afterwards; but I gaye the answer correctly, aamf 
verilii^ by the old gentleman's nephew, who began chalking 
it up to see if I was right. As a natural cousequenoe, this in- 
crei^ed my fume still more, and, what was better, it eveutuallf 
caused halfpence to flow into my pocket ; which, I need n(* 
say, had the effect of attaching me still more to the science of 
arithmetic; and thus by degrees I got on, until the multipte 
arrived at thousands. Theu, of course, my powers of nume^ 
atioii bad to be increased, and it was explained to me that ID 
hundreds meant lOUO. Numeration beyond that point is veiT 
simple in its features ; lOOU rapidly gets up to 10,000 ud 
30,000, aa it is simply 10 or 20 repeated over again, with thea- 
gands Bt the end, instead of nothing. So, by degrees, I beeaos 
&miliar with the numeration table, up to a million. From 3 
places of figures 1 got to 3 places ; then to 4 places of figure^ 
which took me up, of course, to tens of millions ; theu I va*» 
tured to 6 and 6 (ilaces of figures, which I could evento*^ 
treat with great facility ; and on one occasion I went throogD 
the task of multiplying 12 places of figures by 12 figures, bUl 
it was a great and distressing effort."* 


emploTmeut of machiues fur performing arithmetical cal- 

Iddb waa common before computers by the pen had attained 

Aeaoy for tliat purpose. The Roman Abacus was t)ie old- 

latrumeut of this kind : it was e:iiploycd in the south of 

» till the end of the fifteentii century, aiid iu Epglaod 

»ter period. It coQsiated of couutera, movable in parallel 

E8, or on parallel wires in a frajne, and haying the difier- 

snominatioiia, units, tens, hundreds, itsc, according to 

rooves iu which they were placed. In Ghiaa, where the 

system is decimal, this instrument, called Schwarppan, 

with great rapidity. From the merchants of Chiua, at 

it feir of Novogorod, the Muscovites are thought to have 

umt the utility of the Abacus, rince it is, at the present 

e common mode of reckoning in the shops of Moscow, 

money being in decimals. This is the simplest form 

Iculating Machine with which we are acquainted. 

Ef^pier's bones," described at page 90, is another instra- 

for arithmetical calculations; and Saundcrson, the blind 

nofttician, invented a machine by which he was enabled 

ke oomputatiouB. 

Rise Pascal, when scarcely nineteen years of age, devised 
chine for performing arithmetical operations ; its con- 
ion, however, was a much mare troublesome task than 
Dtnvance, and Pascal not only injured his constitution, 
Uted the most valuable portion of his life, in his attempts 
Og it to perfection. A clockmaker in Rouen, to whom 
d described his earliest model, made one of his own ao- 
Wbich, though utterly unfit for its purpose, was placed 
I cabinet of curiosities at Aouen, and anuoyed FoEcal so 
that he dismissed all the workmen iu his service, under 
prehension that other imperfect models might be made 
new machine they were employed to construct. Some 
afterwards, the Chancellor Seguier, haviug seen Pascal's 
node), encouraged him to proceed, and obtained for him, 
^y 1649, the e.'ccliuive privileg-e of constructing it ; and 
m gave up all his time to the Diachine. The titst uiu4e.V 
. be esecuted proved unsatisfactory, both iu. Ua Icixin, axvili 
i»lB. Atier succesaive improvemeuta, he maAe a eacoia^ 

tcaVs Caloulating Machine. 

and then a third, wbict went bj BpringB, aud was verj simpU 
in its construction. This machiDc Pascal actually used sevetil 
times in the presence of mauy of his friends ; but defects |nt- 
dunlly presented themselves ; and he eiecut»J more thaafiftj 
models, — all of them different; some of wood, others ofivurj 
and ehouy, aud othetB of copper,— before he completed ths 

From this remarkable inreiitiou Pascal doubtless expeotd 
much more reputation than posterity has awarded. This ovtir- 
estimate of its merits, founded on the length of time and the 
mentaJ ener^ which it had eibausted, is strongly eihilntei' 
in a letter which he wrote bo Cliristinu queen of Sweden, in 
1650, accompanying one of the machines. The tone of tlsB 
letter is franR and manly : "for, though only in bis tveola- 
aeventh year, Pascal had witnessed, and even experienced, the 
truth, that nations who vaunt most loudly their superiori^in 
science and learning have ever been the most guilty in m- 
glecting and even starving their cultivators. The freuchmoD- 
arch had, indeed, given him the eicluwve privilege of his ia- 
vention — the right of expending his time, his money, and his 
health in perfecting a nincliine for the benefit of France and 
the world ; but, like a British patent bearing the Great Beal of 
England, it was not worth the wai which the royal inagni* 
so needlessly adorned."*' 

Pascal's machine was an asserablnge of wheels aud cylindeni 
on the convex sur&ces of the latter were the numbers inth 
which the operations were to be performed ; and attached la 
the axles of the oylinders were teethed wheels, which wen 
turned by pointers ; the additions being performed by mwia 
of the numbers in the lower series of numbers on the cylindoiSi 
and the subtractions by the upper series. This machine ex- 
cited a considerable sensatioTi throughout Europe, aud msnj 
attempts were made to improve its constructiou aud extend iU 
power. Be I'Epine, Boitisseiideau, and Grillet in Fmnoe, & 
Morlandt and Gursten in England, and Poleni in Italy, applied 
to this task all their mathematical and mechanical unill ; bat 
none uf them seem to have devised or constructed a machiM 
superior to that of Pascal. The celebrated Leibnitz, howe»ei( 
is believed to have made two models of a Calculating Maohine 
which surpassed Pascal's both in ingenuity and power ; but itt 
complicated structure, and the great expense aud lalxiur vrbiok 
the actual execution of it re^juired, discouraged its ioveuteTi 
and Leibnitz could not be prevailed upon to publish any de- 
tailed account of its mechanism : pei'haps all that is known rf 


Mr, Babbage's Difference Engine. 14ll 

r, ttiat by wheel-work the operatiouB of multiplication and 
tirion could be performed without the successive odditiona 
■ BubtractioDB wliich would be required it PuBcal's machine 
n naed. J 

3%e obvious value of these machines in for the obtaining d 
Bieri<ial tables with the positive certainty of their beingS 
lolly esetnpt from errors; and without uumerical tables T 
rs, navigators, engineers, actuaries, and, indeed, la- I 
fere in every department of science and the useful arts, I 
_ d have made but little progress in their several vocations. I 
i ^e coDstructioii of a Calculating Machine which truly de> J 
ves that name was reserved for our distingnished country- 1 
B, Mr. Babbage. While all previous contrivnuces performed I 
iy particular arithmetical operations under a sort of copart- k 
^v between the man and the machine, in which the lattw % 
»ed a very humble part, the extraordinary invention of Mr. 
bbiwe actually substitutes mechanism in the place of man, 
irouem is given to the machine, and it solves it by com- 
ing B long series of numbers following some given law. la 
nasner it calculates astronomical, logarithmic, and navi- 
a tables, as well as tables of the powers and products of 
lera. It cau integrate, too, innumerable equations oC I 
e differences ; and in addition to these functions, it doM | 
work cheaply and quickly ; it eorrecU whatever e; 
iAMtalCt/ eommitted, and it iirinlg all Ue calculatinas 
The earliest allusion to this grand invention of the age 
ra in a letter from Mr. Babbnge to Sir Humphry Davy, 
_ d July 3, 1822, in which he gives some account of a small 
4el of his engine for cnlculating differences (hctico Mr. Bab- 
e prefers to call it a Difference Eiigiup), which "produced . 
« at the rate of forty-four a minute, and performed with j 
ity and precision all those calculations fur which it was 
igned;" and Sir U. Davy witnessed and expressed his ad- 
ation of the performances of this engine. In the following 
r, upon the recommendation of a committee of the Royal 
iety, Mr. Babbage, at the desire of the Government, uuder- 
k to superintend the construction of such an engine. He 
^^ his mental labour gratuitously : drawings of the most 
ioato nature were made, tools were formed expressly to j 
') mechanical difficnlties, and workmen educated ii 

of the machine. Mr. Babbage bestowed his whole " 
e upon the subject for many years ; and about 17,0002. had 
a. eiqiended, when a dispute arose with the manager of the 
ihanical department, who withdrew, taking with him all 
valuahJe tools that bad been used in tbe woTk. (^\uab. b& 
a legal right to do); and the works Vfere eaa^tiAeA. ^t. , 




142 Mr. Babbage'g ^nalyltcal Engine. ^H 

Bsbbage now devised, upon & prindple of an entirelj new kinJ, 
&n Analytical Engine, of fax eimjiler cunEtrucUon, to eieoule 
with greater rapiditj the calculationB for which the Difference 
Ennne vma intended; and wUch should contain a hundred ra- 
riabl«B, or numbers susceptible of chitnging, and each conusting 
of twenty-five figures. The Government, however, abandoned 
the completion of the work ; and in 1S43 the portion of llie 
Engine, u it existed, was placed in the Museum of King's 
College. 1 1 wan capable of i^culating to five figures, and two 
orders of differences ; hut it is now out of order, and no portion 
of the printing machinery exists. 

Throughout the long series of years which Mr. Babbage d&- 
Toted to this great work, he did not receive one shilling for hii 
invention, his time, or bos servicea; while he declined offer* of 
great emolument, the acceptance of which would have intn^ 
fered with his ialiours upon tLe Difference Engine. Yet, witii 
unwearied zeal, he has since occupied every working and al- 
most every waking hour in the contrivance and the construe- 
tion of the Analytical Engine, carrying on the drawings »nd ii 
experinieiits for this new machine at his own espense: lli» r 
mechanical notations for the purpose cover 400 or SOO lai^ \ 
sheets of paper, the original sEetches extend to five volmnisi, 
ftnd there are upwards of 100 large drawings. The following 
is a Bumm»ry of the powers of the engine : 

It will pBrform the BovoraJ operations of simple arithrnetio od mj 
numbers whatever. It oari oombioB the qoiuititiefl algebraically or vith- 
meticallj in an unlunited Tariet; of relatione. It can uae algebi^ 
signs ocoordine to then- proper lawn, and develop IJie consequencsa oi 


... _. _ _ arbitrarily aubatitnte any formula for any otieft 

BffBOing the finit from the oelumns on which it is repreBented, "A 
making the second appear in ils stead. And laatly, it can eSeot jnv- 
oasseB of diFTerentJation and integration on funotioDs in nhich lli> 
operationH take place by aucoaasiye stops. It is further stated thrt Uii 
engiae is pnrtiiii^arly fitted for the opemtionn of the combinatory h'V' 
lyals, for computing the numbars of Beraonilli, jio. 

The Difference Engine wna elaborately described in llw 
Edirdmrffh Review, July 1834; from reading which Mr. Qeorp 
Scheutz, at that time the editor of a. technological journal is 
Stockholm, was so fascinated with the subject, that he set 
about constructing a machine for the same purpose oa thatol 
Mr. Babbage, namely, that of calculating and simultanaoiu^ 
printing numerical tables; but after satisffing himself of th( 
practicability of the scheme, by constructing models of wood, 
pasteboard, and wire, he relinquished the design. Three yean 
afterwards, in 1837, hia sou, Mr. Edward Scheutz, then a Stu- 
dent iu the Royal Technological Institute at Stockholm, being 
provided with a work-room in his father's house, as well as a 
atbe and other necessary tQo\B, coaatwkGted a working model 

Scheutz'n Difference Mngine. 143 

1, asd Biuiceeded in dcmonBtratiug the application of 

[me to practical purposea The father now applied to 

, JoTeniinent for aid, but was refuaed. The father and son 
n worked together ; hut the severe economy they had been 
ompelled to use iu the purchase of materials and tools, and 
irobahly the abBence in Sweden of those precious but expensiTe 
Meliine -tools which constitute the power of modem work- 
iafs, rendered this new model unsatisfiictory in its operations, 
llthough perfectly correct in principle. Exhausted by theae 
IHcrificeG, yet convinced that with better workmanship a more 
Pfflfect instrument was within their reach, Mr. Seheutz applied 
vat assistance to the Diet of Sweden ; but the conditions on 
frkich they reluctantly consented to advance SOW rix-dollai* 
[iboitt 280f,) were so stringent, that the Messrs. Scheutz were 
BKnpelled to renounce the work, and the model remained shut 
to m its case during the ensuing seven years. 
WQie inventors then renewed their application to the Diet, 
^ny the assistance of some members of the Swedish Academy, 
' & being secured from loss, a limited aiuouut was r^sed ; 

■Bo* granted a reward of 6000 lis-dollars to the inventors, 
tllM raising their total grant to lti,(iOO rix-dollars (about 
960'.)' ''"''^ "^^ engine performed its work so perfectly as to 
' o alteration whatever. 

ip AiEe of Ueaara. Scheata'g machinsj when placed on it« proper 
Huid proteated b; its cover, is about that of a smaJl square piano- 
\ The calculating portion oonaiat* of a series of fltteen upright 

d, fifteen in each row, oncli ring lioing supportsd 

-, o ,rically on its own amall lirnss shelf, huving within 

e» hole rather leas than the largest diameter of the ring. Itound the 

^Ibdrica] aiu^aco of oach ring are engraved tho ordinary numerals from 

lo B, one of which, iti each position of the ring, ftppenra in front, bo 

J^the successive numbers shown in anj horizontal ru» of riugB may 

md from left to right, ta in onlinar}- nriting 

Sie nuohiuB not only calculates the series of numbers, but it im- 
M eaob result on a piece of !ead, from which a dickl in type-metal 
ken; thus producing a BtflTDotype-plate, from which pri ' ' 
'be obtttinoit free from sny error of compOBiug, &□. 
n is peouliflrly simple. The maohine catcalalt' to siiteen figures, 
piiUt to ei^ht only. By taking out certain wheels, and ioeertin^ I 
p^ the madiine can be readily caused to produce its results in F 
<t, degrees, minutes, and seoonda, or any other series of aubdiri- 
I vbich may be thought deurable. The machine peHbrms its 

C\, when once set to the law on which the required table depemia, 
ply turning a handle, without any further attention, the power 
Ired for the purpose being extremely etnaJl, not more than a child 
a -rears old cnalij supply. The caloulations are mnde, and the 

n the lead, at the rate of about 250 fLgoiOB wjurs UslI 
liine boiDg- worked slowly. 

^^M Scheulz'i Difference Engitu 

la the wititer of 1854, the inveatots brought tbdr i 
to LuDduD, where Mr. William Onvitt, F.R.S., dvil engiuc 
ehowed iiud explaiued the invention to the Rujnl Society. 
iTBS next phtced in the Grent Kxhibitiou at Paris, where A 
Gravntt again kiudlj worked mid expUined the machine _ 
man; scientific ^nllemen ; and a jury uaanimousl; nmtrdf 
to it a Gold AledaL '' The Emperor Nipoleon" (sajs Mr. F ' 
bige), " true to the inapirationa of his own genius and to 
policy of Ilia djnastj, caused the Swedish Engine to be dvpoaitq 
in tlie Impenal ObeervatorT- of Paris, and to be placed &t tf 
disposal of the Members of the Board of Longitnde," 

In 1Hj6 Mr. K. Scheutz revisited Loudon ; and the machil 
was brought from France, aud was set to work in an apartmei 
of Mr, Uravatt's Louse. It was Bubeeqaeutly pitrchiiBed fi. 
the Dudley Observatory at Albauy, 17. 8,, by Sir. Riitlibone, 
merchant of that citj. 

Mr. Babbnge, in some observations which 1 
addressed to the Royal Society in 1856, says : 

Mr. SoiButs'l engine coneiBtaof two parta, — tbe Cslculatlng and ti 
Printing ; the former boijig agitm divideii into two, — the Adding aft 
the Currying paru. 

With reapeat to the Adding, iU structure is entiret}- different Ik 
my own, nor does it even reaemhle any one of those in my drawlngi. 

The rery iageDiniis mechaaifini for cnrrying the teui is &1m> ifA 
diffareol from ray ovm. 

The Printing part will, on iusjiaotJon, be pronounood altogathstl 
like that raprasBnted in mj dmiringa ; nhicd, it must alau ha tenN 
bered, were entirely unknawu to Mr. Sohotiti. 

The oontrivanca by whioh the compuled resulta are conveysd laf 

A small Tolume of Specimens of Tablet calculated, Of, 
moitMed, and priitCed by Maekinery, by Mesare. Scheuts, is It 
oated to Mr. Babhage, in recognition of the geueruus araiftt 
he has afforded to the iugeniuus hkbourers in d simi^ field t 
that iu which he has so long toiled. The remarkable and noiqn 
feature of the book itself is, that the tabiea and calculations K 
all ptinted from stereotyped plates produoed directly from til 
machine, and witliout the use of any movable type. 

One of Messrs. Scheutz's Difference Engines, made by M— _^ 
Doukin for the English Oovemment, is now worked in Ql j 
Regiatrar-Oeneml's OEoe, iu Somerset House. 

Several other varieties of Calculating Machines have 
produoed within the last twenty years ; but neither of 
can be said to e[|ual iu the cu'cumetauceB of its production 
iatarest attachsd to the atMve engiues. 


DO internment or machine of human invention (a&ys 
ntd Brewster) so recondite in its theor;, and so atartliaz 
results, as the Telescope. All olhera embodj ideas >iul 
^tles with which we arefemiliar; and, however complex 
OOnBtructioQ, or vast their power, or valuable their pro- 
, tbey are all limited in their application to terrestrial and 
7 purposes. The mighty Bteam-engine has its germ in 
_ le boiler in which the peasant prepares his food. The 
etup is but the expansion of the floating leaf freighted 
ita cargo of atmospheric dust ; and tlie fl;iug balloon is 
le in&nt's soap-bubble lightly ladeu and overgrown. But 
alescope, even in its most elementary form, embodies a 
; Kiid gigantic idea, without an analogue in natui'e, and 
lit ft protutype in experience. It enables us to see what 
for ever be invisible. It displays to ua the being and 
] of bodies which we can neither see, nor touch, nor 
, nor amell. It exliibits forms aud combinations of matter 
i final oanse reawn fails to discover, and whose very exist- 
D the wildest imagination never ventured to conceive. 
i ^ other instruments, it is appUcahle to terrestrial pur- 
IB; but, unlike them lUl, it has its noblest application in 
pnndeet and the remotest worlta of creation. The Tele- 

1 never invented.* It was a divine gift which God gave 

a the last era of his cycle, to place before him and be- 
new worlds and systems of worlds — to foreshadow the 



(hiDKB than tbnae saxt be perfoniiBa by 

rMund by Iha Mnona aWe raenUoned [h „._. 

i^uiddiBpofta them In Mnch Dr4arwHh mapeat to 

Kt^uttha ny* wU! be rBfracted &D(1 btitit towaxda ai '" 

146 Invention of ihe Telescope. 

future sovereignties of hU vast empire, the bright abodes of dis- 
embodied spirits, and the final dwelliugg of saints that baye 
suffered, and of sages that have been trulj wise. With such 
evidences of His power, and snob manifestations of His glory, 
can we disavow His ambassador, disdain His message, oi 
obej Hia coniriiauds !" 

It was in the month of April or May 16D9, that a run 
creeping through Europe by the tardy messengers of former 
days, at length found its way lo Venice, where Oalileo was on 
a viait to a friend, that a Dutchman had presented to PriDoe 
Maurice of Nassau an optical instrument, which possessed tlu 
singular property of causing distant objects to appear uearer ta 
the observer. This Dutchman was Hans, or John, Lipperahej, 
who, as has been clearl;y proved by the late Professor Moll o 
Utrecht, was in possession of a telescope made by himself U 
early as October 1608. A few days afterwards, this report 
was confirmed in a letter &om James Badorere, at Paris, tO' 
Qalileo, who imtnediately applied himself to the consideratin^ 
of the subject. On the first night after his return to Paduiti 
he found, in the doctrines of refraction, the principle which' 
he sought. Having procured two spectacle -glasses, both d 
which were plane on oue side, while one of them had its other 
Bide OODVes, and the other its second side concave, h^ plKed 
one at each end of a leaden tube a few inches long ; and bar- 
ing applied his eye to the concave glass, he saw ol^ects pretf 
large, and pretty near him. This httle instrument, wbit 
magnified only three times, and which he lield between hia 
fingers, or laid iu Ms hand, he carried to Venice, where it ei- 
oited the most intense interest. Crowds of the principal dti- 
zens flocked to his house to see the magioal toy; and after 
nearly a month had been spent in gratifying this epidemical 
curiosity, Galileo was led to understand from Leonardo Deoda^ 
the Doge of Venice, that the senate would be highly gratified 
by obtaining possession of so extraordinary an iiistrumeut. 
Galileo uistantly complied with the wishes of hia patrons, who 
acknowledged the present by a mandate, conferring upon him 
ioT life his professorship at Padua, and raising hia salary frfnl 
520 to 1000 florins. 

These details are related, upon the authority of Viviani's£^< 
of Oalileo, by Sir David Brewster, who unhesitatingly asson 
IJiat a method of magnifying distant objects was known to Btp- 

Ar eir'^t very nasi 
Stan, may be made 1 

I such IhrngB wouW ibIub 

bis ovnte 

■ Galileo's first Teleicope. 147 1 

tieta Porta, aud others ; hat it seems to be equally certain that ■ 
an inalninienC for producing those effects was first constructed 1 
in Holland, iuid from that kingdom Galileo derived the know- I 
ledge of its existence. In considering the contending clainiB, ] 
it has been generally overlooked that a eiii^ie convex lens, A 
whose focal length exceeds the distance at which we esamine I 
minute olyects, performH the part of a telescope, when an eya^ I 
placed behind it, sees distinctly the inverted image which it I 
fonne. A lens, twenty feet in focal length, will iu this manual 1 
magniiy thirty times ; and it was by the same principle that \ 
Sir Williiim Uerschel discovered a new satellite of Saturn, 1^ J 
placing his eye behind the focus of the mirror of his forty-feet f 
telescope. The instrument presented to Prince Maurice, and I 
which the Marquis Spinola found in the shop of John Lipper? 1 
ihey, the spectaole-maker of Middleburg, must have been an I 
astronomical telescope, consisting cf two convex lenses. Upon I 
diis supposition, it differed from that which Galileo constructed, I 
sad the Italian philosopher will be justly entitled to the credit I 
t£ having invented that form of telescope which still hears hi| ] 
name; while we must accord to th^ Dutch optician the honour I 
of having previously invented the astronomical telescope. 1 

The interest which the exhibition of the telescope excited 1 
at Venice did not soon subside ; gi rturi describes it as amount- I 
ing to frenzy. When he himself had succeeded in making one J 
of these instruments, he asceuded the tower of St. Mark, where | 
hemight use it without molestation. He was recognised, how- ' 
Bver, by a crowd in the street ; aud such was the eagerness of 1 
their curiosity, that they took posaession of the wondrous tube, I 
and detained the impatient philosopher for several hours, till j 
they bad successively witnessed its effects. Desirous of obtain.^ I 
ing the same gratification for their friends, they endeavoured I 
to learn the name of the inn at wliich Sirturi lodged ; but he, J 
overhearing their inquiries, quitted Venice early next morning. 1 

The opticians speedily availed themselves of this wonderful 
invention. Qolileo's tube, or the double eye-glass, or the cy- 
linder, or the trunk, as it was called, — for Demisiano had not 
then given it the appellation of Telacopey — was manufactured 
in great numbers, and in a very inferior manner. The i 
struments were purchased merely as philosophical toys, ai 
were carried by ttavellers into every comer of Europe. Tl 
art of grinding and polisbiDg lenses vaa at this time very il 
perfect. Galileo, and those whom he instructed, were alone I 
capable of making tolerable instruments. In 1634, a good J 
telescope could not be procured in Paris, Veiiice, or Amster- 
dam ; and even in 1637, there was not one in Uolland which 
[eonld show Jupiter's disk well defined. 

After Galileo had completed his first iaBlTUTOCot, ■ 

Galileo' » Jiril Surrey. 

tnagnified rm\j l/iree times, h« executed a larger and better 
one, nith a power of about c^Jit. " At length, as he hinueU 
remarks, " spuing neither lancur nor eipense,'' he construoted 
a telescope so excellent, that it bore a mognifjing power of 
more than Mrti/ times.* 

Thua iraa Galileo equipped for a survey of the heayenB. 
The first celestial olijeet to which he directed his t«leecope 
was the Moon, which, to use his own words, appeared a* near 
as if it kid 1>een distant only two semidiameters of the earth. 
It displayed to him her mountain ranges and her glens, her 
continents and her highlanda, now lying in darkness, now 
brilliant with sunshine, and undergoing all those variations of 
light and shadow which the surface of our own globe presents 
to the Alpine traveller or to the aeronaut. The four satellites 
of Jupiter, illuminating their planet, and suffering eclipses in 
his shadow like our own moon ; the spots on the sun s disk, 
proring his rotation round his axis in twenty-five days; the 
crescent phases of Venus ; and the triple form, or the impo^ 
feotly developed ring of Saturn, — were the other discoveries in 
the solar system which rewarded the diligence of Galileo. In 
the stanr heavens, too, thousands of new worlds were discov- 
ered by his telescope ; and the Fleiadea alone, which, to the 
unassisted eye exhibit^ only s«9Wi stars, displayed to Qatileo 
no fewer than/orty.t 

It was then that, to his unutterable astonishment. Galileo 
saw, as a celebrated French astronomer (M, Biot) has expressed 
it " what no mortal before that moment had seen — the sui*ice 
of the moon, like another earth, ridged by high moimtains and 
furrowed by deep valleys ; Tenus, as wall aa it, presenting i 
phases demonstrative of a spherical form; Jupiter sorroundM 
by four satellites, which acoompanied him in his orbit ; &e 
milky way ; the nebulie ; finally, the whole heavens sown over 
with an infinite multitude of stars, too small to be discerned 
by the naked eye." Milton, who had seen Galileo, described, 
nearly half a century after the invention, some of the wondo* 
thus laid open by the telescope : 

The moon, whoso orb, 
Through optio glass the Tiiaoan artist rioire 
At ovoniiiE from tho top of Fesole, 
Or in Vflldamo, to deaorj new Ian da. 
Rivers, or mountainB, in her spotty globo. " 

"There are" {says Everett, the American orator) "oocadww 
m life in which a great mind lives years of rapt enjoyment in 
a moment, I can fancy the emotions of Galileo, when, first 
raising the newly conetructed telescope to the heavens, he nT 

• Mi-IA-BnlM flm™. No, a. 

Blindness of Galileo. 

ttHei the grand prophecy of Copemicua, and beheld the' 
Det YenuB creacent Uke the moon. It was such another 
ment as that wbeu the imiuDrtal printers of Mentz and 
uburg received the first copy of the Bible into their handfl, 
work of their divine art ; like that when ColumbiiB, 
ough the gray dawn of the 12th of October 1492 {Copemicua. 
the age of eighteen, was then a student at Cracow), beheld 
shores of San Siilvador ; like that when the law of grarita- 
1 first revealed itself to the intellect of Newton ; li^e that 
ni Franklin saw by the stiffening fibres of the hempen cord 
OS kite, that he held the lightuing iu his grasp ; Uke that 
a Levemer received hack from Berlin the tidlnga thH,t the 
lioted planet was found." 

" The starry Galileo, with his woes," is enshrined among 
ba Martyrs of Science." His noblest discoveries were the 
iaion of his contemporaries, and were even denounced as 
BW which merited the vengeauce of Heaveu. lie was the 
bim of cruel persecution, and spent some of bis latest honn 
hin the walls uf a prison ; and though the Almighty graded 
1, as it were, a new sight, to discern unknown worlds in the 
Burity of space, yet the eyes wLich were allowed to witness 
h wonders were themselves doomed to be closed iu darkness. 
David Brewster eloquently says : 

"The discovery of the moon's Libration was the result of 
last telescopic observations of Galileo. Although his right 
: had for some years lost its power, yet his geueral vision 
I sufficiently peilect to enable iiim to carry on his usual re- 
«hes. In ltl3(t, however, this affection uf his eye became 
« serious ; and in 1637 his left eye was attiicked with the 
e disease : the disease turned out to be in the cornea, and 
17 attempt to restore its crauspareiicy was fruitless. In k 
months, the white cloud covered the whole aperture of. 
I pnpil, and Galileo became totally blind. This sudden and 
ited calamity bad almost ovei-whelmed Galileo and his 
In writing to a correspondent, he exclaims ; ' Alas, 
\r dear friend aud servant has become totally and irreparably 
ad. Those heavens, this earth, this universe, which by wtffl-* 
ful observation I had enlarged a thousand times beyond the 
ief of past ages, are henceforth shrunk into the narrow space 
ich I myself occupy. 80 it pleases Qod ; it shall, therefore, 
■ae me also.' Galileo's friend, Father Caatelli, deplores the 
Uoitj in the same tone of pathetic sublimity : ' The noblest 
),' says he, ' which nature ever made, is darkened ; an eye 

airivileged, and gifted with suoh rare powers, tliat it may 
J be said to have seen more thau the eyes of all that are 
1, and to have opened the eyea of ail that aie to iwk« .' "^ 




AecoKDi!fi3 toNeirton'a own confeBsion, he was extremely in- 
attentive to his BtudieB while in the public school at GrrLuthsm; 
and Sir Ihivid Brewster, with the Bfmpaithj of a fond biogra- 
pher, attributes thii idlenesa to the occupation of the mind of 
the future philosopher with But^eots in which he felt a deeptt 
interest. He had not been long at school before he exhibited 
a taste for mechanical inventions. With the aid of little sawB, 
hammers, hatcheta, and tools of aU sorts, he was occufnod 
during his play-hours in constructing models of known ma- 
chines and amusing contrivances. Thus he modeled a wind- 
mill from a mill, which he wntcbed in course of construction, 
near Grantham. Dr. Stukelej describeB this working model to 
have been " as clean and curious a piece of workmanship U 
the original." Newton next constructed a water-clock : it had 
a dial-plate at top, with Sgiires of the hours ; the index wu 
turned bj a piece of wood, which either fell or rose bj water 
dropping. lie also invented a mechanical carriage, a four- 
wheeled chair, which was moved by the handle or irindi 
wrought by the person who eat in it. He also made for the 
amusement of his schoolfellows paper kites and lanterns of 
crimpled paper. At home he drove wooden pegs into the waill 
and roofs of the buildings, as gnomons to mark by their sha- 
dows the hours and half-hours of the day ; and he carved two 
dials in stone upon the walla of his house at Woolsthorpe.* 

Several years after, when Mewton had entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, we find in one of his commonplace books an 
entry, dated January 16G3-4, " on the 'grinding of spherical 
optic glasBes,' — on the errors of lenses, and the method of 
rectifying them," &c., to which Newton soon applied himself. 
Descartes had invented and described machines for grinding 
and pohflhing lenses with accuracy, upon which the perfection 
of refracting telescopes and tnicrosoopes depended, fiewton, 
however, by the first experiments which he made with a prisin, 
found that the perfection of telescopes was limited not so muoh 
for wsnt of glasses truly figured, as bECBuse light itselE is a he- 

Newton^g first Telescope. 

3 new branch of science now occupied mucli of Newton's 
on; and among the iirticiee which he puraliased on hia 
3 London early in 1669 were l-enses, two fumaoea, and 
chemicHle. Towards the end of 1668, thinking it best 
iced, by degrees, he first " made a email perspective, to 
ether hia conjecture would hold good or not. The te- 
I was sis inches long. The aperture of the large speculum 
mething more than an inch ; an d as the eje-glasa waa a 
convex lens, with a focal length of one-sisth or one- 
1 of an inch, " it magnified about forty timea in dia* 
" which he believed was more than any sis-feet refraot- 
Kcope could do with diatinctnesE. It did not, however, 
h the bad materiala and the want of a good poUsh, repre- 
^jeots BO distinctly as a good six-feet refractor : yet Sir 
aw with it Jupiter, and alao the horns or " moou-like 
rf Venus." He therefore conaidered this small teleacone 
'epitome" of what might be done by reflections j and he 
) doubt that in time a six-feet reflector might be made 
irould perform aa much as any 60- or ll)()-feet refractor, 
ttoQ did not, however, resume the construction of re- 
t till the autumn of 1671, when, finding that grinding 
fishing the lenses produced very little change in the in- 
tnesa of the image, he discovered that the defect arose 
le different refrangibility of the rays of light. He took 
BB prism which he had purcha^d at Stourbridge fair, 
niig made a hole in the window-shutter of his darkened 
)e admitted through the prism a ray of the buu's light, 
Kfter refraction, exhibited on the opposite wall the Solar 
natic Spectrum ; and by a laborious investigation proved 
^rent refrangibility of the raya of light to be the real cause 
bnperfection of refracting telescopes, which he proposed 
edy by a metallic speculum within the tube, by which 
V proceeding from the object are reflected to the eye. 
1 accordifigly act about executing another reflecting 
jie with his own hands. This cansiated of a concave me- 
jlecnlum, the raya reflected by which were received upon 
I metallic speculum inclined 45" to the axis of the tube, 
I reflect them to the side of the tube, in which there waa 
lure to receive a amall tube with a plano'convex glass, 
na of which the image formed by the speculum was mag- 
iiirty-eiffbt times ; " whereas an ordinary telescope of 
wo feet long only magnified thirteen or fourteen timea." 
he request of some of the members of the Royal So'^^'^ii 
I sent this telescope for Jaspection, and Bu.\iaw^itofii"j 

« Jirtt Reflecting TeUtcope.^^^^^ 

preEented it to that diBtinguished body. It was also flhown 
King Ciiurles II. This iuBtrument i« carefully pFeserved !n tbe 
library of the Royal Society at Burliugton House, Piccadilly, 
witb the ioBcriptiuu 

iT REPLEcrmo Tklescofe, 

T Sm laiAO Nkwios 

Such was the Urat Rcflectina; Telescope tbat was BacoeeafullT 
OODstracted and applied to the heavens : though Sir Davia 
Brewster describes it as a smtilL and ill-made instrument, inoft- 

Eable of showing the beautiful celestial phenomena which had 
eeu loag seen by refracting telescupes; and more than fif^ 
years elapsed before teleaoopes of the Newtonian form became 
useful in astronomy. 

NeverthelesB, this "is the instrument which, under the 
hands of Herscbel and Bosse, has growu to proportions so ffr 
gaatic as to require the aid of vast machinery to eleTateMid 
depress the tube. Newtou's first telescope is nine inches long, 
Lohl Bosse's six-feet reflector ia sixty feet in length 1"* 

At Gmntham in Linoolnehire, nigh to the hamlet wheKiD 
9 bom, was reared in 1858 a, statue of thin " 

I -WeVi'B 

^^" Sialue of Newton. 153 

bius of the humau race." This waa 131 yeara from the 
S Newton's death, and verified the homely proverb, that 
ihet is honoured every where save in his own country, 
mong his own people. The statue is of bronze, and is 
' 13 feet high ; aud tlie sculptor, Mr. Theed, has copied 
kenesa of Sir Isaac from a mask of his face takeu after 
laai from the portmt-biiBt by Goubiliac. The statoe 

laugurated September ai, when Lord Brougham (one of 
Jtora of Newton'a works) delivered the address. 
loncluaioD, his Lordahip Bald : Let it not bo itna^ai 
jt of wonder eioiteJ by contemplating tha ac^ue-jBVflBi! 
ttnarejo any dogma whatever the reault ol uatoniiBl fwcNiiiSfi 


154 Newton's " Principia." ' 

■ud ooDfinBd to tha country wbich Tories in having given h'Tn birtlif 
The language vbtoh cipreases her vaneraticin ia eqiiallBill, pcrhflpa ex-i 
needed, by that in whioh other nations ^va uttfiianoe to thaire ; noH 
merel; by the general voice, but by tha woll-oonsidered and well-ii 
ibrmed judgment of the maMers of science. Leibnitz, when asked ■ 
tha royal table in BerTia his opinion of Xewton, said that, "* *--'■ 
mathematieuuis trom tha beginning of the world to the tim 
Nawton lived, what be had dnve was much the bcttar half." 
Principia will ever remain a roonument of tha profound genjm w! 
ravealed to us the greatest Ian of the universe/' are the words of 
place. "That work stands preBminent above all the other produetJolB 
of the homan mind." " The discovery of that simple aud general \Bt, 

by the groBtneaa an' "' " ' ' ' " ' " 

confers honDur upon 
lyAIembert, was wont to describe Ni 
ever eiisted ; but to add how ft 
only once be found a system of the universe to eatahliah." "Naval 
says the father of the Inatitute of France, — one fillnig a high ida 
among the most eminent of its members, — " never," says M. Hi 
" was the aupremacy of intellect so justly established and so folly ■ 
fessed ; in matiematical and in eiperimeutal soience without an eql 
and withoiit an cinrnple, combining the genius for both in its hil^ 
degree." The Pri-ncioia be terms Iba greatest worit ever prodnoad 1 
the mind of man, adding, in the words of Hajley, "that a nemw I 
proach to the Diiine natiu^ baa not been permitted to mortals." ■* 
Hrst giving to the world Newton's method of fluxions," bbjbFoi 
" Leibnitz did like Prometheus, — be Ktole fire from heaven to b 
it upon men." "Dies Newton," L'Hopital asked, "sleep and 
tike other men f 1 ^gure him to myseli b£ a celestial gemuB, OD 
disengaged from matter."* 

• "Thsereat diKoverywhiebchuHterlustheiViiKOiJii, IsthatoftlielB 
dplo of uoiverjial gravlUtlOD.'-JAnI eviryytrtv^ iff ^HaOer in thi taitlimU^ 
tnKledbp, or pr^viUtla b>, eonrj/ other pjirwt ofmoOvT, viXha /f>rainHml " 
fortional lo fJie aquare of their dlBtaoce. . . . , . Tbe oioal completa siiD 

In mathemalical Bcienre,' liai been mftde bf Lord Bronfllmni ._ .,„ 

anslrsis of Ihu vorfc, vhlcb funns the greit«rpirtgf the secend voluna cf Ul 
adilion of Filer's A'bIbto! Theolofgr—BU D, Brewaler's Life o/A'™'— 


X refracting telescope, whose ioventor we cannot confi- 
atlj name, wiis a small and useiesB toy, till GiiUleo turned it 
iae heavens; and thougli, in the hands of Uujghens and 
ndius, it added new eateOites to our Byetem, aud displayed 
W forms and structures in the primary planets, yet it was 

Lifhen made achromatic, through the labours of Fbll, 
id, Frauenhofer, aud others, that it became an esBential 
^^trmnent for the advancement of astronomy. The refieoting 
BKope presents to us the same peculiarity. We do not know 
^^ "ventor. Even iu Sir Isaac Newton's hands, and ae con- 
i and applied by Jiimaulf, it effected no discoveries in 
i heavena. 

Tke difficulty of procuring flint-glass free from flaws andim- 
tfections Jong checked the improvement of the Achromatic 
leMope. All convex lenses of glass, with spherical suriaoeB, 
the reader may he aware, form images of objects in tbeir 
a behind the lens; hut owing to the spherical and chro- 
^^ ic aberrations, a mass of images of different colours, and not 
bcndent with each other, is the result. Sir Isaac Newton pro- 
nced these imperfections to he incurable ; but Mr. Chester 
«Hall, a gentleman of Essex, so early as 1733, in imitation 
the organ of sight, combined media of different refractive 
nrers, and constructed object-glasses of flint and crown glaB& 
hich corrected the chromatic and diminished the sphericu 
nrration. The telescopes thus made (which Dr. Bliss named 
""romatic, i. e. destitute of colour) were neither exhibited nor 
1, nor was any account of their construction made known ^— 
tiie world. In a trial at Westminster about the paten^^^ 
B making achromatic telescopes, Mr. Hall was allowed to bC^H 
te inventor; but Lord MansGeld observed, that " it was no^^f 
le person who locked his invention in his escritoire that DughvH 
1 profit from such invention, but he who brought it forth for 
he benefit of the publlo." 
t In 17S8, however, John DoJlond arri'ved att\w Wive ttso^'v.-. 
mre-iuTented the achromatic teleBCOpe, inBi3K&iAM.tei "flofc 

Hw' Farajai/'s Glass'inaking. 

imtrument for sale, and for more than half a centarj supplied 
all Europe with this invaluable instrumeut," 

The monopoly of these telescopes, however, sooa passediuto 
foreign etatea. The manu&oture of flint-glass hod been m 
severely taxed by the British Government, — as though to doI 
down the achromatic telescope by statute, — that if a philosopber 

e of British interests, a committee of the Royal So- 
ciety was permitted to erect ao esperimcotal glass-house, and to 
enjoy the privilege of compounding a pot of glass without ths 
presence and supervision of an exciseman ! The esperimental 
furnace was erected at Green and Fellatt's Falcon Glasa-houat 
and subsequently a room and furnaces were built at the Roju 
Institution; Br. Faraday superintended the chemical part of 
tbe inquiry, and by the year 1830 the committee had manufiuv 
tared glass of a superior quality for optical purposes. Nevet> 
theless, X>r, Faraday considered the results as negative, and tbe 
mauu&cture was laid aside. 

The monopoly of the Achromatio Telescope was thus lo(t> 
What a conclave of English legislators and pliiloaophers at- 
tempted in vain, was, aowever, accomplished by a humblt 
peasant in the gorges of the Jura, where no patron euoooi- 
aged Bud no exciseman disturbed him. M. tiuinand, a maker 
of clock-cases in the village of Breuetz, in the cuuton of Neuf- 
ohatel, had been obliged by defective vision to grind spectacle- 
glasses for his own use. Thus practically versed in the optid 
of lenses, he amiised himself with making small refracting 
telescopes, which he mounted in pasteboard tubes. Meanwhile 
an achromatic telescope of English manufacture had come in' 
the possessiou of Guiuand's mitster, Jacquet Droz. He « 
permitted to examine it, to separate its lenses, and to measu 
its curves; aud after studying its properties, he resolved 1o 
attempt to imitate the wondrous combination. Fliut-glass ma 
only to be had in Bagland ; and be and his friend, M. RioodoBi 
who went to that country bo take out a patent for hie sd^ 
winding watches, purchased as much glass as enabled Quinani 
to supply several achromatic telescopes. The glass, howevo^ 
was bad; aud the clock-case maker, seeing no way of get- 
ting it of a better quality, reeolved upon making flint-glass fot 
his own use. Studying the chemisti^ of fusion, he made dai^ 
■q his blast-furnace, between 1784 aud 17£JC^ n'" 
yeirUOe, Hsi«l 

^^H Guijiand's Glass. 157 

I of three or four pounds each., and carefully noted down 
imstances and the results of each experiment. He suo- 
and abandoning hie busmesa for the more lucrative one 
ns bells for repeaters, he obCniued more meuis and 
He purchased a piece of ground on the banks of the 
irhere be constructed a furnace capable of fusing two 
■meig/U of glass. The feilure of his crucibles, the burst- 
iB fornacei, and a thousand untoward accidents, which 
ave disconcerted less ardent minds, eerved ouly to in- 
tbe unlettered peasant. The threads, and specks, and 
i which destroyed the homogeneity of his glass, were 
eots of bis constant stud;; and be at last succeeded in 
g couBiderable pieces of uniform transparency and re- 
powers, sometimes t-wdve, and in one case eighteen, 
n diameter. He at last acquired the art of eoideriug 
Dore pieces of good glasa ; and though the line of junc- 
I often marked with globules of air or particles of sand, 
;rinding out these imperfections on an emeried wheel, 
replacing the mass iu a furnace, so that the vitreous 
night expand and fiU up the excavations, be succeeded 
ng every trace of junction, and was consequent!]' able 
loe with certainty the finest disks of flint-glass. 
leuhofer, the Bavarian opticiau, having heard of Gui- 
BUCcess in the mauufacturG of flint-glass, repaired to 
in 1804, and induced the Swiss artisan to settle at 
, where, from 1805 to 1814, be practised bis art, and 
it to htB employer. Frouenhofer was an apt and willing 
and possessing a thorough knowledge of chemistr; and 
he speedily learned the processes of his teacher, and 
«d the theory of manipulation, of which Guinand knew 
i results. Thus supplied with the finest materials of 
he studied their refractive and dispersive powers ; and 
;rand discovery of the fixed lines in the spectrum, he 
at methods of constructing achromatic telescopes which 
r artist had possessed. In these laborious researches 
patronised by Maximilian Joseph, king of Bavaria; and 
not been carried off by an insidious disease in the 
f life, be would have astonished Europe with the pro- 
of an achromatic object-glass eighteen inches in dia- 

ls, a celebrated optician of Paris, who had heard of the 
of bis processes. Iierebours purchased all his glass, and 
m for more; and M. Cauchoix, another skilful Pariaisn. 
rocured from him large disks of glass. In tftt\a iftwayBi . 
igteieecnpes came (o be constructed inFrincetv'uffiiaS 



Guinand's Secret, 

the rooat finiBhed productionB of the Mimicli artist ; aod Eng- 
land, which was long the excluBive seat of the mauufaoiure of 
achromatic telescopes, had the mortification of fiDall; seeing 
bath Qermaoy and Frautie completely outstrip her in thii 
branch of practical optios. This she owed to the short-idghted 
policy of the British Government, which had placed an 
bitant duty on the manufocture of flint-glass. This \es. 
fiscal interference has, however^ heeu repealed; and the enter- 
prise with which makers and opticians have t^en up the con- 
slruction of large object-glasses has led to important result& 
Mr. Apsley Pellatt, in his Curiosities oj (Hasi-Tsiaii-ag, 
work of sound practical value as well as popular interest, sayi 
"7he secret of Guinand's success is considered not to bin 
been in the novelty of the materials or proportions, but in aj 
tatiug the liquid glass while at the highest point of fusion; tiu 
cooling down the entire contents of the pot in a mass, oni 
when annealed and cool, by cleavage separating unstriated po 
tions, afterwards softening into clay moulds. Quiiiaiid left tv 
sous, one of whom subsequently operated in conjunction wit 
M. Bontemps, a soientiSu French glass-maker, who succeeded i 
making good flint optical glass on the principle of mechanic^ 

In 184H, Bontemps, after attaining high eminence in hii 
art, was induced to retire from Prance, and to cooperate witbi 
Messrs. Chance Brothers and Co., of Birmingham, iu improv- 
ing the quality of their manufactures. They conjointly su»- 
ceeded in producing a disk in flint of £9 inches in diametM, 
weighing 2 owt., and which, being submitted to the operation 
of griuding, finishing, and other pracesses, iu oi'der to provt 
its quality, received a Council Medal at th Treat E hiinti{Q 
of 18S1. When we recollect that a glass x d i;; ntf tha 

small diameter of six inches, undergoe 
with difficulty, and is hable to cool 
oially than iu the interior, and tha 
with the size, we must regard tliis p i 
inches as a very remarkable work. 

nclples; thry were succeeded 

a aliii^ proocfl 


I looK interval of half b, century eeems to be the period of 
lematiou diiriug whicti the teleiicopic mind rests from its 
sora in order to acquire strength for aorae great aohieve- 
t. Fifty years elapsed between the dwiirf Telescope of 
ton and the large instrument of Hadley; other fifty years 
i ou before Sir William Herscbel constructed hia magni- 
it TeleBCope ; and fifty years more passed away before the 
1 of Roase produced that colossal itistruiuent which has 
idy aohieved such brilliant discoveries.* 
We have juat described the constructiou of Newton's dwarf 
le ; fifty years after which, John Uadley, the inventor 
teflectine Quadrant wliicli liears his name, began his 
ante, and, probably after many failures, completed a 
oope in 1720. It was presented to the Royal Society (of 
b Hadley was a Fellow), aa thus recorded iu the Joumid 
htuury 12, 1721 ; 

f, H&dley waa pleaead to show the EoyftI Society hi« BefiBOtuig- 

B^te, mode acGording' to our President's {Bir lBas.a Newton) di- 
jDi bi his Opiiei, tnit cunouslf exeuutod b; his own hand, the 
rOf wbloh wu to enlarge an object near too htmdred (i"LW, though 
lifftji thereof excoeda jtix feet ; and having shown it, he made a 

It thereof to the Society, nbo ordered their hearty thsnks to he 

ted tbr so valuable a gift. 

Ub inBtrument consisted of a metAllio speculum about six' 

e in diameter, and its focal length was S feet 2i inches. 

'»ae speculum was made of the same metal, about thn IGth 
, inch thick ; and it had sis eye-pieces, three couves lenses, 
, 3-lOths, and 11-40ths of an inch, ma^ifying 190, 20B, 
S^ times ; and an erecting eye-piece of three conges lenseSj 
nifying about 13S times. It had also a small refracting 
aa a finder, which we believe was first suggested br 

; and the whole was mounted upon a staud ineeni- 

f and elegantly constructed. The celebrated Mr, Bradl^, 

the Rev. Mr. Pound of Wntistead, compared it with the 
i Huygheuian refractor, 123 feet long ; and, IUoUl^ \esa 
iily, t/ief sajr with (Ae i^flectot whateiiertbej\iaA.\i\'OaKtKii>' 

■• Sfi-BBrtd Brews^efa Life o/Sir liaac Hn^UHi,- 


160 Sir William Herschel. ;' 

discovered with the Hajghenian, together with the belts of 
S&tuTD, and the iirst and second satellitea of Jupiter as bright 
spots on the body of the planet. 

After executing another Kewtonian telescope of the sanK 
Bize, Mr. Hadley made great improvements in those of ttw^ 
Gregorian fonn. He was now Tioe- President of the Rojal S* 
ciety, atid set about enabling aBtronomera and opticiam to 
manufacture these valuable instruments. Mr. Hawksbee Gret 
made them forpublicsalej others didthe same. Theoptician% 
with the aid of Molyneux and Hadley, succeeded in the nev 
art of grinding and polishing specula. Scottish makers fbl': 
lowed; and, says Sir David Brewster, "in this way the Re- 
flecting Telescope came into general use, and, principally in. 
the Gregorian form, it has been an article of trade with evct; 
regular optioian." Notwithstanding these great improvemenl^ 
no discovery of importance had yet beeu achieved by the R»- 
fleeting Telescope ; and nearly three-quarters of a century ha4 
elapsed without any extension of our knowledge of the Solit 
and Sidereal Sjateraa, " This, however," continues Sir DaviiL 
" was only one of those stationary intervals during whin 
human genius holds its breath, in order to take a new Utd 
loftier flight. It was reserved for Sir William Herschel and 
theBarlof RosBc to accomplish the great work, and, by thecon- 
struction of telescopes of gigantic size, to extend the bound-; 
ariea of the Solar System, to lay open the hitherto unexploredi 
recesses of the sidereal world, and to bring within the grajp 
of reason those nebular regions to which imagination had not 
ventured to soar." H 

Sir William Herschel, one of the very greatest names in the |] 
modem history of astronomical discovery, was self-inatructfid 
in the science in which he earned his high reputation. He,' 
was bom at Hanover in 1738, and was the sou of a musiraan ili||| 
humble circumstances. Brought up to his father's professiou, 
he was placed, at the age of fourteen, in the band of the Hano- || 
verian Guards, a detachment of whom being ordered to Eng-Ji 
and in 17S7, young Herschel accompanied it, and remained to I, 
try his fortune in London. Here he had to struggle with mai^^ii 
difficulties. He then passed several years principally in ^visg |. 
lessons in music to private pupils in different towns in the |. 
north of England. In 17Ci5 lie obtained the situation of orgsit- 11 
ist at Halifax; and next year he was appointed to the same 
office in the Octagon Chapel at Bath, where he settled, with the 
certain prospect of deriviug a good inoome from his profession, J 
if he had made that his only or his chief object. There Is t H 
maSB of stories relating to hia muLsiial. oocupations, none d I 
wbiob have any certain fonndationi as, \.\V!A 'na -^Nsis^ ''si.'iJia J 
I'uiap-room band at Batli-, aii4tWt,'NW-an.'saiSii&to*b'iin.''!t». 

■ HerscheV s Jirst Telescope, 

Itnationof organist, he helped his performance by placing upoa I 
wldiiig notes little bits oflead, which he destroualy removed ' 

But long before this, while yet only an itinerant teacher of 
Basic ill country towns, Herscbel bad assidnouslj devoted his 
Bisure to the acquiring of a knovvledge of tlie Italian, the 
Atin, and the Greek languages. He then applied himself to 
be study of Robert Smith's profound Treatise on Haniwniie, 
Cv which purpose it was necessary that Hcrechel should make 
dmaelf a uiaihenuitician ; and to accomplish this, he laid ai ' ' 
m other pursuits of his leisure. At Bath he devoted still a 
ime to mathematical studies. In the course of tiuie he ob- 
Hined a competent knowledge of geometry; he neit studied 
Ab different branches of science which depend upon the ma- 
"^ ■■ , his attention being first attracted by the kindred 
its of astronomy and optics. He now became onxioua 
bobserve with hia own eyes tliose wonders of the heavens of 
Aich he had read so much ; and fo r that purpose he borrowed 
' actjuaintauoe a two-feet Gregorian telescope. This 

it interested him so greatly, that he commissioned a 
d in London to purchase one for him of a somewhat larger 
But, fortunately for science, he found the price beyond 
hrliat he could afford. To make up for his disappointment, he 
Solved to attempt to construct with his own bauds a telescope 
r himself; and after encountering innumerable difficulties 
B the progress of his task, he at last succeeded ; and in the 
rear 1774 he completed a five-feet Newtonian reflector, with 
brhich he distinctly saw the riug of Saturn and the satellites of 

Hwschel now, becoming dissatisfied with the performance 
llfhig lii'st instrument, renewed his labours, and in no long 
■~ie produced telescopes of seven, tea, and even twenty feet 
'I distance. In fashioning the mirrors for these instru- 
' s perseverance was indefatigable. For his seven-feet 
he actually finished and made trial of two hundred 
s before he fouud one that satisfied him ; 150 for his 
bn-feet, and above eighty for his twenty-feet instrument. He 
loally worked at a mirror for twelve or fourteen hours, with- 
it quitting his occupation for a mametit. He would not even 
■"e his band from what he was about to help himself to hia 
1 ; and the little that he ate when so employed, was put into 
ll mouth by bis sister. He gave the mirror its proper shape 
■ B by a certain natural tact thfiu by rule ; and when his 
' was ouce iu, aa the phrase is, he was afraid that tiie per- 
n of the finish might be impaired by the least intermission. 
is labours. 

J the }3th of March 1731, that lleTSchA m^xie 



Discovery of Uranus. ^^ 

diBCoverf to which he owes, perhapB, most of his popular re 
tation. On tlie evening of the above day, having turned 
telescope (an eicellent »eren-feet reflector of his own constri 
iuil) to a particular part of the sky, he oliBerved among 
other stars one which seemed to shine with a more ste 
radiance than those around it. He determined to ol»ervi 
more narrowlv ; after some hours, it had perceptibly ohan 
its place — a fact which the next day became still more 
disputable. The Astronomer-Royal, Dr. Maslcelyne, conolu 
that the luminaty could be nothing else than a new com 
but in a few days it became evident that it was iu realil 
hitherto undiscovered planet : this Herschel naued the G 
giuia SiJwt, or Georgian Star, in honour of the king of E 
land ; but it has beeu more generally called either JhTschd, a 
its discoverer, or l/raniu. The diameter of this new globe 
been found to be nearly four and a half times larger thiui 
own; its size altogether eighty times that of our earth; 
year is as long as eighty-three of ours ; its distance from 
BUii is nearly eighteen hundred millions of miles, or, 1? 
than nineteen times that of the earth ; its density, as n 
pared with that of the earth, is nearly as 22 to 100 ; so ( 
its entire weight is not tar from eighteen times tlukC ol 
planet. Herschel afterwards discovered successively no fe 
than six satellites or moons belonging to his new planet, 
De Morgan almost prophetically wrote : " Its name is sp] 

Eriate, inasmuch as Uranus is the father of Saturn in mjt 
igy ; but what will be done if a new planet ehould b« i 
covered still more distant than TTrauus?" A new planet 
been discovered by two master-minds, independently of e 
other, in a manner which renders the discovery of Ufi 
deeply interesting. 

The merit of this discovery is in itself small. It ia 
method which gave rise to it, on which this part of Hend 
fame must rest. Perceiving how much depended on an es 
knowledge of telesoopic phenomena, and a perfect acquaints 
with the effect produced by differences of instrumental ! 
Btruction, he commenced a regular examination of the he«* 
taking the stars systematically in aeries, and using one telesc 
throughout. He was not a mere dilettante atar-gazer, but a 
lunteer. carrying on, with no great pecuniary means, alaboti 
and useful train of investigation. 

Herschel's name now became universally known. The( 
ley Medal was awarded to him by the Royal Society, 
king attached him to his court as private astronomer, wii 
salary of 400^. a-year ; and soon after this he came to re 
first at Ilatchet, and then at Slough, near Windsor. He 1 
devoted himself entirely to ade-ai^. !■&. this year, 17S1, 

j HersckeVs Forty-feet Telescope. 163 

began a thirty-feet aerial reflector, with a speculum three feet 
in diameter ; but as it was cracked iu the operatiou of anneal- 
ing, and as another of the Eamc eize was hist in the Sre from 
a failure in the furnace, his hopes were dtsappoiuted. Thia 
double accident, however, only aoted aa a stimulus to higbsr 
aohievemeuts, a,nd no doubt suggested the idea of making a. 
Btill larger instrument, and of obtaining pecuniary aid for it»i 
aooomphahment. In 1785, at the request of Sir William Hec^ 
schel, and with the sanction of the Council of the Royal So- 
tnety, the president, Sir Joseph Banks, laid before George III. 
the great astronomer's scheme for the construction of a B^fleot- 
ing Telescope of colossal dimensions. The king approved of 
the plan, and offered to defray the 'nhole expense of it; K 
noble act of liberality, which has never been imitated by any 
other Sritish sovereign. 

Herschel next conceived the happy idea of "Gauging the 
Heavens," by counting the number of stars which passed,, 
at different heights and in various directions, over the field <S'- 
▼lew of fifteen minutes in diameter of hia twenty-feet reflect' 
ing telescope. The field of view each time embraced on^ 
l-838,000th of the whole heavens ; and it would therefore re- 
quire, according to Struve, eighty-three years to gauge th»i 
whole sphere by a similar process. 

Towards the close of this year, Herschel began to construot 
his Eeflecting Telescope, forty feet in Utigtk, and having a i^O' 
tsalxaa fvlli/ four feet in diameter. It was completed Auguafi 
S7, 1780; and Sir William has left a very complete descripti'^ 
of the operations : 

w I began (aaya Heraohel) to oouatrnct the forty-feet telesoopa 

"■ sf 1786. In the wbolo of the appaiatua none but cdi 

I employed ; for 1 made drawings of every pait 
b it was easy to eieoute the wori, aa I eonstantly inapeoted 

eve^ parson's labour ; though a! 
j^djffarei- ' '" " " 

of it,l)J 
cted an) 
a no law 

b forty different workmen employed at the same time. While thA 
1(1 of the telescope was preparing, 1 also began the conBtmotion oC 
[groat mirror, of which linipeoted. the casting, griEding, and po- 
; and the work waa in this manner carried on witb no ouitf 
iion tbfui wbat was occasioned by tbe removal of ail the appsi- 
m Clay Hall, where I then lived, to my yresent Bituation at 
_ Here, soon after my nrrival, I began to lay the fonndaHoa 

which, by degrees, tbe whole structure was raised as it 

njs: and tbe speculum being highly polifihed and put into tbe 
dthofirBtviBwthroughitonFebruary9,1787. I do not, bow 
b ibo oompleting of tbe instrument till muoh later ; for tbe first apCK 

' ' inumagomeDt of tbe person wbo oast it, name out tbinoer 

of the back than was intended, and on account of its 
■ would not permit a good fig^ire to be given to it. A second 
-asoast Jau. 26, 1788, but it cracked in cooling. Fob. 16, wa 
with pecnliar attention to the shape ot the hatit, MiiVi. ■^ittfj ^^T 
ofapropordt^Tceol'strength. Oct 21, it naa'broi^\i^^o b.'^^^^H 


164 HerscheVB Great Telescope. 

good figure and polish, and I obserted the planet Saturn with it. 1 
not boin^ Batisfiaci, I oontmuad ti) work upon it Uli Auif, 2T, 178B, wl 
it WHA ^ed upon the Sxed BtarB, and 1 tbuud it to ^tb a prsttj atuvp 
imagD. Largo stai-a wore a little aSbctoil with scattered light, owing 
' many remaining seratohea in the mirror. Aug. 28, 1788, hnving 

—-^-^ the telescope to the paroUel of Saturn, 1 diacoTered a nxu 
of that planot ; and 1 also ran the spots upon Saturn better thaa 
1 nan ever seeo them before ; bo that I ma-y date the finishing of tha 
fiirtv-feat teleaoope from that time,— PM. traiu.foT 17Ba 

The thickneas of the qieoulum, whioh was uiufonn io every port, 
WH Si Inohes, and ita weight nearly 211S pounds; the metal being oom- 
pOHBd of 32 coppar, and lOT of tin. The Bpeoulum, n-hen not in me, 
mu presemid from damp by a tio cOTor, fitted upon a rim of o!aB»- 
^Toined cluth. The tube of the teleeonpe was 89 fo^ i inches long, and 
itB width 4 feet 10 inohes ; it was mode of iron, and wns 3U00 pounds 
lighter than if it had been made of wood. The obsorver waa asited In. 
a siupetidcd movnibla seat at the moatb of the lube, and viewed t^ , 
image of tlie olijeot with a magnifleent lens at eye-^ieoe. The flwus of 
the speculum, or plaoe of the image, waa withiu 4 mchea of the mo^*^ 
of the lower sido of the tuba, and came forward into ihe air ; bo t 
there was a apace for part of the head above the eye, to prevent it fr 
intarrupting many of the rays goin^ from the objeot to the mirror. 1 

r piece moved in a tube carried by a atider directed to tho coatn 
speculum, and Gied on an adjoaijble foUDdu.LioQ at the mouth of 

Tlie very first moment thu mBgniflceat inatrumeDt yraa di- 
rected to the heavens, a, new hod^ was added to the Solar 
System, namely, Saturn and six eatellites ; and in less than % 
month after the seventh satellite of Saturn ; " an object," sajB 
Sir Johu Herachel, " of a far higher order of difBouity." 

Herschci's Great Telescope stood on the lawn in the rear of 
his house at Slough ; and some of our readers, like ourselves, 
may remember its extraordinary aspect when seen from the 
Bath cimch-Toad and the road to Windsor. The difficulty of 
managing so la^ an instrument, requiring as it did tiro M- 
nstants in addition to the observer himself and the person em- 
plofed to note the time, prevented its being much used ; and 
in 1839, the woodwork of the telescope being decayed, Sir 
John Herschel had it cleared away : piers were erected oo i 
which the tube was placed ; that was of iron, and so well pra- I 
Barred that, althougti not more than one-twentieth of an indi 
thick when iii the horizontal position, it contained all Sir 
John's family, besides portions of the machinery and polishing j 
apparatua to the weight of a great many tons. Sir John attri- 1 
butes this great stren^h and resistance to decay to its iaUs- 
nal structure, very similar to that since patented as Corrugated J 
Iron Roofing, the idea of which originated with Sir WUliam I 
Herschel at the time he constructed the Great Telesot^i I 
°- the system of triang\i\ai a,TrKngeniwA ere diagonal braomg I 
-*«d in the woodwork also, omcVv atecwgi^vH^ia ^sme^. "i 

le entire espense of tte Great tftXestw^, eo \u.mi&c««Oci 

ifrityed by George HI., including of course the coat of the 
jstruction ol toula aud the apparatuH for castiug, griuding, 
i figuriug the reflectors, of whicli two were conutructed, 
lOUnted to 4000^. His abode at 8tough became, aa Fourier 
of the moat remarkable spots of the oivilised 
trld. M. Arago sajs, it ma; coufidently be asserted, that at 
9 little house aud gardeu at Slough more diacoveries have 
Ut mads than at any other spot on the surface of the 
ibe. Herscbel married a widow lady, Mrs. Mary Pitt. He 
~ii lose to affluuut ciroumstauoea, partly by the profits ariaing 
D tiie sale of his mirrors fur reflecting telesoopea ; and he 
d wealthy on August 23, 1822. He left one sou. Sir John 
IwdLeL one of the moat active and successful adherents of 
BUM that our day has produced, and who, for four years, at 
I Cape of Good Hope, waa engaged in making a survey of 
\ Southern Hemisphere similar to the surveys which hia 
jier made of the Northern, 

Herechel must be remembered by the number of bodies 
ioh he added to the Solar System, making that number half 
large again as he fouud it ; and no one iudividuaJ ever added 
much to the facta on which our knowledge of the Solar 
item is grounded. Some idea may be formed of bis won- 
c&ll diligence frotn the foct, that there are no less than axky- 

» papers by him in the I'kUotophieal Trtmsactioin. The 

iest writing of llerscbel is said to be the answer to t' * 

IB qaeetion in the JMdies' Diary for 1779. 

Hcnchel, by the various means we have glanced at, l_. 
ired success such as the world had never seen before, and a _ 
station of twofold splendour, appreciable in its different 

'a by men of the lowest as well as the highest order of cul- 

tion. Admirable aa were the immediate results of his tele- 

Sic observations, they would have failed to secure him the 
ted place now universally assigned to him in the history of 
Itrononiical discovery, tf he had not at the same time beeaj 
idowed with a mind of rare ori^nality and power, combiuei 4 
Ith a strong turn for speculation (Grant's liist. Pkyaieal J*- ' 

nij, p, 834). To liim we owe the first proof that there ' 

ia the universe organised systems besides our own ; while 
imagnificent foreseeings of the Milfcy Way, the constitution 
--'"- 'ij &C., first opened the road to the conception that 
called the universe might be, aud in all probability 
detached and minute portion of that interminable 
iw of similar formations which ought to bear the name, 
-gination roves with ease upon euch subjucta', bu£ ^-^qq, 
dariag&calty would iave rejected the ideas ■«\a<ii, ai'ua 
•hel's observatioua, became sober pbiloBopby. ^M 





To Sir Humphry Davy's remark that " the ariatocracy may be 
Bearched in vftiu for philosophers," we fiud a briiliaiit eioep- 
tioa iu the geoius, the talent, the patieuce, and the liberality 
with which an Irish uobleiaaii has constructed telescopes w 
transoeuding in magnitude and puwer all previous iustrmnent^ 
whether they were the result of private wealth, or of royal or 
national munificence. That nohlemau is Lord OxmantowD, 
who inaugurated his successiou to the Earldom of Rosse by 
the coDstruotion of a colossal instrument which has already 
aciiieved brilliant discoveries. Dr. Bobiiison has eloquently ei- 
preased hia delight "that bo high a problem as the oonstroB- 
tion of a »l3!-feet speculum should have been mastered by out 
of bis countrymen — by one whose attainments are an honour to 
hii rank, an e:tample to his equals, and au instance of the p«^ 
feet oorapatibililj of the highest intellectual pursuits with the 
most perfect discharge of the duties of domestic and scxnal 

In the improvement of the Reflecting Telescope, the first 
object has always been to increase the magnifying power nad 
light by the construction of as large a mirror as possible; and 
to this point Lord Eosse's attention was directed as early ■> 
1628, the field of operation being at his lordship's seat, Bn 
Caatle, Parsonstown, about fift^ miles west of Dublin. F« 
this mgb branch of scientific mquiry Lord Rosec was vd 
fitted, by a rare combiuatioD of " talent to devise, patienca 
to bear disappointjueiit, perseverance, profomid niathematiol 

Bufi&cient, had not a command of money been added ; the 
gigantic telescope we are about to describe having coat est- 
tainly not less than twelve thousand pounds. 

It is impoBsible here to detail the admirable contrivanW 

and processes by which Lord Bosse prepared himself for tiie 

great work. Like Herschel, be employetl common workmen- 

Mr. Weid says, in his excellent account of the mouster tele- 

^gjppe; "Ail the workmen ave Ivxa^i', ftve^ ■m&to (.rained under 

H Buperintendence of Lord Rosse, being taken from com- 
_ ion hedge-schoola, and selected in consequence of tteir giving 
mieace of mecbaiiical skill. Tbe foreman, a muii of great _ 
ntelligence, ia of similar origin; and Lord Boeae assured n ' 
^nuh woB hia skill, that during his lordship's absence, he fe 
rafident that his foreman could construct a telescope with ^ 
ix-foot speculum similar in all respects to that now erected."'- 

In order to grind and polish large specula. Lord Rosee si 
erteived tha,t a. steam-engine and appropriate machinery were | 
_ ; for this purpose he cuustruuted and used an eugiae I 
f hro-horae power, 

liOtd Rosae graaad and polisLed apocula 1 5 inahsa, 2 feet, lu 
" ' >'-■(, oommeueed. the ooluaaal inBtnimont. 

] 'useful aDznbiDa.L]on of metals for apeoula, 
_, nd hardaasa, to bo rapper and tin. Of thjg c" 
d the reSector was CHSt in ]^iece9, which were fiiLed on u 
Ud copper,— a Epeeies of brasu which eipanded in the Bams 
JB* SB tie pieoBB of the Bpacalum themaefyeB. They wore gr 
lh>df to a true surfuce, ana theti pulbiied b; maohincry movet 
lllgt-Biigiiie. The poculiaritiBa of this meobanism were entirely L 

f were oiuefij, placint; Ibe speculum with the face upward, regu- 
Dg tiie temperature by having it immersiud ia water, usually Ht 55' 
^^^j Bud regulating the preaaure and velooity. This was faund bo 
ft B parfeot ijiheriottl fl™^) in large surfaces, with a degree of pre- 
Mi unBttBinablo by the hand ; the polisher, by working aboye and^ 
■ithe fane of the Bp<iculnai, being enabled to oiamine the operalica^B 
i't( liToceeded witbuut remeying the speculum, which, when a MJH 
Mit, Is no easy matter. '^M 

Tiie contrlTanco for doin^ this is yer; beautifiil. The machine ■■ 
lesdinaraomat the bottom of A high tower, in the siiccesslye ilooMfl 
Whloh trap-doors can be opeued. A maat ia elevated on the top of 
t loweTj ao that its summit ia about 90 feet aboei the apeculum. A 
tt-plate is attatjied to the top of the mast; and a small plane epecu- 

- —' =— 1, with jiroper adjustmenta, are so plated that the 

i,.._j.._,._ j._, ^ii .jjjg dial-plate the 

. The h 


if the process of w 

t should reflect the in 
ElOBSe'B operations for this [lui-jiose consist — lat, cf a strolte u[ tbe 

specatum ; 2iii, a transvurKC stroke twenty-one times slower, and 

. to O'ST of the same diamet^, measured on the edge of tbe tank, 

'1-7 beyond tbe centre of the polisher ; 3d, a rotaUon of the speculum 
' ' '.be same tiiDe as thirty-seven of the first strokeii ; and 
of the polisher in the same dirocUoo about siiteen times 

If these rules are attended to, the machine will give the true 

MtxJio figure to the speoulum, whether it be six I'nrAai or iktit fill 
^tameler. In the three-faot speculum, the figure is so true with tbe 
ibIb ajMrtoTB, tluit it is thrown out of focus by aTaotioDoi^rasUaa 
'^*«>*«<^ ^aa inch; "and even with a siiwlo ^aos ot oii6-iii;^i*!Q. lA 
[nei toma, ghiog a power of 2592, the dots on a -sattViifi oto ^S4 
UBS d^^rVB deSaed. 

The Earl of Rossn'i ^^^^ 

Thns was executed the three-feet epeculum for the twenty- 
bIi feet tulescope plnccd upon the lawu at ParsoDstowii, which, 
in 184(}, showed with [Hjwers up to 1000 and even KiOO; and 
which resolved nebulie into Etars, and destroyed that aymmeti^ 
of form in globular uebulEQ upon which was founded the hypo- 
thesis of the gradual condeusatioa of uebulous matter into suns 
and planets. 

This instrument also discovered a. multitude of new objeota 
in the moon ; as a. raouiitaiuoua tract near Ptolemy, eTWy 
ridge of which is clotted with extremely tninute craters, and 
two black parallel stripes in the bottom of Aristarchus. Dr. 
Bobinson, in his addreea to the British Aesociatiun in 1843, 
Stated that in this telescope a buildiug the size of the Court 
House at Oork would be easily visible on the lunar surface. 

Thia instrument was sciircely out of Lord Koase's hand^ 
before he resolved to attempt, by the same processes, to con- 
struct another reflector, which was completed early in 1845. 
The speculum has sis feet of clear aperture, and therefore an 
area four times greater than that of the three-feet specQlum. 
The focal length is fifty-four feet. It weighs four tons, and, 
with its supports, it is seven times as heavy aa the four- 
feet mirror of Sir William Merschel. The Rosse speculum is 
placed in one of the sides of a cubical wooden box, about 
eight feet a side, in which there ia a door, through which two 
men go in to remove or to replace the cover of the mirror. 
To the apposite eud is iasteued the tube, which is made of deil 
staves an inch thick, hooped with iron clamp~riTigg like a huge 
oask. It carries at its upper end, and in the axis of the tube, 
a small oval speculum, six inches in ita lesser diameter. Tbe 
tube is eight feet diameter in the middle, hut tapering to seven 
at the extremities, and ia fumiahed with interual diaphrssDU 
about six aud a half feet in aperture. The late Dean of Kly 
(Dr. Peacock) vrolked through the tube with an umbrella npi 
The speculum was cast on the 13th of Aptil 1842, ground ffl 
1843, polished in 1844, and in Pehruary 1845 the telescope 
was ready to be tried. The speculum was polished in tix Atwi, 
in the same time as a small speculum, und with the same &d- 
lity ; and uo particular care wits taken in preparing the polishw 

The casting of a speculum of nearly four tons was au olgeot 
of great interest, as well as of difficulty. In order to enaius 
uniformity of metal, the blocks from the first melting, which 
was effected in three furnaces, were broken up, and the pieces 
from each of the furnaces were placed in three separate casks. A, 
B, and G ; then, in charging the crucibles for the final meltiDg 
of the speculum, successive portions from cask A were put iuU 
Arnacea a, 6, c ; from B into 6, c, a ; aud so on. 
In order to present tteiae\ii\lt'jni\«av^'n?.' 

Great Reflecting Telescope. 

I, Lord Rosse made the Bpccalum rest upon a eur&ce of 
es of coBt-iroii strongly framed, so as to be stiS' and lighl^ 
oarrying levera to give lateral support ; it is attached to 
tmmeuse joint, like that of a pair of cumpasees movio^ round 
' in. order to give the tranaverse motion for following the 
D right ascension. This piii ie fixed to the centre-piece 
en two trunnions, like those of an enormous mortar, 
east and west, and upou ^vhicli the telescope has its 
n in altitude. Two specula have been provided : ona 
Ituna three and a half, and tlie other four tons of metal ; 
i ooropositiou of which is one hundred and twenty-Bii partg 
weight of copper to fiftj-aeven and a half of tin. 
The enormous tube is established between two lofty caat^ 
jA piers sixty feet high, and ie raised to diiferent aititudes 
s strong cliain-cable attached to the top of the tube. T'''~ 
36 passes over a pulley on a frame down to a windlass 
! ground, which is wrought by two assistants. To the frama 
I attached ohain-guya, fastened to the counterweight j and 
iteleecope is balanced by tliese counterweights suspended by 
due, which are fixed to the sides of the tube and pass ovtx 
{e iron pulleys. 

rOn the eastern, pier is a strong oast-iron semicircle, with 

toh the telescope is connected by a rack-bar attached to the 

K by wbeelwork i so that, by means of a Imndle near the ey»- 

ce, the observer can move the telescope aloug the bar on 

either side of the meridian, to the distance of an hour for an 

equatorial star. Ou the wealerii pier are stairs and galleries. 

The observing gallery is moved along a railway by means of' 

wheels and a. winch ; and the galleries can be raised by ingoii* 

DUB mechanism to various altitudes. Sometimes the galleiiei^ 

Bll«d with observers, are suspended midway between the two 

l^ers, over a chasm sixty feet deep. 

So exquisitely adjusted is the machinery connected witli 
I gigantic instrument, that the tube is moved with all the 
Kod precision of that of a microscope. 
In order to form an idea of the effective magnitude of this 
Dual telescope (says Sir David Brewster), we must compan 
ifith other instruments, as iu the following table, which 
jtaina the uumlwr of square inches in each specuiui 
tliat they were square in place of round : 

BawtoD .... 1 inoh 1 square in 

,, .... 2-37 incbea .... 66 „ 

Hodle; .... 4fi „ ... . 20 „ ] 

„ .... 6 „ .... 9,6 „ 

EawkBbee . . . 9 „ .... 8\ „ 


Lord ROHB . 

Lord Ik-BBu . 

The Earl of Roite's 

2 feet E7d square inohu. 

This magaificent instrumeiit, by far the most powerful whiob 
the genius of man hus hitherto executed for the parpose of es- 
plormg the gra.nd phenomena of the heavens, has ah'^dj, in Qie 
hude of its uoble owner, don« valuable service to astroDoin; 
b; the light which it has thrown upon the structure of ths 
nebalarpart of the uaiverae. ManynebulBB, which had hitherto 
resisted all attempts to resolve them with iuBtrumeuts of in- 
ferior power, have been found toconsiat wholly of stars. Otheis 
exhibit pecuharitiea of Btructure totally unexpected. Thus 
former observeis suggested the probability of the nebula No. SI 
in Measier's catalogue being a vast sidereal system, ideotio^ 
in structure with a smaller one in its immediate -vicinity, 
and to which it offered a striMng analogy. The telescope w 
Lord RoBse has, however, destroyed this interesting surmiu, 
by showing the nebula to be of a totally different structure — 
to be, in fact, composed of a series of spiral convolutioua, ar- 
ranged with reniftrkahle regularity ; and a connection has also 
been traced by means of these spirals between the nebula and 
its companion. 

By means of the telescope, the flat battoih of the crater in 
the moou called Albateginua is distinctly seen to be streved 
with bloaksj not visible with less powerful instruments; while 
the exterior of another (Ariatillus) is intersected with deep 
gullies radiating from its centre. 

"We have in the mornings" {says Sir David Brewster) 
"vralked again and again, and ever with new delight, oloDf 
the mystic tube; and at midnight, with its distinguished archh 
tect, pondered over the marvellous sights which it disoloseB; 
the satellites and belts and rings of Saturn, — the old and new 
ring, which is advancing with its crest of waters to the bod^ rf 
the planetj—the rocks, and mountains, and valleys, and extnuit 
volcanoes of the moon, — the crescent of Yenus, with its moun- 
tainous outline,— the syBtems of double and triple stars,— the 
nebulffi and starry clusters of every variety of shape, — and those 
Bpiral nebular formations which baffle human comprehensioD, 
and constitute the greatest achievement in modem discovery. 
The Astronomer- Royal, Mr. Airy, alludes to the impression 
made by the enormous light of the telescope, — partly by the 
modificationB produced in the appearance of nebulio already 
" ed, partly by the great n-aai\ier of stars seen at a distanoe 
the MUij Way, aad ^airft^ Itom \kB ■pcA^efifaaViriliMioj 

am. The account given by another astronomer of the 
nnce of Jupiter was that it resembled a coacb-lamp ia 
Seacope ; and this well expreases the blaze of light which 
[in the iastnuneut. 

pew diffionlty haa, however, arisen from these vast euc- 
4ii telescopic construction. To ensure the best perform- 
H a telescope, not only should there be a cloudless skj, 
Perfectly quiescent state of the whole atmosphere— "& 
prene and quiet air;" and this is indispensable for high 
ping powers : yet eo rarely ia this state of the air to be 
at the sea-level, that Lord Russe assures us that whole 
BTe passed away without affording him, amoug an abuud- 
Kclear nights, one of such accurately defining quality as 
pie him to use the higher magnifying powers of Mb great 
(Dg telescope to any advantage. And this is a difficulty 
''continually increases with the size and excellence of the 
^les employed. Hence was suggested the expedieonj of 
Drting powerful instruments to the southern hemisphere 
t physical observation of the celestial bodies ; aud in 1856 
nrenunent consented to a summer expedition to the Peak 
iniffe, when Mr. Piazzi Smyth, with a most valuable 
Oial instrument, at elevations of 3,903 and 10,70S feet, 
pie skies ofteii freer from haxe, t^e stars always decidedly 
(r, and the definition very much better, than near the 
if the sea. 

Sir Divn> Brewstkr has sagaciouBly obseired, that prevlo 
to the introduclion of gLiBS the micruecopes of the present d 
ooiild uot have beeu constructed, even if their theory had bei 
kaotvn; but it BeeruBstrauge th^t a varietjof facts, which mu 
have preseuted themselves to the most carelesa observer, ahou 
not have led to the earlier construction of optiail iustrumeiil 
Through the Bpherical drop s of water suspended before his q 
an attentive obKerver might have Eeen ma^ified some minv 
bod; placed aocideutally in its anterior focus ; and tu the e; 
of fishes and quadrupeds, which he uses for his food, he mix 
have eeen, and might have extracted, thebeautifulleuses whi 
thej coutain. Had he looked through these remarkable tent 
aud spheres, and hud he placed the lens of the smallest miniio 
or that of the bird, the shoep, or the oi, in or before a oirou! 
aperture, be would have possessed a microscope or microecoi 
of excellent quality, and of different magnifying powers, l 
such observations, however, seem to have b«eu inada ', U 
even after the invention of glass, and its eon version into dob 
lar vesBels, through which, when filled with any fluid, ocy'ec 
are maguified, the Microscope remained undisoovered. 

The earliest magnifying lena of which we have any kooi 
ledge was one rudely made of rock-crystal, which Mr. LajSl 
found among a number of glass-bowls iu the north-west palai 
of Nimroud; hut no similar lens has been found aud deiwrih 
to induce us to believe that the Microscope, either simple < 
compound, was invented aud used as an instrument previv 
to the commencement of the seventeenth century. In the b 
ginning of the first century, however, Seneca alludes to ti 
magnifying power of a glass globe tilled with water ; but U I 
only states that it made amaU and iudistinct letters appO 
larger and more distinct, we cannot consider such a oasu 
remark as the invention of the single microscope; thoo^. 
might have led the observer to try the effect of smaller globe 
and thus obtain magnifying powers sufficient to discover pbi 
nomena otherwise invisible. 

LenseB of glass were undoubtedly in existence iu the tio 
ofPliay; but at that period, and for many centuries afte 
mirds, they appear to have \ieea msiS. wii ■" ' "' 

The earliest Microscope. 


heading glassea ; and no attempt seems to have been made to 
Term them of go Bmall a size ae to entitle them to be regarded 
even as the precursors of the single microscope. 

No peraoD baa claimed to be the inveiitor of the single ) 
Crosoope. According to Peter Biirell, tlie Jaiisesa, spectacle' I 
tnaters at Middleburg, iDvented the oompound microscope in 
1.^90 ; and presented the first instrumeut to Charles Albert, 
Srchduke of Austria. This microscope is stated to have beea 
rix feet long. The Dutch have claimed the invention for Cor- I 
leliuH Crebell, of Alkmaa,r, who resided iu London as mathe- f 
mtician to James I. Fontana, an Italian, made the aa 
ilftim for himself ; Viviani asserts that Galileo, his master, i 

Hi^ished at Milan in 18<)8, states that Galileo invented the { 
nicroscope and the telescope about the same time, and that he | 
ippUed the former to esamine objects otherwise invisible. The ' 
nstrumcut consisted, like the telescope, of a convex and a aou- 
Kve leuE, and also of one lens more convex, and exhibited the 
tmcturc of insects, and made visible things of prodigious lit- 
leness. It has been conjectured that Glalileo might have mftdQ I 
lie microscope in imitation of Jan9eu's,as he did the telescope, i 
rbich is more prob^ilile than that he was the original inventor. | 

Neither of these assertions has, however, been proved ; and, , 
nim these conflicting circumstances, it is obvious that i 
ingle individual can be considered as the inventor of the m 
ToBCope. Huyghena is of opinion that the single miorosco^ I 
rae invented not long after the telescope; and, says Sir David. I 
irewflter, "as soon as two lenses "were combined to magoiff 
listant objects, it was impossible ti> overlook their influence in 
Jie examination of objects that were near ; and it is highly I 
krobable that the difTerent individuals whom we have men- 
ioned may have had the merit of inventing, constructing, and | 
l^g the inicroBCOpe." 

Dr. Hooka was the first person who made a microscope from 
k nngle sphere of glass, from the twentieth to the fiftieth of an 
Uch in diameter, with which many interesting phenomena maj i 
^ observed, and even important liiscoveries made. Having i 
Uren a clear piece of glass, Dr. Eooke drew it out, by the heat ' 
*f & lamp, into threads, which he melted into a small ronnd ' 
dnbule ; and this sphere being ground on a whetstone, and J 
hea polished on a metal plate with tripoli, he placed it agai ~' 
' email hole in a thin piece of metal, and fixed it with h 
I%us filled up, Dr. Hooke says that "it will both magnify a; 
" ' e objects more distinct than any of the great n ' 
L do." There have been several ira(»" " "' 

le-gloBs sphere. 

174' ImpToned Microgcopei. ^1 

The celebrated Leuweahoeck, who made so many impori 
discoveries with the single n)icri>scope, was supposed to 1 
used only glass globules farmed by fusion ; hut Mr. Baker, ' 
had upon his table when he wrote the twenty-six microsoi 
which Leuwenhoeck left as a l^acy to the Royal Society, 
forms us that a double coaTei leas, and not a sphere or glob 
was in each of them. The»e small lenses are ground and polif 
by the baud, like all other lenses; and when the radii oft 
Burfaoes are as one to sis, they make very good microsoo 
Leuwenhoeck placed the lenses betweeu two plates of si 
perforated with a small hole, and having before it a mo^ 
pin, upon which to place the object, and adjust it to dist 
vision. With magnifying powers vaiying from forty to 
hundred and sixty, Leuwenhoeck made such important 
ooveries, that the compound microscope wae laid aside fi 
time, and superseded in England for many years by the ina 
oiia pocket-miorosoope of J. Wilcox, which, for neatlj a 
quarters of a century, was manufactured in England- 

We select these details from a valuable contribution bj 
David Brewster to the Nortli-BrtlUh Review, No. 50, in wl 
the author gives a popular account of the various inventioni 
which the microscope haa been brought to its present stat 
perfection, and become one of the most valual)1e instrument 
extending almost every branch of science. At the comma 
ment of the present century, no attempt had been made fa 
np the microscope as an instrument of discovery, and to aco 
modate it to that partioiilar kind of preparation which is 
quired for the preservation and scrutiny of minute olye 
For a very long period the microscope of Drebell served mi 
astonish the young and amuse the curious; and without grei 
detracting from the merits of Leuwenhoeck, and other natal 
igts who used it, we may safely assert that till it became ad) 
matio, by the labours of Lister, Ross,' and others, itwMl 
fitted for those noble researches in natural history and phyt 
logy in which it has performed so important a part. 

• Tbin ekIlliilDiitlcfandlGd, ofheut-dlseuD, Sepl. s IBfiB, 


InuB optical inetrument is named from three Qreek words, — 
^^don eidos, a. beautiful form, and laipeo, I see ; and it has been. 
Enrtenuvelj applied to the creation and exhibition of an infinite 
finTiet3r of perfect]}' STonnetrical figures. The idea of the inatrii- 

■ tecnt first occuired to Sir David Brewster in 1S14, wheit he was 
E engaged in experiments on the polarisatiou of light hj refleo- 
Ktirafl from plates of glass. Sir Dayid observed that when two 
I ^knes were inclined to one another, and the eye of the speO' 
P «Sor was nearly in the produced line of the common section of 
K'^dr planes, the farther extremities of the plate were multi- 
Ljdied by successive refiectiona, so as to exhibit the appearance 
Rdf a mrcle divided into sections ; also, that the several images 
W'pt a candle near those extremities were similarly disposed 
n^bout a centre. In repeating, at a subsequent period, the es* 

■ iberiments of M. Qiot on the action of fluids upon light, Sir 
pSavid Brewster placed the fluida in a trough formed by two 
I alates of glass cemented together at an angle; and the eye be- 
I mg necessarily placed at one end, some of the cement, which 
■JukI been passed tbroi^h between the plates, appeared to be 
HBRtmged into a regular figure. !rhe remarkable symmetry which 
Htt presented led to the experimenter's investigation of the cause 
^bif this phenomenon; and in so doing he discovered the leading 
^^^noipleii of the Kaleidoscope. 

^F The first Kaleidoscopes constructed by Brewster consisted 
^Umply of two plane mirrors of glass, having their posterior sur- 
Hb<iOS blacliened, in order to prevent &ny reflection of light from 
Hwem, and fixed in a cylindncal tube. The objects were pieces 
B«f vftrioualy- coloured glass, attached to the further ends of the 
Binirrors, and projecting on the sectional space between them ; 

■ or the objects were placed between two very thin plates of 
Bgl&SB, and held by the hand or fixed in a cell at the end of the 
Btabe : in some cases, these plates were moved across the field 
B'of view, and in others they were made to turn round upon the 
BaxiB of the tube. The pieces of coloured glass or other objeotB 
B which were situated in the section, were by the different re- 
B flections made to appear in all the other sections ; and thus the 

■ field of view presented the appearance of an entire object or 

■ pattern, all tJie parts of wliich were disposed with the moat 
I perfect symmetry. By moving the glass plates \)et'fle«Q.'w\^is3Q 
Ltlks olyeots were contained, t£e pitttem wa& iaa&& Vi "^ 


The Kaleidoscope. ^V^^^l 

form ; and pleasing varieties in the tints were produced b; 
moving the instruinent bo that tlie light fif the skj or of a lamp 
might Ml on the objectB in different directions. 

The inventor Buhsequently found meatiB to obtain multi- 
plied images of such objects aa flowers, trees, and even persona 
or things iu motion ; and thus the importance of the instra- 
ment was greatly increased. For this piirpoee, he caused the 
two niirrora to he fixed in n tube as before ; but this tube 
was contained in another, from which, libe the eye-tube of ■ 
telescope, it could lie drawn at pleasure towards the eye : at 
the opposite end of the exterior tube was fixed a glass lems Of 
eonveaieot focal length, by which were formed images of di^ 
fennt objects in the upper section ; and which, being multi- 
plied by successive reflections &om the mirrors, produced in tbt 
field of view symmetrical patterns of great beauty. The pro- 
perties of the instrument have been greatly extended ; and 
when it is conatruoted so thait there may be projected on ■ 
screen a magnified image of the whole pattern, and the tub* 
is supported on a hall-and-sucliet joint, the figures in its field 
may be easily sketched by a skilful artist, and great assistsDCS 
thus obtained in designing beautiful patterns. 

Sir David Brewster obtained a patent for his Ealeidoseoph 
and opticians were duly authorised by him to execute and «A 
thera. The public did not, however, adequately; enoounn 
the manufacture of instruments of a superior kind, which, 
moreover, were expensive ; while, in violation of the pateu^ 
imitations of the Kaleidoscope, rudely and inaccurately oon- 
struoted, were sold at low prices by unprincipled persons, It 
is calculated that not less than S00,0OO Kaleidoscopes wen 
sold in three months in London and Fans ; though, out lA 
this number, Sir David Brewster says, not perhaps IIJOO weff 
constructed upon scientific principles, or were capable of giving 
any thing like a correct idea of the power of his Kaleidoscc^[ 
so that ^e inventor gained little beyond fame, though %ba 
large sale of the imperfect iastrument must have prodnosd 
considerable profit. The effects of the instrument have been 
rendered highly useful in the industrial arts, especially in BUgr 
gesting patterns for carpets, and other prodticts of the loom. 

The writer well rememhors, in 1R14-J6, in a large school, tiM 
ftvidity with which pseudo- Kaleidoscopes were formed of pasW*. 
hoard cylinders, blackened planes of glass, and pieces of coloorei . 
glass, when the fantastic variety of the results obtained by this 
rode meaiiBSCarcelyforeshadowud the symmetrical beauty of tin 
forme subsequently obtained by more exact methods. To tlu 
school-boy of five-aiid- forty years since, the making of the Ka- 
JeJdoacope was nearly aa popular a recreation " ' '*^' 

grapbia art to the tyro of the pTeaiiuti ia.'^. 

a the phc^gM 


Bullous mirror which Ptolemy Evergetes caused to be 
1 in the Pharos at Alesaodria beloDgs to the first class, 
mirror is stated bj ancient authors to havd Tepresented 
itely every thiug which was transacted throughout all 
i, both on water and on laud. Some writers affirm that 
. its surface an enemy's fleet cauld be seeu at the distance 
jDjOOO paces ; others say, more tlian 100 leagues I Albul- 
"'"1 his description of Efiypt, states this mirror to have 
f "Chinese iron," which Buffon considers to mean p">- 
i Bteel ; but a writer iu the TMloKiphi<;al Magazine, 1606, 
wes the metal to have been (ulenag, a Chinese metallic | 
ound, capable of receiviug the highest polish. The exist- 
af PtoleiDy's mirror lias, however, lieen generally treated as ' 
len; but Father Abbat, in hia Amuaemeris PkuomphimieSt 
nibUdied at Marseilles iu 1763, cousiders that it may have 
itt the time the only mirror of its kind, and, being a great 
*er, its effects may have beeu greatly exaggerated ; matdng 
uioe for which, nothing remains " but that at some dis* 
; provided nothing was interposed between the objects i 
Ihe mirror, those objects were seeu more distinctly than 
(he naked eye; and that with the mirror many objeots 
aeeu which, because of their distance, were impertxptibla 

ifl certain that, under some circumstances, objects may 
m at a much greater distance than is geuerally supposed. 

it is stated that the Isle of Man is ciearly visible from 
immit of Ben Lomoud, in Scotland, or 120 miles distant. 
me states, that from the summit of Etna roouutains 300 
. off may be distinguished ; aud, during his visit to Tene- 
Ed 1856, Mr. Fiazzi Smyth saw objects at a much greater 

mtTiff-Mirrors have been celebrated on account of their J 
d extraordinary effects. One of these optical machineB 
le work of Stettala, a canou of Milan ; it was parabolic, 
BOting as a burning-glass, inflamed wood at the distant^ 
teen or sixteen paces. Leonard Digscs, m\i\.e PaTLtoiruBirvi., 
^ itatea that " with a glasse frEuned b; & T«^Q\»!iii.(nv ^ '» 

Great Burning LetU, 

section pnrabolicall, I have set fire to pomier half a mile and 
more distant, " In the prosecution of this subject, the cele- 
brated Napier and Sir Isaac Newton experimented with para- 
bolic reflectors before 1673. Tilette, an artist and optician of 
L;onB, constructed three mirror?, about the year 16T0 : one of 
these, which was purchased hy the king of France, was tWrtj 
inches in diameter, and of about three feet focus. The rays of 
the gun were collected by it into the space of about one inch. 
It immediatelj set fire to the greenest wood ; it fused dlvei 
and copper in a few seconds ; and in one minute vitrified bride 
and flint earth. A mirror, superior even to these, waa con- 
structed by Baron von Tchi^nhauBen, about 1687 : it conagtod 
df a metal plate, twice as thick as the blade of a common 
knife ; it was fire feet three inches in breadth, and its focit . 
distance was three feet six inohes. It produced the following ■ 
effects: wood, exposed to its focus, immediately took fire; ' 
copper and silver passed into fusion in a few minutes ; and * 
elate was transformed into a kind of black glass, which, whai > 
laid hold of with a pair of pincers, could be drawn out into '' 
filaments. Pumioe-stone and fragments of crcciblea, whiA " 
had withstood the most violent fiimaces, were also vitrified. ■• 
The btirning lens constructed by Mr. Parker many yeai ^ 
mnce, at an expense of upwards of TtMXW., was of flint-gllft, f 
3 feet in diameter, and weighed 212 pounds ; the focnl leneB b 
being 6 feet 8 inches, and the diameter of the focus I inch. W I* 
concentmte the rajs still farther, a second lens was tieed, bA. ti 
reduced the diameter of the focus to half an inch. Under tt» ■ 
lens every kind of wood took fire in an instant, whether harf c 
or green, or even soaked in water. Thin iron plates itrewkot " 
in an instant, and then melted. Tiles, slates, and all kinds n >^ 
earth, were instantly vitrified. Sulphur, pitch, and all resinoM k 
bodies, melted under water. Fir-wood, exposed to the focB f 
under water, did not seem changed ; but when broken, the iif ^ 
Bide was burnt to a coal. Any metal whatever, enclosed i» ■: 
charcoal, melted in a moment, the fire sparkling like that rfl ^ 
forge. When copper waa melted, and thrown down qni^ '^ 
into cold water, it produced so violent a shock as to br^k W ^ 
strongest earthen vessels, and the copper was entirely dirf' - 
pated. Though the heat of the focus was so intense as to nW " 
gold in B few seconds, yet there was so little heat at a shrt) = 
distance from the focus, tha.t the finger mi^lit be placed I* ■■ 
inch from it without injury. Mr. Parker having put hia Boffl ■^ 
at the focus to try the sensation, found it not resemble iSl* 
produced by fire or a lighted candle, but like that of a daifli 
, cut with a lancet. 


i Datid Brewstgb, in his admirable summary of the im- 
.t discoveries in physical astronomy which illustrated '' 
y that followed the publioation of Newton's I'rijiei} 
^uks that, " Brilliant as they are, and eviacing as th 
j liigheBt genius, yet the century in which we live has 
iiieied remarkable by a discovery which, whether ne vien 
theoretical relations or in its practical results, is t 
trk&ble in the history of physical astronomy. In the 
he planet Uranns, discovered since the time of NewtoBJ 
naomers had been for a long time perplexed with 
^pulwities, whiob could not be deduced from the action 
pother planets. M. Bouvard, who couBtructed tables of*'' 
set, seeing the impossibility of reconciling the ancient t. 
imodem observations, threw out the idea that the irregnlt 
I from which this discrepancy arose might be owin 
•^ nof anotherplanet. Ourcountryman, the Hev. Dr. 
eived 'the possibility of some disturbing body beyi 
nu j' and Hanson, with whom Bouvard corresponded 
subject, was of opinion that there must be two neie plai 
i Uranus, to account for the irregularities. In 1834 ' 
QT was anxious that the Astronomer- Boy al should 
D detecting the invisible planet; and other astron 
eed the same desire to have so important a question 
d and settled. On his return to Berlin from the meet 
a British Association in 1846, the celebrated astronomt 

jI commenced the task of determining the actual 
of the planet ; but, in consequence of the death o 
uning, tJie young German astronomer to whom he ha 
ied Borne of his preliminary calculations, and of his 
_h not long afterwards, the inqiury was stopped. 
WUle the leading astronomers in Europe were thus tl 
and talking about the possible existence of a new planet 
and the orbit of Dranus, two young astronomers {Mr. Adams, 
Bt. John's College, Cambridge, and M. LevetvieT, tA"?OTvS^ 
B dUigentlj eogaged in attemptijig to dedoLGB Sia"Qi.ya.e '"" 

180 Discovery of the Planet Neptui 

regulariUea which it produced in the wotiona of Uranus the 
elements of tlie planet's orbit, and its actuaJ position in the 
heavens. In October 1845 Mr Adama solved this intricate 
problem,- — tke inverse problem of peTiurbaiions* as it haa been 
oalied, — placing beyond a doubt the theoretical esiatence of the 
planet, and aeaigaing to it a phice in the heaveus which was 
afterwards found to be little luore than a single degree from 
its exact place 1 Anxious for the discovery of the pkuet in the 
heavens, Mr. Adams comrounicated his results to the Astrono- 
mer-Royal aud Professor Challis ; but more than nine montha 
were allowed to pass away before a single telescope was directed 
in search of it to the heavens. On the 29th of July, Professor 
Challis began his observations ; and on the 4th and 12th of 
August, when he directed his telescope to the theoretical plaOe 
of flie planet as given him by Mr. Adams, Ae «iw C/ie planet, and 
eAtained two positions of it. 

While Mr. Adams was engaged in this important inquiry, H. 
Leverrier, — who had distinguiBhed himself by a aeries of valuable 
memoirs on the great inequality of Pallas, on the perturbations 
of Mercury, and on the rectifi cations of the orbits of comets, — 
was busily occupied with the same problem. In the summec 
of J845, M. Arago represented to Leverrier the importance of 
Htudjing the perturbations of Uranus, which fluggeBtioti he fol- 
lowed; and on November 10, 1845, submitted to the Academy 
of Scienoe his First Memoir on the Theory of Uranus ; and in 
the foUowing June his Second Memoir, in which, after esamio- 
ing the different hypotheses that had been adduced to explain 
the irr^ularities of that planet, he is driven to the conclusion 
that tkei) are doe to the action of a planet situated in Ike edintie 
at a mtan distance double tliat of Uranus. He then proceeds to 
determine where this planet is actually situated, what is ita 
mass, and what are the elements of the orbit which it deanriba. 
After giving a rigorous solution of this problem, and showing 
that there are not two quarters of the heavens in which we oan 
place the planet at a given epoch, he computes its heliocentric 
place on the let of January 1847, which he finds to be in the 
325th degree of longitude; and he boldly ^serts that in assign- 
ing to it this place, he does not commit an error of more t^ 
10°, The position thus given to it is within a degree of that 
found by Mr. Adams. Anxious, like Mr. Adams, for the actual 
discovery of the planet, M. Leverrier naturally expected th^ 

\tad [hat obMfvini could Giia it— ni.7<M.&^V^.< 
'laWtL df a degree fiDin«iEamoaifl,6vv™\>^ 

boD.mdr i 

notioal aatronomew would eiert themselves in searching for 
' The place nhich he fteeigned to it was published on the lat 
June, ELod jet no attempt Beems to have been made to find 
for nearly five months. The exact poHlioa of the planet was 
1 ou the 3lHt of August, and on the 13th of September 
la communicated to M. Golle, of the Royal Ohservatorj' of 
ariin, who discovered it as a star of the eighth magnitude the 
■(yoTenine ou which he received the request to look for it. 
Htfcasor Challia bad secured the diEcoverj of this remarkable 
(^ wx weeks before, but the honour of having actually 
aiDd it belongs to the Prussian astronomer. With the uni- 
wml concurrence of the astronomical world, the new planet 
adved the name of Heptune. It revolves round the euu in 
Q yeara, at a mean distanoe of thirty, that of Uranus being 
bateen, and that of the Earth one ; and by its diacoveTy tho 
Jar System haa been extended otk t/ioumnd miilioita of -iniltl 
^^foad its former limits. 

The honour of having made this discovery (continues Sir 
Hid Brewster most emphatically) belongs equally to Adama 
id Levorier. It is the greatest intellectual achievement in 
w Minals of astrunomy, and the noblest triumph of the New- 
niui Philosophy. To detect a planet by the eye, or to trook 
fa) its pkM by the mind, are acts as incommensurable as tllOH 
fmuBCular and intellectual power. Becumbent on his easy- 
uir, the pracllual astronomer haa but to look through the cl^ 
I hia revolving cupola in order to trace the pilgrim star iu its 
rane ; or by the application of magnifying power, to expand 
K tiny disk, and thus transfer it from its sidereal companiooB 
io the planetary dominions. The physical astronomer, on the 
oontrary, has no such auxiliaries: he islculates at noon, when 
the stars disappear under a meridian sun ; he computes at mid~ 
night, when clouds and darkness sliroud the heavens ; and from 
that cerebral dome, which haa no opening heavenward, 
instruDietit but the Eye of Reason, he sees in the dift- 
ig agencies of an uuaeen planet, upon a planet by him 
lly unseen, the existence of the disturbing agent; and from 
lature and amount of its action, he computes ita magni- 
tude Bud indicates its place. If man has ever been permitted 
to see otherwise than by the eye, it is when the clairvoyance 
of reason, piercing through screens of epidermis and walla of 
bone, grasps, amid tho abstractions of number and of quality, 
those subhme realitiea which have eluded the keenest tou<A 
and evaded the sharpest eye."* 


Ths production of enamelled Potteij irom native materials in 
France is strlliingly comiuemarated in the tiud <if ware which 
ma; b« aoid to be peculiar to tiiat countr;, and is knotni U 
Paliitu Ware. There is a good deal of einbellishmeut mixed np 
vrith the life oftheiuventor of this Ware; " and his adventaras, 
real or imagiDary, have assisted in multiplyiug the number tt 
those dangerous books which aacribe imaginary events to ml 
ohuncters."* There is, how'ever, enough of truth in the lift 
of Palissy to awaken our sympathies, and excite our admira- 
tion of his works, which represent the most interesting epoch 
in the histon" of his art, while his personal life is a romance. 

Bernard PalisBy was bom at La Cbapelle-Biron, a village in 
the old diocese of Agen, at the commeuoemeat of the sixteenth 
oenturj. His parents were poor ; but they had him taught 
readiugaad writing. A land-survejor, who had come to Agen to 
lay down a plan of that part of the country, remarked the boT 
Bernard's quickness, and the utteatiou with which he watohw 
his operatiofis; and by his parents' consent took him away with 
him to teach him his business. His progress ia practical geome- 
try was so rapid, that he mapped out districts before he had 
ended his apprenticeship. In the iiitervnis of employment, he 
was much giveu to the study of the Italian masters : be «m 
delighted to paint images and designs on glass, and ashisnai ~ 
became known, he was oonunissioned to adorn cliiirches al 
the castles of the nobles. This enabled him to gratify his ta> 
for travelling and for atudviug natural objects. Nature Iil- 
implanted in him a love of the beautiful, which became hil 
teacher. Meanwhile, he became acquainted with the chem^ 
try and mineralogy of his day, auch as it was. He did not, 
however, profit so largely as he might have done by the statt 
of knowledge in his time. He had the filing, so comnoil 
with practical men, of inveighing against theory; yet, in tin i 
only work which he has left on the subject of his art, he is oh' 
ecure in the few practical details which be gives, and has mixed 
them up with theories of his own, which only prove how much 
Fui toil and how manjatort.vioBS5ervments he would haw . 

Palissy the Folter, 

spared, hod he consulted those who were qualified t(i in- 
Dim of the true principles of pby aical and chemical sci- 
1 applicable to his researches.* 
In 1639 P£iiis8j quitted his native village, and settled as an 
'"'•• at Saintes, wliere he married. Here his modes of ob- 
ox a livelihood became lees profitable, and employment 
jften iiot to be liad. He filled up his time with the itidulg- 
of scientific theories, but felt within him the workin? of 
jea which had not yet been called into full action. Wnila 
tUe state of mind, a beautifully enamelled cup, which had 
' ly been made at Fnenxa iu Italy, fell into hia hands, 
with its beauty, he set about inquiring into its mode of 
tture and the secrets of its composition, especially the 
nei. He undertook a course of experimentB on the subject, 
without success : he burnt the clay itself, mixed it with 
DOB ingredients, covered it with ever-varyiaj; prepamiions, 
tried them, with renewed hopes, in the furnaces of glaziers 
potters, but without success. He then built for himself & 
which he ultimately demolished aud mbuilt ; for this 
' would be his maiu depeiideuce. In those days, a man 
which placed him greatly in advance of his neigh- 
s, was almost sure to be suspected uf sorcery, and Falissy's 
kda begau ta look upon him with terror j others ima^ned 
to be a coiner of &Iae money, and others thought him to 

^e desire to master his object had now taken such posses* 
bof PaUasy, that for several years he devoted n ' " ■ ■ 
i and means to its pursuit, in spite of the clain: 
&niil;y, and the remonstrances of his friends. 
bed with bitter feehng the conflict in his on 
time ; yet he bore outwardly a cheerful countenance, and 
« to inspire his family with the confidence he himself fair 
. »t he should one day place them in affluence by his saceeBI 
thuaoverpay them for all the privations they were endurinj 
n years thus passed away, Palissy was still firm in tu 
tion, yet had not succeeded: but nothing short of pro 
ag enamel in all its perfection would satisfy him. Oneda^ 
1 ne thought himself on the point of attaining the o 
rt of his life, a workman, on leaving him, deoiaudea 
^ IB that were due to him : Palissy had no money, and p: 
k with the few clothes he had left. He had now to w( 
Id, — to prepare his colours, and to heat and watch the fuc- 
e which his own hands had made. Once more he was on 
vei^ of success ; he placed in his oven a vase, ouwluiah. 
hopes were oeatemd, and ran for wood to ieel v\w, tx^-j "A 
all coasuined. He stood for a moment oveTviV^Hiei'^'OB. 

• Dr. Lanloer on ■■ Thu Potlaf 8 irl." 

PalUty'i Rustic Pottery. ^^^^^^ 

deepiilr ; them rufihiug into his gtirden, lie tore up the trellu- 
work that supported hiK fruLt-treea, broke it in pieoee, and 
heated his furuace. Up sprang the dame, and then mni into 
the deep-red gluw which promised the realisatiuTi of bis hopes ; 
aeaio the fire was nearly esbaueted, when he broke into pie<iei 
bu chairs and tables, theti the door, next the window-fiames, 
kud at last the very flooring of his house—to feed the furnace. 
This was FalisBj'B final effort, — and bis triumph. He shouted 
with joj, as he showed bis wife and children the vaae he had 
juat taken out of the furnaoe ; it was bright with the imperish- 
able colours, that till theu he had onl; seeu in dreanis, sime 
he had lirst beheld the oup of Faeiiza. 

This was in the year IS&O. He had now discovered tib 
OOmpositioQ of various enamels ; and it was not long before kit 
beautiful works found their wny into all parts of France. The 
king. Hetiri 11,, couiinissioued Palissy to execute certain vb«» 
and figures to adorn his palace-garden ; he sent for the potM 
to Paris, gave him apartnients in the TuUeries, with a patent 
which set forth that he was the inventor of a. new kind of pot- 
ter; ; and, under the patrotinge of the king, the queen, Ca- 
therine de' Uedici, and the Constable Montmorency, Palissy 
was known at Paris bj no other niime than that of Bernard de 
Tuileries. He was employed by the Duke of Montmorency lo 
decorate the ChfLteau d'Ecouen ; and oua of the finest existing 
BpecimenB of Palissy Ware is a flask, which bears the Uont- 
morency arnis, 

Palissy's /galine*, or rustic pottery, became the fashion of 
the day, and his benutiful designs were every where admired. 
The general style of this ware is marked by quaintuesB and / 
«inKularity. While the forms are in general correct and pure, 
there is no painting, properly so called. The figures are given 
in coloured relief, and the euamel is hard and brilliant. Tba 
ooloursareuBuallybright, and mostly yellows, blues, and grays; 
sometimes extending to green , vioiet, and brown ; but no tint 
white, nor any tint of red. He is considered " a great masUi 
of the power and effect of neutral tints." Uie piicet ruMiqut^ 
intended to adorn the large sideboards, or dreiaen, of the diniag- 
iudls of the period, and the dishes and plateaux for the sastt 
purpose, and not for the table, are loaded with figures in relief 
A favourite object with him was also a flat kind of basin, i* 
presenting the bottom of the sea, with fishes, shells, sea-weedt, 
pebbles, snakes, &c. ; and among his works are ewers and v&sel 
grotesquely omamented, hoars' heads, curious saU-cellara, 
figures of saints, wall- and floor-tiles.* 

FalUsy Ware. 185 

The natural objeota reprerented on the pieces of PaliBsy are 

narkable fortruth of form and colour, having been, with the 

seption of certain leaves, moulded from uature. He was 

_jre or lees a naturalist: his shells are all tertiary fossil shells 

rfrtna the I'aris basin ; the fishee are those ofthe Seine ; aud the 

I )q>tiljeB, a preTuxIing subject, thoee ofthe banks ofthe same 

llnrer. He made use of no foreign natural production. He 

^Dst be admired as well for the beauty as for the utility of his 

M>very. It was to him that France owed her high rank in 

oeramic art. Ue formed the first cabinet of natural bis- 

▼ collected iii France ; and he lectured on botany, chemistry, 

d agriculture before learned scholars. He wrote, though he 

ew neither Latin nor Greek, m a style which reminds one of 

i Kontaigne. In his Traite de I'Art de Ttrre, he tells the ead 

I itoiT of his twenty years' anxiety, labcjiir, and privation, with 

1 famohing truthfulness ; the unparalleled difficulties he en- 

I saastered, the sacrifices he made, the sufierings he endured, 

id his obstinate perseverance, amounted to a sort of heroism. 

He tells us, in words of re1ig;ious truth, the mainspring of 

ia hope throughout tfiis long probation. " I have found no- 

ing Detter," he says; " than to observe the counsel of God, 

is edicts, statutes, and ordinances ; and in regard to His will, 

p[ Imve seen that He has commanded His followers to eat bread 

y the labour of their bodies, and to multiply the talents which 

le has committed to them." The heroism which Palisay showed 

a the pursuit of hts art, he evinced in hia religious faith ; 

n. Sunday moruings he would assemble four or five " sim- 

id unlearned men" for religious worship, aud exhort them 

) good works. Such was " the beginning of the reformed 

I Church of the town of Saintes." Some time after, when the 

place WBs assailed by the fierce opponentfl of the reformers, 

the workshop of Palissy was broken into by the mob, and the 

r poor potter sought shelter in a corner; but being discovered, 

IS dialed to a dungeon at Bordeaux. Here he would have 

rished on the gallows, but that his country might thereby 

» his valuable art. 

The character of this great improver of Pottery was strongly 

Flnarked, not only by patience, perseverance, and sagacity, but 

r aim by mora! firmness and unshaken rectitude. He lived in 

troublous times ; and being a conscientious Protestant, he uit- 

' lieritatingly avowed hia religious opinions, even in bis dia- 

coDTSes on art. He had warmly embraced the principles of 

the Beformation ; he was arrested at the time of the first edict 

Heroism of Palissy. 

against Protestants, framed at Boouen by Henri II. in 
he recovered his liberty through the intercession of the Con- 
stable of Moatmorency with the queen, and through the eame 
powerful protection Palissy escaped from the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew. He, however, tbua escaped unscathed, to en- 
dure greater sufferings. In his uinetieth year he was again 
accused of heresy; and re^wug to renounce his opinions, he 
" a thrown into the Baatille. There he was visited by Henri 
'.. "My good man," said the king, "if you cannot conform 
yourBelf on the matter of religion, I shall be compelled to leave 
you in the hands of my enemies." " Sire," rephed the vener- 
able old man, " I was already willing to surrender my hfe; and 
oould any regret have accompanied the action, it must assur- 
edly have vanished upon hearing the great king of France say, 
'I am compelled.' This, sire, is a randition to which those 
who force you to act contrary to your own good disposition 
can never reduce tm; because I am prepared for death, and be- 
canae your whole people have not the power Co compel a single 
potter to bend his knees before imagea which he has mode." 

And so Palissy, to the eternal dwgra'ce of the monarch and 
the priests, and of bis country, whose art he had so signally 
ennobled, was detained in the Bastille, where he died, at little 
short of a. hundred yeara of 5ge. 

The high moral firmness and unshaken rectitude of Bernard 
Palissy must ever command the admiration of mankind. ITo 
example can be found of one to whom the following lines of 
Hoiaoe {translated by Francis) are more truly applicable : 

" The man, in consoious virtne bold. 
Who doroa hja secret piirpoBe hold, 
Unehaken hears the cruwd'a tuinultuoua oriM, 
Aad th' impotuoua tyrant's angry brow dofies." 


f men haye laboured so auo(;i!BsfuI]y to refiue and elevate 
s Josiah Wedgwood, "the Father of the PotterieB," 
it the first of a long succession of Staffordehire pottera, who 
vitpplied the highest scieuce and the purest art to the im- 
Tement of their commercial enterprise. 
rTVedgwood was boni on the 12th of July 1730, at Buralem 
Staffordshire, and was the son of a poor potter. His edaoa- 
1 WM very limited; for "scarcely any peraou in Burslem 
^oed mure than mere reading and writing until about ITSOj 
^ a some individuals endowed the free school, for instructing 
youth to read the Bible, write a iiur hand, and know the pri- 
mary rules of arithmetic,'' Wedgwood had Uttle time for self- 
iniproYemeut, slnGe at the age of eleveu years hu worked in his 
elder brother's pottery as t/iTOteer, his father being then dead. 
The ama!l-pox, which left an incurable lameness in his right 1 

Tor Stoke, where his talent for the production of ornamental ;l 
Mttery Hrst developed itself. He next, in partnership with ona 1 
fflieildoa, manufactured kuife-handles in imitation of agate J 
tad tortoiseshell, melon table-plates, greeu-pickle leaves, and.] 
dmtlar articles. But Wheiidon had Qttle taste for the new. J 
jranohes of art-raauufiicture for which Wedgwood liad so greatJ 
1 predilection ; he therefore returned to Burslem in 1TS9, anif^ 
let np for himself, in a amall thatched manufactory, wher^ 
le continued to make ornamental articles. He prospered, i 
oon took a second manufactory, where he made white V 
HOTS ; and a third, at which he produced the improved cr< 
joloujed ware, by which he gained so much celeLrity. Of thi 
lew ware Wedgwood presented some articles to Queen C 
otte, who thereupon ordered a complete table- service ■ and »« 
oleased with its execution, as to appoint Wedgwood her pot^ 
-od to command that the ware should be called " Que ' 

" Jl bos a dense and durable subBtance, covtTfti '^ 
^^JjKe, and IS ospabJe of bearing iimiijut*i48a.ii'"^ 
^^^■Sf and cold. It waa from tbe &rat %o\&. « 

Wtdgwood Ware. 

MftWai at embellishiDentB y> , 
» ■■haiiil edge ur pitinted border wtts added tA| 
[««, ■•4 lasU; |>rinLed patterns, which c 
AMi Jt^t WM ihiB beautiful ware con& 
1L ta^MdaSunt Fond showa how widely Q 
I rf ««^r*"Mi:^ ■Mtcrj had spread ticfure 1793, Mta 
^Mi^hC fc^ nn* to PttUrAiarg, from AmsteroHD H 
teftat Mt at SimAh, Md froiu Dunkirk to tbe «r' 
^r^ *^ Tt iM O i* ft — Bi . noe is served at eve^ in&^a 
■k^HB^ ^pak ha^pl, Mkd Italtr «re supplied with Si 
" '''^'fctlrthe Ekit ludies, the Wol 

" " Und is maiulj ij' 
impTovtment a~ 
Bt^ore hii b' 

— — , . , *»silT t 

■&«a^««^^iidl if ««> M to farm ur onta 

The Portland Vase. 1891 

of vitrifled pasta, or 

.^ , _. regardsd as a, natural pruduction. It wa» du- 

»erM about Che niiddlo of tlie tenth OBntivtr. and said to be many 
and of Greek workmanship. It hoa been depoBited in 
tliB British Museum since ISIO. It vaa exhibited in a amall room of the 
rid Museum bnildinga until Feb. 7, 1845, when it was wanton); dashed 
to piooaa by a fanatic ; but the fragments being jatliered up, the rasa 
haa been restored by Mr, Doubleday -so beautifully that a hlemigh can 
BOarcaly be detected. The vase ia non kept in the Mods! Buom a 
Miueuin. Tbe mode In whiuh it was mauufactured was not knovn l 
nnta it waa broken; and it is now considered ae eatjafaolory proof 

tbe ancienu. One of Wedgwood's CDpioB of t^ Portland Vaae waa w 
~|^iH6B for ahoTe 200 suineaa. 

t Flaiman, the greatest Eoglieh sculptor, was largely ei 
I by Wedgwood iu the preparation of models for t 
^ Hiliful worka of :irt which he was the first, in modem time^ J 
taxeoute in pottery. By nianeroua experitnentB upon vw' 

'b of clay and colouring subslanceB, he succeeded in prtt- \ 
lag the moat delicate cameos, medallions, and roiniatuif \ 
H of sculpture, in a. substance so extremely hard, that thi^ f 
r likely to esoeed even the bronzes of antiquity in dm*- J 
Another important discovery made by him was that of 1 
Iqiting on vases without the glossy appeamnce of ordinaj; [ 
Intiiig on porcelain or earthenware : an art which was pi 

d by the anoient Etruscans, but which appears to have ch 

'nee the time of Pliny. The indeatructibtlity of some fAM 

ffea rendered them extremely valuable in the fbcraatiotfl 

mical vessels, particularly those exposed to the action MM 

The fame of Wedgwood's operatiana was such, that hi« V 

' "jrslem, and subsequently at Etruria, a village built \ 

,r Mewcastle-under-Lyne, and to which he removed 

SX771, became a point of attraction to visitors from all parts { 


Bdgwood's more beautiful inventions were a terra eotta, J 
h oould he made to resemble porphyry, granite, Egyptian ] 
ie, and other beautiful stones of the siliceous or crystal-' f 
jekindj a black porcelainous biscuit called iiMo^Ifg; a white I 
ftft caue-coloured porcelain biscuit, smooth and wax-like i J 
K another white porcelaiuous biscuit, which receives colouT' | 
'S metallic oxides lilie glass on enamel in fusion. This prO' I 
mders it applicable to the production of cameos, and all f 
B required to be shown in bas-relief, as the ground tssa 
e of any colour, while the raised figures are of tbe purest 
Mr, Wedgwood likewise invented a porcelain biscuit 
jr us hard as a^te, which will reaist the action of all w«- 
..« aubstancea, and Is consequently well,ed^ fot T&at^sx% 
the chemist's ia Moratory. ^H 

W Wedgwood's Inventions, ^^^^^^^M 

Wedgwood's inventioiis greatly increased the number of 
pereous emploj'ed in the Potteries, and improved them by me- 
chanical contnvBJiue and arran^ment ; his private manufactory ^ 
having had, for thirtjr years ajid upwards, all the efficacy of a 

Sablic work of experiment. Is 1785, Wedgwood stated in evx- 
ence before a committee of tlie House of Commons, that from 
15,000 to 20,000 persona were then employed iu the Potteries, " 
and much greater numbers in digging coals for them, and, in 
Tarious parts of England and Ireland, in digging flints and clay 
fi)r the earthenware mantifocture ; 50,000 or 60,000 tons ti J 
those materials being annually conveyed to Staffordshire by ^ 
ooasting and inland navigation. 

In addition to the attention displayed by Wedgwood on the 
mannfaoCure insepambly connected with bis name, he displayed ' 
greftt public spirit in the encouragement of Viirious usefdl 
schemes. By bis exertions, aiid the engineering skill of Brind- 
ley, was completed the Trent and Mersey Canal, by which water- 
communication was established between the Pottery distriot of ^ 
Btaffordshire and the coasts of Devonshire, BorEetabire, and 
Kent, whence some of the materials of the manufacture an 
derived. Wedgwood also planned and carried into eiceoutiMi 
a turnpike road ten miles in length through the Potteries. * 
He was a Fellow of the Boynl Society and of the Society of 
Antiquaries ; he also invented a pyrometer, which, as a met- 
sure of expansion by heat, baa not been surpassed. He made 
the most liberal use of his ample fortune. lie died at Etruria, 
a 1T9S, in his sixty-fifth year ; and, although he had so largely 
contributed to the prosperity of his countrymen, it was not 
until more than sixty years after his decease that any fittii^ 
memorial of this eminent puhUc benefactor was decided on. ' 
In 18S9 it was resolved to erect at Stoke a statue of the great 
potter, holding in his hand the Portland Yase. 

Wedgwood had many English imitators ; he iias even twap 
imitated abroad, especially at Sivres, Dresden, and Vienna, j 

(etore ne attempt ait outline of the great discoveries nf this 
deotiGc benefactor, it uiaj be interesting to glance at the 
irliest emplojment of the mighty power of Steam, which car- 
GB us back to a remote classic age. It appears that the as- 
mding vapoar of flnids, as well as their downward tendency, 
U Bummoned by the ancients to the aid of superstition. An- 
nius of Trallea, the architect of Justinian, being desiroua 
i annoy the orator Zeuo, his seighbour and his enemy, coU' 
acted steam in leather tubea from concealed boilers, and made 
ton pass through the partition- wall to beneath the beamB 
Lfch supported the ceilings of Zeno's house. When the cal- 
rona were made to boil, the ceilings shook as if thej had been 
iBken by an earthquake. 

Another example of the application of steam to thepurposeB 
rimposture is given by ToUiua. History informs us that on 
le banks of the Weser, Busteric, the god of the ancient Teu- 
iDB, sometimes eihibit«d his displeasure by a clap of thunder, 
hii^ was succeeded by a cloud that filled tlie sacred precincts. 
be imaee of the god was made of metal, and the head, which 
U hollow, contained an ampbora (nine English gaOons) of 
ater. Wedges of wood shut up the apertures at the mouth 
ad eyes ; while burning coals, artfully placed in a cavity of the 
Bad, gradualiy heated the liquid. In a short time the ge- 
BTated steam forced out the iredges with a loud noise, and 
len escaped in three jets, raising a thick cloud between the 
3d and his astonished worshipers. In the Middle Ages the 
lODkg availed themselves of this invention, and the steam imt 
jwput in requisition even before Christian worshipers. 
The entry among the mauuBoripts of Leonardo da Vinci of 

ihe Architonnere of Archimedea, or the apparatus of a steam- 

mn, has been already noticed, in the sketch of the Discoveries 

)f Leonardo, at page 8:i. 

The jEolofiU, or Ball of .^olus, was another ancient appli- 

Sation of steam. It consisted of a hollow globe of mctoi, Vi'Oix 
long neck, terminating with a very Bmn.\\oTi6cB,VM.da,\yaa>^ 
"•■■ with water, and placed ona fite, esiuiii.\«4. "Oaa *«»s»^| 


Tlut JEoIoptle. 

B generated by the heat, rushing apparently with g^tat ~| 
force through the narrow opening. A commoit tea-kettle k, I 

" ' B sort of ^olopile. The andenta applied tlie current | 
1, as it issued from the spout, to propel the vanes of a 
■, by acting immediately upon the air, to generate a 
movement oppoEite to ite own direction. 

The Staffordshire Jack of Hilton, in 1680, waaa small ateam- 
boiler under the following guise: it was a little huilow image 
of brass, of al)Out twelve inches high, kneeling upon the Idt 
knee, and holding the right hand upon the head ; having a littla 
hole in the place of the mouth about the bigness of a great 
pin's head, and another in the back about two-thirds of an in<A 
in diameter : at this last hole it was filled witli water (about 
four pinla and a quarter), which, when set to a strong fire, 
evaporated after the same manner as an ^olopile, and vented 
itself at the smaller hole in the mouth. 

Father Verbieat, in his Attronomia Europan, 16S0, gives • 
iriouB aooount of some experiments that he made at Pekiti. 
He placed an Aolopile upon a car, and directed the steam ge- 
nerated within it upon a wheel to which four wings wpre at- 
tached i the motion thus produced was communicated by gear- 
ing to the wheel of the car. The machine continued to move 
with great velocity as long as the steam lasted ; and by means 
of a kind of helm it could be turned in various directions. Aa 
experiment was made with the same instrument applied to a 
EDUillsbip, and with no less success. 

These iikcts belong to the mtrioBities of the subject. In trac- 
ing the practical history of the Steam-engine through some of 
its earlier modifications, we shall find that, although the present 
form of this stupendous machine almost deserves the title of 
an invention, yet many steps had been taken, and much labour 
and much ingenuity expended, before it was brought to that 
point from wMch the more modem improvements may be said 
to have begun. 

The first apparatus of this description of which any au- 
thentic account has been preserved was suggested by Hero the 
elder, who lived at Alexandria about B.C. 100. It consisted of 
sol, in which steam was generated by the application of 
external heat. A ball was auppUed with the elastic vapour 
thus procured by means of a beut pipe; a steam-Cight joint 
being provided for that purpose. Two tubes, beut to a right 
angle, are the only parts open to the air; and as the steam 
rushes out from very minute apertures, a rotatory motion ia 
produced. A description of this apparatus is preserved in Hero's 
JSpirUaliti, published by the Jesuits in 1693 ; and an esceUent 
it of Hero's inventions lias been published by Mr. T 

Sleam-mnchines of De Caus and Brancas. 19^^| 

The nest attempt waa the eKperiment made ia 1543 hj 
BInBco de Oaray, a sea-captaiu, to propel vessela by a machine 
haTing the appearance of a steam-engine. This eKperiment 
' before the Emperor Charles V. in the port of Bar- 
the Trinity, aoO tone burden. All that could be 
ivered during the trial was, that the machinerj consiated 
a large boiler containing water, and that wheels were al- 
lied to each side of the vessel, b; the revuiutiuu of which it 
■riU' propelled. After the esperiment, Oaray took away all the 
'linery, leaving only the framing of wood in the arsenals of 
doaa. As a boiler was used, it is probable, though not cer- 
iaSa, thst steam was the ^eut. It is most likely that the con- 
IC8 of Oaray was identical with that of Hei'o. Tlie espe- 
it Bncoeoded, Garay was rewarded, and the usefulness of 
e oraitrivanoe in towing ships out of port was admitted ; yet 
does not appear that a second experiment was ever made, 
BOh less that the machiue was brought into practical use. 
h Maogregor impugns this report,* and states, as the re- 
■" of his inquiries in Spain, that if Blasco de Garay used a 
"Tgine to propel a vessel, the evidence of the fact is not 
by his two letters at Simancas, and is not produced, if 
hi known there or at Barcelona, by the pubhc officers and 
hers interested in supporting such a claim. 

Seventeen years later, in 1615, Solomon de C&us, who had 
ten engineer and architect to Louis XIIL, king of France, 
iblished a work, in which he speaks of the great violence 
when water exhales in air by means of fire, and the said air 
eDolosed : as, for example, tnke a ball of copper of one or 
ra feet diameter, and one inch thick, which being filled with 
titer by a small hole, which shall be strongly stopped with a 
ig, BO that neither air nor water can escape, it is certain that, 
fre put the said ball upon a great fire, so that it will become 
^-' not, it will cause a compreMion so violent that the ball 
buret in pieces with a noise like a petard." This effect is 
lemore to the high-pressure steam raised from the water than 
tlie pressure of the heated air aontaiued in the ball. It is, 
iwever, evident that De Caus ascribed the force entirely to 
e air, and not to the agency of steam, whicii he never men- 
ms ; wherefore he cannot be considered to have had a share 
'the invention of the steani- engine. 
Ifext is Brancas'a Revolving Apparatus, which was still more 
hi^e than that contrived by Hero. A copper vessel, filled 
Fitn vrater (in the onginal figure made in the foi'in of an oma- 
al head), was furnished with a pipe, through which the 
1 ires propelled ; and striking agaiust the vanea i{'a.%cn^, 
ly gave motion to pestles and mortaie lot ^oivi&vM^ Toa» »f __ 

• lonniperreadlD theSoclEtfOf Ane, &i^v» U.^^SI^ ^^fl 


194 The Man-quU of Worcester's Mm 

riftla to •catkb gaDpowde^, and rolling -Eton ee for griDding the 
same j mtiehiuea for raising water by buckets, for Barring tim- 
ber, for driving piles, &c. No very cousidemble furce coaU 
have been obtiiined from this simple apparatus, a,s the Bteai% 
paasing througb the atmosphere m its paasNgu to the wheel, 
must, to a certain estent at least, be converted into iraler) 
and the method has no aitalog? to any application of ateam iU 
modem eugines. 

After the publication of the work by Braiicas, more tbia 
thirty years elapsed ere the appearance of the Marquis of W«^ 
carter's Cenlnrt) of hveentioiu recalled the attention of the ■»■ 
entific world to thiH important subject. His Hydraulic HtushilU 
is described at pp. 105-111. It " raised water mure than forty 
geometrical feet by the power of one man only, and in a vew 
short space of time drawing np four vessels of water throu^ 
a tube or channel not more than a span in width." 

This contrivance was a great advance upon that of De CUM ; 
&r, allowing that he knew the physical agent by wbtoh the 
water was driven upwards in bis appju^tua, still it was only ■ 
method of causing a vessel of boiling water to emp^ itadt; 
and before a repetition of the process could be made, the vewfil 
ehould be refilled, and again boiled. In the miichine of Iund 
Worceeter, on the other hand, the agency of the Btemn WH 
employed in the same manner as it is in the steam-engine of 
the present day, being generated in one vessel, and used fbr 
mecnanicnl purposes iu another. Fpon this diatitjotion. de- 
fends the whole practicability of using steam as a mech&nicil 
agent. Had its action been confined to the vessel in which it 
was produced, it never conld have been usefully employed. 

Sir Samuel Norland's "Principles of the New Force of Fire" 
baa heen noticed at page 103 ; but he does not indicate the fonn 
<rf the machine by which he proposed to render the force of Btam 
a useful mover. It is, however, remarkable, that at th^ eui^ 
|ieriad, before experiments had been made on the expandon 
which water undergoes in evaporation, Morland should b&n 
given BO near an approidmation to the actual amount of that 
expansion. It can scarcely be supposed that such an estimBtfl 
eould be obtained by him otherwise than by experiments. 

To Benis Papin, a native of Blois, is due the discovoy, iU 
I6S8, of one of the qualities of steam, to the proper manage- 
ftient of which is owing much of the efficacy of the rooden 
Bteam -engine. He conceived the idea of producing a monog 
power by means of a piston working in a cylinder, aa in the 
motion of pumps; and he first proposed to produce theviuMlun 
Boder the piston by means oS cotumoti sh--^>i.\k^ worked bya 

irafer-wheel. This, howevet, -woiASi VvA ■>, • '- ~ ' 

transfer of power j but he BobBei^ieii^^l ^ 

Papin't Improvements. I9lV 

in itnother y»xf. He constructed a small model cjilinder, in 
which wns placed a solid pietou ; and in the bottom of the 
ojlinder, under the pistoD, was coDtaiued a small quantity of 
Wftter, which being heaCed by tire, BteEun was produced, the 
elastic force of which taised toe piston to the top of the cylin- 
der : the fire beint; then removed, a.ud the cylinder being cooled 
1^ the nuTonuding an*, the steam was condensed and recon- 
verted into water, leaving a vacLiam iu the cylinder, into which 
tiie piston wad pressed by the force of the atmosphere. 'Ihe fire 
tieing applied and subeeqiieiitlj removed, another ascent and 
descent was accomplished ; and in the same umnner the alter- 
~ 'e motion of the piston was continued. 
NeverthelesB, Arago gives the invention of the Bteam-engine 
to Fapin, who certainly imagined the formation of a vacuum 
\j cooling the steam ; aud also heated the steam, and wliea he 
wanted it to cool, took away ihejire. Papiu did not, however, 
' ~ any machine at ail, although Arago thus speaks of it: 

] maohiiie, in which our BOUDtryiDBJi was- the flr^ 1^ (K^mbiDe tbS 
force of ateam vith the propart; puBsoBaed by this vapour lA 
lihilaeing iUalf by cooling, he Bcver mmle on a Urge noaia : his az- 
^vimentB ware alwujs made with simple mudela The water intended 
D gaaerato the steam' was not even contained in a separate vessel ; en- 
lond in the cylinder, it rested nn <:hu metal plate that cloned the ori- 
OB at Hie bnttom. It was this plate that Papin heated direotly, to 
Wpalvftum the water iato ateam; it was from the same plate that he 
tik. away tha lira when he wished for uondeiiiatioa to ba eOboted. 
Mb a prooGeding, barelf allowable in an eiperimant intended tooerHV 
e oorreetnesB of a principle, would evidently be still less admissible if 
a piston were required to move with soiue celerity. Fapia, whihit 
"ing that auaoesB might be attained "by various oonstnictions easy 

in both the mot-it of applying hL fruitfid idea, and that of inventing 
m details whioh alone could easuro the success of the machioa. 

Kone of the several inventions hitherto noticed appear to 
»re advanced beyond eiperimentaJ models. About the olost 
f the seventeenth century, Capt. Thomas Savery proposed to 
ombine the machine described by the Marquis of Worcester 
^^rith an apparatus for raising water by suction into a vacuum 
Irodnoed by the condensation of steam. Savery appears to 
IKve been unaware of Papin's invention; and states, that hi* 
iiscovery of the condensing priociple arose as follows. Having 
irunk a flask uf Florence wine at a tavern, and flung the empty 
in the fire, he called for a basiu of water to wash hia 
A small quantity which remained in the flask began to 
mil, and steam issued from its mouth. Ue then put on a thit^ 
^ve, seized the flask, and plunged its mouth in the cold water, 
rfaioh immediately rushed up into the flask and filled. \\:. 
According to another veraiou of the B\,Qr5,\t -abs "i^ 
lental taroamslancii of Savery'e immerBUig, a \ie,^'«i4- 

196 Savery'K Em 

3« in water, nrni perceiving the water immediat«lj n 
e tube on the coiiMjntroticm hy the coltj of the « 
in nir, tliot liret mggestetl to the Captain tt 
that might be made of steam, or any other g 
knt. us ft mennB of creating a vaouum. 

This circurasunce immediately Euggestcd to Saveiyti 
nbilit; of giving effect to the atmospheric pressure hj Ci 
a -nouuin, lirst hv exhausting the barrel of a pump b 
it with Bteam, and then condensing the same steam, iv 
ktmospheric pressure would force the water from the wcllittl 
the pump-bnrrel, provided it wore not more than thir<j-fi»! 
Ibet abovB the water in the well. He perceived also that, hns 
ing lifted the water to this height, he might use the elaA ' 
tixtx of steam, in the manner described by the Maniuis of W(» 
cester, tc raise the same water to a stjli greater elevation; "^^ 
that the same steam which accosiplished this mechanical d 
would serve, by its subsequent condensation, to reproduce fl| 
vacuum and draw up more water. " It was on this priudpltr 
nya Lardner, "that Savery constructed the first eu^iM i> 
which steam was ever brought into practical operation." ft 
"entertained" the Royal Society with showing them hisW 
gine, for the suocesa of which they gave him a certificate. ^' 
engine is thus referred to in Koitier's System of Ifydivttat 
in 17S9 : " The first time a steam-engine played was in i p4l> 
ter's bouse at Lambeth, where, thongh it was a small eagUHf 
jet it (the water) forced its way through the roof and stmd. 
up the tiles, in a manner that eurpriaed all the spectatorB." 

CuptBin Thijxnai 

Devon, where ho was , 

Heebanict appear to have 1>een hia farourilfl study ; and as he punutd 
_ them pnujtiially. ho was Me to form a body oEworltmou tn cxecnWlA 
TMieiu plaiu. He bad a pRleDt tor his BteBin-engiiie in l^S, and tW 
eieluiive priTilture of conMnictJng^ it woa oonHrmed to him in ISW I7 
met of pwliatnent, Desairuiie™ has anjuatly ftoeused him uf having to' 
rived his plana from the tlarquig of Worcenter; bat all writer! hm 
admowledged thU he was the nrat who ever constructed an enfiiiie li 
this kind which poaacasod nny great and pmotical utility ; and it ni«t 
be BtAtcl, thaC the experiments, in 1690, of Fapin (to whom it hat bM 
attempted to tmnsTor the hnoeur of the inrentlon) were not prodnctiTXl 
anynscful result), till followed ontin Hbgland in the beginning of the Gil- 
lowing century. It is of no consoquanoe whether Salary was or wmiWt 
aoquaintad with these eii)erimeals, for he worked on essentially diffemt 
principles. His moving: power was the elasticity of steam, to whioh cor 
--^neaTH have again rBtumed since Watt demonstrnted the great »i- 
itageof it ; wfaereai Papia used tTie pressure of the atmos^ihere (wiiidi 
I never eicood a, few pounds on the squnre incb or the piston), and 
. . BT" was only a aubordinate agent by wiiioh he promired a vaonum, 
The arrangement also of the rtifferent parts of Ovary's engine, w4 ■ j 
jiarEiouJsrl f the means he used for coudenais); the atsam, ars " **" ' 
mmi, aud mark him ibr a mui oi tnAy unenldne ^niBa. W«W 


Pap in' s Digester. 

197 1 

joined ii 

a patent nith Xsntsomen uid Cawlay for the ati 
lut this appaara to he a mistake, buicb no traoat 
in ioBtntnlBnt have been tbond at the Rotk Office. Ho took oi 
t, however, iulBSB, forpullshing plate-glass and forrowiut-veai 
ipiddlB-wheelji ; and, in 1706, for a. double bellows to produce 
Dtu blluiL He published in 169S NaviqaiioK Improved ; i 
Mintr'a Friend; and in 170a, a traaaltdoa, in folio, uf O 
" tioffl. This la«t waa dfdioatad to Qeorga Prii 
hewHaindebted, that SBme year, for tlifloffii 
>lek and wounded. Savery is undentaod to have accumulated m 
" " "irtune. Bb died in mB.—Pr^f. Rigaud, F.RS. 
About 1717, the Safety-valve, which had bean i: 
' 1681 by Papin for hiB Digester, waa applied to Save 
la by DesaKiiliers. 
I'apin, while making experimentB for Boyle, diaoovared that if to 

g-point. Thlslodto the 'invention of his "Bone Digostor," whiSI 
Bseiited to the Riiynl Soc:ioty, with a letter describing its uses for 

of drinks, chemistry, and dyinog/' Charles II. commnnded Papin 
" a Digesfer for his laboratorj' at WhitehBJI; and the invantioii 
itedffreat interest. It wna exhibited, iu operatico "" — — '~ ~ 
,tflr*&ne, Blackfriara. in a houae *' over agaiuat 
» the people cronded in such numbers, that only those wen 
ed who brought with them reoocnmendfttions from Fellows r 
tl Bodety. In 16S4, when Papin -was appomted temporary oi 

_fiB Royal Society, ho mviled certain FeTlows to a BO[ip( 

"biB Digesters. John Evelyn was a guest ; and he tells i 
■ ■ ' - ' \jnes were made by the Di^estoi 

n eight ounoa 
^ Qud delioiojl' 

About tlie year 1711, Thomaa Newoomen, i 
3 John Cawley, a glazier, both of Dartmouth, Devou, b 

; the tin-mines of Coniirall, saw Saver; 's eogioe at work, ai . 

ected the causes which led to its inefficiency for di-Binagfi^ 

de Newconien proposed to remedy by his atmospheric euginB> ' 

irhich he intended to work the mining pumpa by connectiii^ I 

end of the pump-cod by a chain wiln (he aitfe-Veai. "J^ 

rking beam pkyiue- oa an asis ; the other &tc\i-'hea.4. q\^ 

m being aoimeBtsd by a chaiu with the lol ot a aoti^ 

Newcomen'g Engine. 

moring air-tigM in a cylinder. IfaTacnum be created b 

the pigtoi), the atmosphere will press it dovni with a fonW^fl 
fifteeu feel per square inch, aa d the end of the beam beinjf til" 
ratKd, the pump-rod will be drawn up. If an «qiiiv3leDt pi 
iure be introduced below the piston, it will neither rise i 
fill! ; and If in this case the pii mp-rod be made heavier than the 
piston and its rod, so as to overcome the friction, it will descend 
mnd elevate the piston again to the top of the cylinder ; and tO 
the process may be continued. 

The power of such a machine would depend entirely oi 
magnitude of the piston, the vacuum and the counterpois 
iag effected by the alternate introduction and condensation of 
the steam. We have only space for this general description 
of Newcomen's engine. It was worked by the alternate open- 
ing and closing of two yalves, the regulating and condennn^ 
When the piston reached the top of the cylinder, the forms 
waa to he closed and the latter opened ; and on reaching ^ 
bottom, the former was to be opened and the latter cIoae£ 

It has been said, that we are indebted for the important ID' 
mention iu this engine termed " Hand-gear," by which its «lw« 
or cocks are worked by the machine itself, to an idle bcrr 
named Humphrey Potter, who, being employed to stop ma 
open a valve, saw that he could save himself the trouble of 
attending and watching it by fixing a plug upon a part of IkC' 
machine which came to the place at the proper times, in OOQ' 
sequence of the general rnovernent. If this anecdote be true, 
what does it prove ? That Humphrey Potter might be »ery 
idle, but that he was at the sa.nie time very ingenious. It wu 
a contrivance, not the result of accident, but of acute obaerra- 
tion and BiioceBsful experiment. 

Although we find in Newccmen's engine no new principle 
its mechanism and combinations were very important. Km 
method of condensing the steam by the sudden injectioii o( 
water, and of expelling the air and water from the cylinder \g 
the injection of Bteam, are two processes which are still neoea- 
satrto the operation of the improved 8t«am-engine, andapp«« 
to be wholly due to the inventors of the Atmospheric Engine. 
After Mr. Beighton had, about 1718, made this machine itself 
shut and open the cocks for regulating the supplies of steam 
and water, for iialf a century no further important progrw 
iraa made, until Mr. Watt applied his vast genius to the adapt- 
ation of steam-power to the uses of life. The earlier steam-en- 
gines may be regarded as steam -pumps, and that of Newcomen 
the connecting link between the steam-pump and the modem 
engine, of which it contained the germ. 

We have now to hail the a^peatance of the great ii 
W the iSteam-engine. 

Birth of James Watt. 199 

Jakes Watt wob born at Gre&nock, the 19t!i January 1738. 

LB the fourtli child In a, iauiily which for a hundred years 

ore or lees professed matheuiatics and tiaviga.tiuii. His 

Oatitution wa? deUcate, and his meutal powers wei'e pre- 

'ouB. He was disCiuguished from an early age by his cas- 

r and truthfuiueGs; and his father, to ascertaiu the caosq 

Bftoy of hu hoyish quarrels, used to say, " Let James speak ; 

U him I always hear truth." James also showed hia con- 

UitiTe tastes equally early, experimenting on his playthings 

h t. tet of small csirpenter's tools whicli his father had given 

a. At six he was still at home. " Mr. Watt," said a mea4 

Eth« fcther, " you ought to send that hoy to school, and not 

^Jum trifle away his time at home." " Look what he is doing 

yon you condemn him," was the reply. The visitor then ob- 

|*«d the child had drawn mathematical lines and tigurea oil 

ft bekTth, and was engaged tn a process of calculation. Oa 

; questions to him, he was astonished at his auiokne^ 

1 Birapljoity, " Foi^ive me," said he, " this child s educa- 

^ttbaa not been neglected; this is no common child." 

Watt's cousin, Mj's. Marian Campbell, describes his invea> 

. . v oapacity as a story-teller, and detaitls an incident (J hia do>- 

■pying himself with the steam of a tea-kettle, and by meani 

tf a cup and a spoon making an early experiment in the con' 

Ibnuation of sttiam. To this incident she probably attached 

nuore importance than waa its due from reverting to it wheft 

^^hutrated by her after- recollections. Out of thla story, reti^ 

^^le or not in Uie sense ascribed to it, M. Arago obtained as 

"""iorioal point for an elofft, which he delivered to the French 

ititute. Watt may or may not have been occupied as ft 

J with the study of the condensation of steam while he wH 

llaying with the kettle. The story suggests a possibility, nft- 

*"' ~ ~ ; though it has beeQ made the foundation of k 

uoement, tiie subject (rf a pretty picture, and witt 

IT remain a basis for suggestive speculation. 

.Watt was sent to a commercial school, where be was pro- 

1 with a fair outfit of Latin and with some elements of 

t ; but mathematics be studied with gi'eater eest, and with 

.ortionate suocesa. By the time he was fiftetn, ho bad 

1 twice, with ereat attrition, S. Graveeaude's Blemenis of 

nurtd Philaiaph-^; and " while under his father's roof, OB 

int on with various chemical experiments, repeating them 

"n and again, until satisGed of their accuracy from his ow» 

FVstions " He even made himself a sniall electrical ma- 

e about 1760-53 ; no mean performance at that date, since, 

"ing to Priestley's History of Eiectrkily, theleydea^bisi 

vas not iuvonted until the yeata \T4a-6. 

His pas£jiuf hy chiefly iu his fathei'a uubTU\« 

200 Watt arrives in London. 

the aatls and ropes, tbe blocks and tackle; or bj the old gaj 
gateway of tbe Maosioa House ou tbe bill above QreuDOok, 
wbere lie would loiter away hours by day, and at night li" 
down on his back and natch tbe Etare through the trees. 

At this early age Watt suffered from continual and violenl 
headaches, which often affected his nervous system for manj 
days, even weeks ; aud he was similarly afflicted throughout 
ids long life. He seldom rose early, hut scooiuplished mam 
in a few hours' study than ordinary minds do in many dan 
He was never in a hurry, and always bad leisure to Rive to hi* 
friends, to poetry, rofflance, and the publications of the d^: 
he read inaiecriminately almost every new book he could pn- 
aure. He assisted his Cither in bis business, and soon learned 
to construct with his own hands several of the articles reouiied 
in the way of his parent's trade ; and by me.tns of a sinall lot] 
set np for Ilia own use, he repaired uud made various kin 
of instruments, and converted, by tbe way, a tai-ge silver e( 
into a punch-ladle, as a trophy of his early skill as a metal- 
inlith. From this aptitude for ingenious handiwork, and in 
accordance with his own deliberate choice, it was decided that 
Le should proceed to qualify himself for followiiiir the trade of 
a mathen^aticat-iiistrument maker. He accordingly went to 
Okueow in June 1754, his list of personal property inclildiM 
"silk stockings, ruffled shirts, cut-velvet waislcoatE. on/r looffl- 
ing ditto, one leather apron, a quadrant, a score of articles of 
carpentry, and a pair liibels." From Olnsgow, after a year's 
stay, he proceeded for better instruction to London, on tbeSth 
ofJune 1155, in charge of his connection John Marr. Tbef 
travelled on horseback, riding the same horses throughoDti , 
and taking twelve days for the journey. 

On Watt's arrival in the metropolis, he sought a siluation, 
but in vain ; and he was beginning to despond, when he ob- 
tained work with one John Morgan, an instrument-maker, in . 
finch-lane, Comhill. Here he gradually Itccame proficient in 
making quadrants, parallel rulers, compasses, theodolites, Ac, 
until, at the end oE a year's practice, he could make " a. bnM 
sector with a French joint, which is reckoned as nice it pieM 
of framiug work as ia in the trade." During this interval hs 
contrived to live upon S«. a week, exclusive of bis lod^Dg- 
His fear of tbe pressgang and his bodily ailments, howeva, 
led to his quitting London in August 1756, and returuiog to 
Scotland, after investing twenty guineas in additional tools. 

At Glasgow, through tlie iuterveution of Dr. Dick, be WH 
firet employed in cleaning and repairing some of the inatm- 
£oeuts belonging to the college ■, ssd, vi'tai: aome difficulty, hi 
'"TSceiVed permission to open a, b\id¥ wVL\u.'a. ftie -vTwiaittB^^, 
'aiatieniatioal-inBtramentuwiei to ftift^'Mswa.'Ks" I^H 

Watt's Great Discovery. 


'att prospered, pursning alike hie GDUree of manual labc 
id of meutal study, and especially extetidiug his acquai 
le with physics ; endenyouring, as he eaid, " to tind oat tl 
ak ude of Nature, and to vanquish her." About this tin 
coutrived an ingenious machine for drawing in perspectiv^fl 
d from fifty to eighty of these isstrumeiits, matiufaatured 1^ 
n, were sent to different parts of the world. He had aM 
jcured the friendship of Br. Black and another Universi^ 
irthy, John Rubison, who, in stating the eircumi 
I first i I itro dilution to Watt, says : "I saw a workman, i 
more ; but was surprised to find a philosopher 
as myself, and always readj to instruct me. " 
II was some time in 1764 that the Professor of Natni 
LoBophy in the University desired Watt to repair a p 
lei of Hew CO men 'a steam-engine. Like every thing whin 
e into Watt's hands, it soon became an object of most at 
B study. Sow the great defect of this engine was, th" 
e than threc-fourtha of the whole steam was conilensed ai . 
during the ascent of the pistou ; and to this defect WatI 
died himself, and so approached Ms great achievement, (i 
lioh Bobison records these incidents: 

At the breakine-up of tho Collese (I think in 176S). I » 
mtry. About a fortnight after this I cunie to town, and w 

ad nuide on Dssnguliera' nml Bolidcr'B iiccount of ths ate 
HueintoMr. Watt'B parlour without oeremonj, and found 
bre the Qre, having lying ou hta knee s, little tin iistum, which 
I looking at. I entered into coaveraation Du whnt ne had bi 
Isking ofat our last meeting, — something about al«am. All the wl; 
. Watt kept lookinc at the fire, and laid down the cistern at the f 
Oi his chair. At laatfae looked up at me, and said briskly, ' Vou m 
not /aa/t youraalf nay mora about that, man ; I have now made an i. 

E'ne that ehall not waste a particle of ateam. It shall all be boilit 
it, — ay, and hot wntar injected, if I please." So saying ~~ 

looked with eomplacBncy at tho little thing at his feet, and, „ 

I ohacrved him, he shoved it away under a table with hia foot. I 

if an ongine-buitdor, w 
and this having ci 
B, he fnnnd fault with iC. 

r At a later period Watt frankly told Robison all his o 
jvance ; and loog after, the latter found that the little appl 
ratus which he saw ou Watt's knee, and which he pushed uude 
the table with hisfout, was the condenser of his first experiment^ 
In the summer of 1767 the whole contrivance waft ^■rifesA w 
Watt's mind ; and so well defined there 'Ka» <i\vei &a.\.« ol\C<i&g 
JTrantion, that, on being asked in 181.7 wiiothet ^la i 

SOS W^aU't Great DUcovery. ^B 

how the firat idea of his great discovery ooourrad to lum, lie 
replied, " Oh. yes, [>erfectly. One Situday nfleruoun, 1 luid kdu 
to t&ke a wklk in the Green of iJlasKOw, and trhta about halfvaj 
ittveea the HeriTu houu and Arn'i H'dl, ray thouglits faannc 
biwn natumllr turned to the experimenla 1 had bteu eng>g«3 
in for osviog heat in the cylinder, al thai part of the roadiitt 
idea oeourred to me that, as ateam was an elastic vapour, it 
would expand, and niah into a pre?lously ezhaugted spaoe ; and 
that if I were to produce a vacNum in a separate vessel, ud 
open a cominuaioation between the eteaia iu the cylinder and 
tne exhauBtcd vessel, luch would be the ouDKequeiioe." 

Ab thB result of hia Biamintttioii of tho Kowonmen engins, W»Ct 
KMHi fmiad, noiwilliiitaadiiiR ill his effarU. that it would out give ilu 
UDOUDt of work rafireiunteil by the Fuel conauined ; au<l, on eiunia- 
Ine the strusCura of ths machine more closely, he was led to uk 
wl^ the »t«ani should flnt do its wort in Ilia oylin.lor, and thea U 
aondeiued there by a jet of oold -water. Steam, lika air, ia an elutlo 
Md, and will rusb intu a vacnnm commmucniing' with n vcMal in whidi 
Lot tho cylinder of the angioe be filled with slamt 
* "■ I botwesD it and anotbei 

playing ; the lUuB 
.cylinder will Dot 1)9 

will then be condenasd, and tho tempemture of the 

aflboted. Thiaisihe grsat diicatiery of Ifull; he made olhe 

seniotiB, but none of greater utility; the beat proof ufiu eieelleoeaH 
that it aUll keeps ita place in the oondenring engine after Dearly ■ «» 

tnry of proffreas in the art The pigmy datem (in which Will 

made hiB first eiporlmetit) has b4en tbe parent of a progeny ofKluM 
and hai satonished the world by tlie luagiiitude of tho results prr^nm ' 
from a oatise apparently ao inaignLticant. — Jttmw Oivu, M.A, \ 

The interesting little model, as altered by the hauil of Wat^ I 
was loQg placed beside the noble statue of the engineer in tlie ) 
Hunt«rian Mueeum at Glasgow, Watt himself, when he lud ] 
got the bearings of his inven tion, could think of nothing dn 
but his machine ; and addressed himarif to Dr. Roebuck, of thl 
OaiTon Ironworks, with tbe view of its practical intruducllOS * 
to the world. A partnership ensued ; but the connection did < 
not prove satisfaotory. Watt went on with his eKperimetttli 
■ud in September ITfJQ, wrote toafrieud: "I think I havelau 
Up a stock of experience that will »aon pay me for the trouUt 
it has cost Tue." Yet it was between eltfht and nine years bc> 
fore that invaluable experience was made available, so as eitbn 
to benefit the public or repay the inveutur ; and a much lonM 
term el»psed before it was possible for that repaymeut to H 
reckoned in the form of substantial prolit. 

Watt now began to practice as a land-surveyor and civil 
engineer. His first engineering work was a survey for a canal to 
unite the Forth and Clyde, in furtherance of which be had tn 
appear before the Mouse of Cammous. His conaenuent inniMf 
'~ London was still more ivD.^u'rti^u't: -, iw vltvui x^vu tli^^^| 

Walt'i Cornish Engines. 

J»w for the first time the great munufactorj which Boiilton 
Jud estdblished at Soho,!iiid uf which he was after n-ards himself 
te be the guiding intelligence. In the mean time, among his 
"'^her performauceB, he invented a MiLTometer fur measuring 
itaoces; and, what is still more remarkable, he entertained 
e idea of moving canal-boata by the steam-engine through 
^e inetrumentalicj of a t<piral Oar, which as uearly as possible 
Coinoidea with the screw-propeller uf our day. 

Watt's nsgotiations for partnership with Boulton were long 
*4 tedious. Dr. BoehucVs creditors concurred because, cu- 
___iisly enough, -nont of them valiitd Watf a engine at a farthing, 
W&tt himsell now began to despair, and his health failed ; yet 
IB 1774, when he had removed to Birminghaui, he wrote to his 
ftither : " The Fire-ougine I have invented is now going, and 
Mwere much better than any other that has yet been made ; 
nd I expect that the invention will be very beneficial lo me, 
A long series of experimental trials was nevertheless requi- 
rito before the engine could be brought to such perfection aa 
to render it generally available to the public, and therefore 
profitable to its manufacturers. In January I77G, six years of 
we patent had elap°cd, and there seemed some probability of 
the remaining eight running out as fruitlessly. An applicatioa 
vrtiich was made for the extensiou of its term was unexpeet- 
•dly opposed hy the eloquence of Burke ; but the orator and 
da affiociaCes failed, and the eiLtension was accorded by Aot of 

The first practical employment of Watt's engines to any 
nuiderable extent was in Che mining distiicts of Cornwall, 
..bcrehehim<ielf was, in consequence, compelled to speud much 
•f his time subsequent to 1775. Eere he had to contend not 
Mily with natural objects in the dark abysses of deeply- flooded 
nuDea, but with a rude and obstinate class of men as deeply 
Aooded by inveterate prejudices. The result in the way of 
fcofit was not, however, satisfactory, notwithstanding the ser- 
viae to the mining interest was enormous. " It appears," says 
JVatt in 1780, " by our books, that Ojmwall has hitherto eat 
^ all the profits we have drawa from it, and all we have got 
If etfaer pkices, and a good siira uf our own money to the 
*" — ~"~ " " Even in 1783 he writes, " We have altered all the 
n Cornwall but one, and many in other parts of Eng- 
jhnd, but do not acquire riobes so &st as might be imagined ; 
tlio nqienses of carrying on oui* business are neceesaiily very 
ifiukt, uid have hitherto consumed almost all our proliti) ; but 
we hope to do better by continuing our attention and e 
"una, and by multiplying the number of our works " 

At this stage Watt himself was more tertMe \> 
(Bventioufl than ia auj other portion ut kiaXivv?^ \A&. 

204 iratt's Comuh Engi 

his uteiiU in their chronological order, th« first (subsequent 
to tiint of 17C9) WM " Fur a nuw uiclhod of copying leltai 
■ad otbur writinji;* expeditiourfy" by meana of copying pratM, 
Of the same date was his iuvention oin macliine "fur it^ag. 
linen and rotuliii li/ gtetira." On the 25lh of October ITSl, 
ha toolc out Ilia tliird patent (the second of the sLEunu'ea^nt 
aenes) " fur certain new njelhods of applying the vibrating « 
redprocating motiou of ateam or fire engines, to pruduN fe 
oondnued rotative motiou round an axis urcentre, audtb^ttj 
to give motion to the wheels of milU orother tnachiues." OoT' 
of these methods was that commonly Lnown ns the xun-mifi 
flanet vkeeU; they were five iu all. A favourite cnipIoymaiF' 
of his in the workshops nt Soho, in the latter month of ITS 
and earlier ones of IT&I, wu to teach his steam-engine, no* 
become nearlyas docile as it was powerful, to work n tiU-hiO' 
mer for forging iron and making steeL " Three hundred hIo«S 
per minute — a thing never done before," filled him, aa his las- 
pspher* says, with feelings of excusable pride. Another patent 
in the steam-engine series, taken out iu 1784, coutain&d, be- 
Bides other methods of converting a circular or anj^ular motiMl 
into a perpendicular or reotilinetJ motion, the well-kuowu and 
muoh-odmired ^m^ mof ion, nnd the application of thestean- 
eneioe to give motion to wheel-carriages for carrying perwms 
and goods. To ascertain the exact number of strokes made bj 
■n engine during a given time, and thereby to check thechestf 
of the Coniish mmers. Watt aiao invented the " Counter," irittl 
its several indexes. Among his leading improvements, intn- 
duoed at various periods, were the tkrotlle- valve, the appKO' 
tion of the qoveiiiur, the barwrteter or float, the sCeam-gangit 
txA the indicator. The term during which he seeuia to bin 
thus combined the greatest maturity with the greatest aQtirUj 
of intellect, and the portion of his life which they compn* 
hended, was from his fortieth to his fiftieth year. Yet it vU 
a term of increased suffering from his acute sick lieadadM 
and remarkable for the infirmities over which be triumphed) 
notwithstaudiug, he himself complained of his " stupidity vA 
waul of the inventive faculty." 

Watt's chemical studies la 1783, and the calculationc tlitf 
involved from experiments made by foreign chemists, indmM 
him to make a proposal fora philosuphiual tiniformitif of veigtt* 
and mraiurti ; and ho discussed this proposilwith Priestley MH 
fcfcgellan. While Watt was examining the constituent partsrf 
water, he had opportunities of fomilmr intercourse not oulF 

Portrait of Watt. 

(th Priestley, hai with Withering, Keir, E^gewortb, Galton, 
bTwin, and hie own partner BoultoE,— all men above tlie aver- 
e for their common iuterest in ecientific iuquiries. Dr. Parr 
jquentl; attended their nneetiiigB; and they kept up a corre- 
(mdeiice with Sir William Ilerechel, Sir Josepli Banks, Dr. So^ J 
taclsr, and AfzeliuB. JVIrs. Schimmelpenninck, who was great[y~l 
n to physiognomical BtudieB,has left us this picture of Watt^ 
> this period i 

c'Hr, Bnulton fma a man to rule nociety with diguitj-; Mr. Wat^ t^ 
id the contemplatlTe life ofii deeply iutroverted nnd patiently olweT''' 
A pbiloeopher. Ha waa ooe of the rnggt oomplote spedmens o( Hk 
dlUichoUo temperament. Hia head was gonBrallj bent for — ^ - 
ednffonhU haudiu meilitatiaa ; hisebaulderaetoopiiig, audi 
ffiag in ; his limbs lank and unmasaular, and his complexioTI 
^iDtelleetual doTolopment was magnificent ; comparison 

ise, with luge ideality and cunstmctiTeiiess, individuality, ( 

He hsd ^ brn^d Stutti^h accent; ^ntle, modest, and ud 
nti^rcd a room, men of letters, ic 
li=lw, Indies, even little children, throng 
plical to him on the best means of Ae-ni 

T'lm Diperience of Ma teachhig me howtlj 

In the year 17SQ, Watt and Boulton visited Paris, 01 
witation of the French Government, to superintend the 
i^n of eertaiii steam-engines, and eepeoiHlly to siisgeet 
provemcnta 171 the great hydraulic machine of Marly, whi( 
Watt himself det^igiiates a " veiicrahlu" work. In Paris Wat) 
made many acquaiiitaDcea, including Lavoisier, La Place, Foni 
roy, and others scnrcely less eminent; and while here 
IKed with Berthollet a new method oibleachmg hy chloratei 
t inTentioii of the latter which Watt suhseqiieiitly iuCrodar~ 
^ England. 
JUeAQwhile Watt had vigilantly to defend his patents 
me, which were assailed hy unworthy and surreptitious rii 
I soon as it waa proved that they were pecuniarily valual 
le of tiie competing enginea, as Watt himself descril 
m, were simply asthmatic. " Hombiower's, at Radst 
robliged to stand still once every ten minutes to 

■." "Some were like Evajia'a Miil, Wiic/j ii-a^ „ ., 

y mill; it would go when it had nothing to do, But 
id to work." The legal proceedings both in equity and 
lOD law which now became necessary were ntimerous, Ona 
ifiH of ooBtB, from 1796 to ISOO, amounted to between 500M. 
.jgad 6000^. ; and the mental and bodily labonr, the anxiety and 
nzatioD, which were superadded, involved a. fearfttL l^'x. sni.'CQfc 
roTJnce of Watt's discoveries. 

With thejear 1800 came the espiratioTi o^ fee -^irvSi* 


306 IVatt and Steam Nc 

tlw pmtent of 1769, aa exteod«d by the statute of 1! 
alio tbe disMliitioD of the original copsrtiierKhip t 
Bonlton aud W«tt, ilien of tive-aiid-twenty yeara' 
The contract was renewed by their tone, the bi 
beoome so proGuble, that Watt and bis children 
with a Kiurce of independent income ; and at the Ago of nttf 
torn the great inventor had persoDally realised some of IH 
benefits he contemplated. 

Bobo, to Bome extent, maintaiDed its reputation 

had created power in round numbers equal to that of 100,000 
boreA. By 18S-1 an addition of nearly two-thii'ds of tW 
amount had been made, Kiving a total amount equal to that i 

170,000 horses ; and thie waa the amount of power suppUrf 
from the forges of one ma:iufactory only. 

HenceforthWatt'gingenuitybecameescarsiye, discretions 
almost capricious ; but in every phase and fonn it continnM 
to be beueliceut. In 180S he founded n priie in Glasgow Col- 
lege, at ail acknowledgment of " the many favours' which tU 
learned body had oonferred upon him. In 1816 he made > 
donation to the town of Greei lOck, " to form the beginning of 
a BCientific library" for the instruction of its young men. Sor, 
amid such donations, were others wanting on his part, sut^M 
true religion prescribes, — to console the poor and reUeve tbt 

While resting in his latter days from severer labours, WattTl 
mind still dwelt on their great development in the form of 
Steam Namgation. It was long since he had posed his dgnificuit 
question as to whether " a spiral oar" or " two wheels" l»ew 
to be preferred for this purpose. But he lived to know tlal 
a steamboat had been succesafully used in America, that the 
British Channel had been croseed, aud the Rhine navigated, by 
another; both vessels, the American and ■■"- ••"---' ' — ' — 
been impelled by engines manufitctured a 
on the principles invented by himself, and n 
benefit of his own direct inspection and counsels. 

In 181 B, on a visit to Greenock, Watt made a voyage in i 
steamboat to Rothsay and back a^in. lu the course of tliii 
experimental trip he pointed out to the engineer of the boti 
the method of " backing" the engine. With a. foot-rule b( 
demonstrated to him what was meant. Not succeeding, how* 
ever, he at last, under the impulse of the ruling passion (and 
we mrist remember ho was then eighty), threw off his oyer-cottt, 
and putting his hand to the engine himself, showed the piw- 
ttonJ application of his lecture- Pcoviously to this, the 'baok- 
atroke' of the Bteamboat-etigitie Tioa sittoBT -vu^-owsii ^ not 

le Rhine navigated, by ■ 

nd the British, having 1 

1 at 8oho, constructff j 

and not without tilt j 

Watt and the Steam-Carriage. 207 

ly known. The practice was to stop the engine entirely 
iderahle time before the veasel reached the point of 
g, ill order to allow for the gradual and natural diminu- 
of her apeed. 

Fith regard to the application of Bteant power to loeo- 
m on land, it is remarkable enough, that when Watt'i 
ition waa first directed, by his friend Robiaon, to thft 
i-engine, "he (RoWeoii) at that time threw out au idea 
iplying the power to the moTing of wheel- carriagea." 
it the scheme," adds Watt, "was not matured, and was 
•ibandoDed on hia going abroad, " 
1769, however, when he heard that a linen-draper, one 
had taken out a patent Sir moving wbeel-carriagei \tj 
he replied : " If li[ien-draper Moore does not use my 
to drive hia ohaisea, he can't drive them bv steam." In 
toeoifioation of hia patent of 1764, he cveu described the 
''^plea aud oonatruction of " Eteam -engines which are ap* 
to gire motion to wheel-carrioges for removing persona 
iAa, or other matters, from place to place;" aud in 1786, 
thimself had a steam -carriage " of some siie under hand :" 
ua most developed plan was to move such carriages "on 
A gmooth plaiii ;" and there is no evidence to show that 
ran anticipated the union of the rail and wheel, 
imong Watt's mechanical recreations, aoou after the date 
M last of his steam-engine pateuta, vere four plans of 
^ lamps, which he describes in a letter to Argand; and 
long time lamps were made at Soho upou hia piinciplee, 
h gave a light surpassing, both it) steadiuess and hriUianoy, 
•iatiX of the kind that had appeared. About a year aftar, 
made " a pretty iuatrument for determitiing the spe- 
gcavities of liquids ;" having, he saja to Br, Black, im- 
W oa a hint he had taken. 

Tatt also turned his " idle thoughts" towards the con- 
Aion of an Anthmdii^ Machine ; but he does not appeal 
to have prosecuted this design further than by mentally 
dering the manner in which he could make it perform 
" B of multiplicatiou and division. 

the present century Watt devised, for the Glasgow 
'ks, to bring pure spring-tvater acroE^s the Clyde, an 
dated suction-pipe, with joints formed on the pKuoiple of 
iin a lobster's tail, and so made capable of accommodating 
'to all the actual and possible bendiugs at the bottom m 
ivw. This pipe was, moreover, executed at Soho, from 
bma, and was found to succeed perfectly. 
Tatt describes, as his hobby-horse, a iiuichvM ti: , „ 
Ifuggested to him by an implement he b&& aeeu. a.AA « 
i in Paris ia 1S02, where it -was u#e4 Iot l-c^cui^ w 

Watt in Old A 

naltiplTing the dies of medala. He fopmav the po^faffi^At 
enlarging ita powers so as to inalce it capable of working eno 
an wood Ktid raurl>le, to do fur solid taitBscs aud ia ha.rd maU- 
tmU wbat his copjing machiue of 1782 liad already done be 
drawingB and initials impressed upon fiat sur£tc«5 of paper, — 
to produce, in f.ict, a perfect facsimile of tiie original modcJ- 
He worked at this machine most assidiioualy ; aud hia "Kfe- 
nen latbc," as he termed it, was set up in a ^rret, wlucii« 
with all its mysterious contcutg, its tools and models iucludei, 
have been carefully preserved as he left tbem. 

It ia gratifying to Bud that the ebarms of Watt's preBenec 
were not dimmed by age. "His friends," says Lord Jeffr^, 
•peakiug of a visit which he paid to Scotland whun upwards of 
flighty, in that part of the country never savr him more fall 
W^ intellectual vigour and colloquial animation, never mora 
delightful or more instructive." It was tlien also that 8ir 
Waller Scott, meeting him "surrounded by a little band of 
northern Uterati," saw and heard what he felt he was never (o 
Bee or hear again, — "the alert, kind, benevolent oldman,!^, 
talents and fancy overflowing on every subject, with his atfao- 
tion alive to everyone's question, his information at every one'l 
OOtDlnand." Campbell the poet, who saw him later, in thebe--' 

sinning of 1919 (he was then eighty-three), describes him mfi~ 
rail of anecdote, that he spent one of the roost amusing dm 
he had ever had with him. Lord Brougham, later still, in n< 

BOmmer of the same year, found his instructive conversatieu \ 

and his lively and even playful manner unchanged. Bat In 1 

the autumn of this year, ou the lilth of August, he espiiei I 

tranquilly at his house at Heathfield. He was buried at ' 

Hondswortb. A tribute to his memory was hut tardily rea- k 

dered by the nation. Five years subsequent to Watt's destb^ J 

in 1824, a meeting was held, at which the erection of a stalW 1 

was proposed by Baron Dupin; there were present the Prime 1 

Jlfinister, the Earl of Liverpool, and his colleagues, Mr. (sAe^- . i 

wards Sir Robert) Peel, and Mr. Huskissou j the other piin- I 

cipal speakers were Sir Humphry Davy, Mr. Wilberforce, ^ I 

James Maukintosh, and Mr. (now Lord) Brougham : yet of , 
these illustrious men, two only. Peel and Brougham, lived tO 
eee completed the memorial which their eloquence so honour- 
ahly advocated; for the statue was not erected until eleven 

years after it had been proposed — that is, in 1835. '■ 

In Westminster Abbey — in the chapel of St. Paul, on the 
north side of the choir of the chapel of Edward the Confessor — 

ia placed a marble sitting statue of James Watt, by Chantreyj I 
which was voted at the above meeting. It is a line work, iMdl; 

looated, — as classic sculpture in a Gothic edifice ever must be. I 

Efts jJedestal bears naeloqiiettt\nBC'n^'C\Q\ittQai^\i!njen ofLorf I 

Sialue of Watt in JVestniinsteT Abbey. 

igbam ; and is remarkable for not coataiuing n, word of 
lumentai flattery.* It is as follows : 

Not to iierpotuate a name 

Which muat endure whi!e the' paaeeful arts flouriah. 

But to ahow 

That mankind have loamt to bonnur tlioae 

Who best deserve th-air gratitude. 

The King, 

His Miniateni, and many of the nohlea 

And commoaera it ihe realm, 

Raised thia moaumant to 

JaUEB Watt, 

Who, directing the force of an original genim 

Early eieniised in philoaoiihiu research 

To the improrement of 

The Hteam-engine, 

Enlargad the resouroea of tits oountrj. 

Increased the power of man, 

And roHo to an ominent place 

Among the most illiistriDua fbllonei's of science 

And tbB real benefactors of the world. 

lorn at Qrocnook, KDCOUsn. Died at HaathEeld, in Stafford- 

Jeffrey and Arago added more elaborate tributes to Watt's 
jenins ; and Wordswortb bas declared that he looked upon him, 
aonsideriug its maguitude and universality, "as perhaps tba i 
cuost estraordinarj man that this country has ever produced." 
His noblest monumeut is, however, his own work. 

Wherever the Steam-eogtae is B;iplied to manufactures or arta, t 
travel and transport bj sea ur land, to agrioultm'e, even to war, thol. 
is Watt's instnimentality. The steam power of Great Britain alone kl 
a ilupetiduus item to contemplate in this sense. It i^ estimated in t^ 
x«oaiit number of the Qaatinyig Jtenietr as tiiaicattnl Id the ' 
laboftr (1/^400,000,000 of men, or mart tAaa douile tAt Kiadbtr i 
iluppoieii tu in/iabit l/ie globs. Such pover did Watt confer u 
HUlJon, and in a still larger degree upon his species. 
I A oentury ago Isays Ur, Araott), no man had oonoeived it poadbt 
Itiat human ingeBnity would one day devise a maohme like the inodeit. 
Kfiteam-ongine, nhich, at small comparative coat and with perfect obedi- 1 
l^nce to man's will, should be able to perfoi^ia, the work of millions ofa 
^uman beiii^, and of countless hdcses and oieq, anduf walermills anitfl 
' windmilla ; and which, In doing HU<:h cu mplot and delicate lal 
merly was supposed to bo obtainable only from-human handi , 

la of apiuning. weaving, embroidering flowor-patteruB on olotb, lai,f 
should work with speed and exactness far surpassing the OEeoution of 1 
ordinary human hands. 

Watt's patent for his first improvements in the Steam-engini. .._ 
taken out in tba same year as Arkwright's patent for Spinning wiHlJ 

Hvv genius, —when Blaek and Priestley were making their great d 
nnveries in chemistry ; whan Hargreavoa, Arkwright, and 'ft att r" 

Liouiaed the processes of ; when Smoatoa. uti %At 

eoatcd prodigies of engineenug BCie:nae. 

• For this porlrail-slalue Ch«itrey retBiTeiWlOO saVr 




SoABCSLT a century has elapEed since a native of Lancaahsi 
of very humble origin, began to devote hia attention to tt 
application of nmoiuaery to the preparation and apinninj ( 
raw cotton for weft. In the year 1760, or soon after, a Can^ 
Eiaiiif, not very different from that now in use, was (KHitriM 
by James Hargreaves, on untaught weaver, living near Chiwj 
in Lancashire ; and in 1767 the Spinning Jnvny was invenU 
by the eatue person. This machine, as at first formed, Ml 
tained eight Bpiudles, which were made to revolve by Ttifwi 
of biLudg from a horizontal wheel. Subsequent improvemni 
increased the power of the Spinning Jenny to eighty spintllM 
when the saving of labour which it thus occasioned produM 
oonsiderable alarm among those persona who had emplc^red tl 
old mode of spinning, and a party of them broke into ^ 
greaves' house, and destroyed Ms machine. The great admi 
tage of the invention was bo apparent, however, that it m 
soon again brought into use, and nearly superseded the «■ 
ploymentof the old spinning-wheel; when a Bfcond risins tot 
place of the persona whose labour was ihua superseded^ i 
They weut through the country destroying, wherever tli< 
could find them, both Carding and Spinning Maahineai ll 
which means the maiiufkcture was for a time diiven ant 
from Lancashire to Nottingham. 

Hargreaves stated that he derived the idea of the Jean 
from the following incident : Seeing a hand-wheel with a ^^ 
spindle overturned, he remarlced that the spindle, which «1 
before horizontal, was then vertical ; and as it continnad I 
revolve, he drew the roving of wool towards him iuto a t}inH 
It then seemed to Hai^reaves plausible that, if eometUu 
could be applied to hold the tovinga as the finger and t^ra 
did, and that contrivance to travel backwards on wheels K 
or eight, or even twelve threads, from as many spindle^ n ' " 
. ba <pim at.wtce. Thaa yn» toaO] Bui %viK«iseiEii ; b '^ 


■ Arkwrigkt's Spinning Frame. 2ll 

greaves, driren by mobs, as we have deaoribed, to Nottingham, 
unable to bear up against Huch iU-treatment, there died in 
olMcurity and distress, having given the property of his Jenny 
to the Strutts, who thereon laid the founcuition of their ii 
dufitrial BuccesE and opulence. 

The cotton-yarn produced by the common bd inning- wheel 
and spinning-jenny could, however, not be made sufficiently 
Btrong to be used as warp, for which purpose linen-yam wa« 
employed ; and it was not until another machine, in ' ' 
by an individual of as humble origin as Hargreave , 
brought into succesaful operation, that the above disadvantage 

This machine, which took up what Hargreav 
had begun, was the Spinning Frame, invented by Richard 
Arkwright, who was bom at Preston in 1733; and being tha 

Kungest of a poor family of thirteen children, he received but 
tie education, if he ever was at echool at all. He was bred 
)K> the business of a barber, which be carried on in the town of 
Bolton. " Two shops are mentioned as having been oconpiedby 
Afkwright when he lived in Bolton : one in the passage leading 
lo the Old Millstone Inn, Deansgate ; the other, a small shop 
In Churchgate. The lead cistern iu which his customers washel 
after being shaved is still in exiEtence, and is in the possession 
of Mr. Peter Skelton, of Bolton."* 

About 1760, Arkwright became a dealer in hair, which he' 
collected by travelling up and down the country ; and having 
dressed the hair, he sold it again to the wig-makers. He kept 
K better article than either of his competitors in the ean ~ 
bade, and he had a profitable secret method of dyeing hair. 

Tip to this time the English -cotton -cloths (called calico 
from Calicut in India, the place of their production) had onlf 
ne weft of cotton, the warp, or longitudinal threads, being of 
Bnen ; it being impossible, by any means then known, to spin 
tee cotton with a sufficiently hard twist to be used as a warp, 
tChe raw mateiials were then delivered by the master-manufoc' 
birers to cottagers living in the villages of the district, who 
both carded and spun the cotton, and wove the cloth. The 
demand for these cottons soon became so great, that although 
there were 50,000 spindles const^tiitly at work in Lancashire 
Uone, each occupying an individual spinner, they could not 
■apply the quantity of thread required. To remedy this state 
bf thuigs, several ingenious individuals had thought of spinning 
wmachinery instead of by the one-thread wheel. A Mr, Wyatt, 
^ Lichfield, is stated to have invented a spinning apparatus as 
Urly as 1733, and bad factories built with bis machines both 
}A Birmingham and Northampton : but theee M-aife^aJtia^i 
m^A ; the madiines perished, and no ino&e\ or &A«ctv^^^^| 

£IS Arkwrigkt'i Inventtost, 

them wM preserved.* Wj^tt's akim to the invention ^ 
however, be(;ii disproved. A Mr. Lnureiice Earnshaw, of UoU- 
nun in Che^Iiire, in MS3, invented u macliiue to spin uidnri 
OOttoD at one operation ; irhicb lie showed to liie neighbotu^ 
ind then destroyed it, through the generoiu appreiiensioD liol 
he miffht deprive the poor of bread-t 

Arkwright bod aleo tumud hi3 attention to mechanics. Si 
first effort was an Bttempt to discover the perpetual motioQ 
and in seeking for a person to make hiia eome wheels Cor| 
project of this kind, he Eot acquainted with one Kaj, a dock' 
maker at Warrington, where the? jointly devised a model (A 
maohiue for spiniiiug cotton-thread. Next jear, 17G8, Ihtf 
began to erect this machine at Preston, in tlie parlour <^H 
dwelling-house attached to the Free Grammar-8chooL ^^ 
Wright and Kaj, however, soon left Preston, dreading the bn 
tility of the Luucasliire people to their attempt to tntrodad! 
spinning by machinery. They ueit removed to Nottingtm 
where, wanting capital, Arkwright took his model to MeoB 
Need and Stnitt, stocking-weavers of that place ; and Mr. Stnl^ 
being a man of scientific acquirements, was satisfied of ttf 
great value of the proposed machine ; and he and Mr, Sm 
entered into partnership with Arkwright, who, in 1 769, ^A 
out a patent for the machine as its inventor.J A Bpinmng-mii' 
driven hy horse-power, was at the saTue time erected, ana GUn 
with the frames, being (unless we include Wyati's ut Liohlidfl 
the first work uf the kind that had been known in this coaoBJ- 
In 1771 Arkwright and his partners established another miUit 
Oromford in Derbyshire, the machinery in which was set in 
motion by a. water-whee! ; and in 1T75 he took out a seooni 
patent, with additions to his original apparatus.; 

The moat importaut of Arkwright'a contrivances was a da- 
vice for drawing out the cotton from a coarse to a Suer snd 
harder- twisted thread, and so rendering it fit to be usedte 
warp as well as weft. This was most ingeniously majiaged, hj 
the application of a principle which had not yet lieen intn)- 
duced m any other uieohaniisl operation. The cotton wai^ta 
the first pLice, drawn off fnam the skewers on wiiich it «M 
placed hy one pair of rollers, which were made to move it* 

• ttmchiM^ StrmoiT,. Rwanil Sertea, vol. 111. 

\ 11 Is wUwd, Aril-riKM «ppllfrt to Mr Slmlt, hi, T 

. TMl 

Spinning by Rollers. S13 

itivelj Blow rate, and which formed it into threads of a 
_. 3oarser quality; but at a little distance behiud the first 
Haced a second pair of roIlerB, revolving three, four, or five 
■ as fast, which took it up when it had passed through tha 
Ml the effect of which wonld be to reduce the thread to a 
be of fineness so raa.\ij times greater thau that which it 
adly had, The first pair of rollers might be regarded as 
seders of the second, which could receive no more than 
Aers s«nt to them ; and that, again, could be no more 
^eae others themselves took up from tbe skewers. Aa 
Kjond pair of roUeta, therefore, revolved, we will say, five 
Lfor every revolution of the first pair, — or, which is the 
thiug, required for their coDsuiuption in a given time 
hues the length of thread that the first did, — they could 
isly obtain so much length by drawing out the common 
n of oottou into thread of five times the original fineness. 
Dg could be more beautiful or more effective than this 
ivanoe, which, with an additional provisiou for giving 
iDper twist to the thread, constitutes the water frame, or 
tie, — BO called from its being originally moved by water- 

bining by rollers was an entirely original idea. Arkwright 
that he accidentally derived the first hint of his inven- 
rom seeing a red-hot iron bar elongated by being made 
n between rollers j and thougli there is no mechanical 
\j between that operation and the process of spiuning, it 
I difBoult to ima^ue, that by reflecting upon it, and 
g the subject in different pointe of view, he might be led 
is invention, which he particularly claimed as his own, 
ler machines included in hie patent he was rather the im- 
F than the inventor; and the original spinning-machine 
tirae thread, the Spinning Jenny, Arkwriglit admitted to 
been first conceived by Hargreaves. 

Ijier parties disputed Arkwright'a property in his inven- 
1 bis patents were invaded by the cotton-spinuerB, and 
Uld only enforce bis rights by long and costly litigation. 
Sess, to him alone belongs the merit both of ha vine com- 
'tbe different parts of the spinuiug machinery, of caving 
rought it into actual use on au extensive scale, and de- 
jftited its power and value. The great scene of his opera- 
iraa at Cromford in Derbyshire, about twenty miles from 
lester ; where the work-people hailed him as a benefactor, 
rhere water-power without limit was found to drive his 
.nery. It was not, however, uutil the lapse of five you^ 
■heir erection that any profit was rea.V\Be4\rj \)cw«'rf»'>'»^ 
brd; but from that time Arkwrigta gre-n ■7JeaMKl,'&'*^ 
tuSng bis pateut had been cauoeilei ^33 ^a."*- "Q^X*™ 

Cor bimMlf > itatelr CMtelUted manmon amidst the « 
Indiiatry vihere he had raiwd up hU own fortuue. 
W high -iheriff of Durbjf shin ' ■""■ ' - ■ 

riitiuth ;e»r. A Iwnutiful monument b; Chantrej h 
eroct«d over hii rcmaiua in Cromford Chapel. 

To the close of his life, the mansgemeut of his & 

bis daily occupatiou, and even amuEement. He so 

Uty out-door recreation, but einplojed bis time either is 
intendiug the daily coucems of these establishme '~ 
JraproTiiJg his machiaerj. His wealth inoreased t. 
«xtent, that, besides poeeeswng, eichisive of bis mill p 
one of the largest Innded estates in Unglaud, be prei 
two occasiong each of his teu children with the s 
thousand pounds. He left at bis death half a milliuD ._ , 

And thus it wag that, from a poor barber, Arlcwright 
himself not merely to rank and affluence, but to be oi 
foremost founders of a new branch of national induetr 
a wouderfull; short space of time to assume the very a 
among the manufacturers of his country. 

Oromford mills are delightfully pluoed on 
one of the most piotarfsque dales in Derbjsbirt 
is Willersley Castle, where Arkwright lived in princely Bl 
The maneiou commands a fine prospect of the industrial <M| 


r H 

The Cotton Manufacture. 


Hitlierto our aocount of tlie Cotton motiu&cture has been I 
ehiefly illustrated by the iiiTenttons of Bir Richard ArkvnTght ; I 
Ooatemporary with whoni, though hy the present generation I 
only rcoogoised as somewhat obscurely connected with the ii 
toOvemeut of spinning machinery, waa Bamdel Crokptoh. "_- _ 
u ■carcely known that his discovery gave a wonderful impult^l 
ito the industry, and coneequently to the wealth and popnlatio%V 
;af South Lancashire, causing its insignificant villages to atta' 
.tbe importance of lai^ and populous towns."* 

I Samuel Crompton was bom Decembers, 1763, of ai . 

.fcinily, traceable to the time of Henry III. Crompton's parental 
Wsided at Firwood, near Bolton, occupying a farm, and, ul 
:iras the custom of that time, employing their leisure-houre uifl 
b(u^ling, spinning, and weaving. They removed when Samuela 
WHS five years old to a portion of the neighbouring anoientff 
mansion called Uall-in-the-Wood. The hoy was well educated.] 
lit Bolton; but it is probable that, owing to his mother's exi-.9 
gencies, " his little legs became accustomed to the loom almost 3 
aa soon as they were long enough to touch the treadles." At th» 1 
gg^ofsiitteeiiyearalieGontiuued to reside with his mother, (xy | 
cupied at the loom, and attending an eveniug school at Bolton, I 
where he advanced his knowledge of algebra, mathematics, and.1 
trigonometry. For six years previous to the above date, thtf>fl 
increased demand for fine cottons led to a great scaroity of yara!! 
for weft ; and the iuventiou of Kay's fly-shuttle, by doubling J 
the speed of the weaver's operations, distui'hed the natural'l 
balance between the ijuantity of yam spun and the weavers* f 
demand for it. 1 

Such waa the scarcity of yam when, in 1767, Hargreaves ^ 
invented the Jenny (see page 210), "And two years after- ' 
wurds, when only sixteen years of age, Samuel Crompton spun 
on one of these machines, with eight spindles, the yam which 
he afterwards wove into quilting; and thus he was occupied 
for the five following years." At his solitary loom in the old 
Hall-iu- the- Wood, he became prematurely a thinker; and, da- J 
barred from company, he cultivated a taste for music, whiofa.1 
led to the first trial of his mechanical skill iu making a violin, ■ 
which he commenced learning to play upon. Ue waa mastK | 

■ I4fcmd Tima tf Samial Cnmflm. by GilbcrtJ. French, ISSSi whei 
In It bold itiid msalT spirit, beflltlng IbH nulijeEl which It so elu4vi«QU-i i 

III hy Sir. Freneli, wholiaH BBnttoiaV^ ^\Biaa, ». \'?™ 
ippy to sdd, wu Bo\d wifti^n * & 


216 The UalUn-the-Wood, near Soltt 

of Hugrvaves' inreDtioD, the Jeimj ; and be was penoullT 
knowu to Arkwright, wbose reputntton as an invenUr Wi 
rang through Laucnahire. " This Bollou barber," says Mr. 
French, " without previoiu experience as a spiuuer, was imr, 
in 1771 (Crompton being then eighteen years of age), bicM- 
ing his famoiia mill at Cromford in DerbTsbire, and alretilf 
obtaining the reputation of great wealth; while Samuel wo 
paSBing half hifl narking houre in piecing up the broken eiril 
of the bad yarn, which prereuted him from making satiEJia- 
torj progress with his daily stint of weaving — for his motto 
indited upun a certain aujouiit of work being fiuished even 
day. A failure inevitably subjected him to her somewhat sban 
Tituperation ; and if he succeeded iu his allotted task, it wa | 
at the expense of eo much time lost iu mending the ever-br^ 1 
ing ends of his miserable yam, that none remained for hi 
darling fiddle, or for the few books he now desired to study." 

The Hail-in-the-Wood is si tuated about a mile from Bolton, 
on elevated rocky grouud, round which sweeps the I^ley 
brook or river ; but few of the fine old trees remain to ehoir 
that the name of the mansion was once entirely appropriate. 
The building, of post-and-plaster work, is mostly of the end of 
the fifteenth century; but the south front and porch are of 
stone, and the latter bears the date IIMS. The dining-hiBi 
and the room in which Cronptou worked, now occupied u k 
bedroom, retain tlieir original handsome windows in small 
leaden quarries. Here, in the year 1774, he commenced tbeGOD- 
struction of the Spinning Machine, which for many years wu 
known as "the Hall- i'-th'- Wood Wheels." It took him five 
entire years to mature his improvement, during which time 
lie worked entirely alone, with no one in his confidence to 
whom he could look for sympathy or assistance ; and he tella 
BB that lie succeeded at the expense of every shilling he had 
in the world. All this labour was in addition to his regolv 
Bvery-day work ; he toiled late and early- " Strange and 
unaccountable sounds," says Mr. French, "were heard in the 
old Hall at most untimely hours; lights were seen in unusual 
places ; aud a rumour became current that the plane yias 
haunted." Samuel was, however, soon discovered to be Min- 
self the embodied apiric (of inveniioii) which had caused lo 
much fear and troulile to the family. His difficulties wers 
great, and the tools which he possessed insufficient for the 
purpose ; but by devoting every shilling he could spare to the 
purchase of the requisite tools, and aided by his clasp-knife, to 
which he is said to have been greatly indebted, he at length 
triumphed. It is related, that Crompton and his violin were 
, Jreguently employed in the orchestra of the Bolton theatre, 
': U. 6a. each nigVil ; " tnt, amaiX aa "v^ ^aa, ^.tiat ^ymeot 

Crompton's Muslin Wheel. SIm 

greatly assisted him in jirocuring the tools 'vrhlch he required 
for his mechaDical operatioDs." 

Ill our account of previous inventions for Cotton Spianing, 
re have already mentiuned Kay's production of the fly-shutue 
a 1738; "and in the same year," says Mr. French, "hy a 
urioua and interesting coincideace, and, so far as can he learned, 
rithout any reference tu the recent improvement in weaving, 
k patent was obtained hy Louis Paul for spinning wool and 
lotton hy passing previously-prepared slivers between pairs of 
vUers turned with different degrees of velooi^." Mr. Baines, 
iowever, whom we have already quoted, stated that Wyatt, and 
lot Paul, was the inventor of spinning by rollers. This opinion 
'emained undisturbed until September tS58, when Mr. Robert 
)ole, F.B.A., read to the Biitish Association at the Leeds 
Dieting a communication entitled, " Some Account of Louis 
E'aul and his invention of the Machine for spinning Cotton and 
TFooI by Rollers, and his claim to such invention to the ae- 
dution, of John Wyatt;" proving very satisfactorily that Louis 
Paul was the original inventor of the method of spinning 1^ 
rollers, and that John Wyatt, whose family liave claimed the 
credit of the invention for him (he never appears to have made 
any such claim himself), had really little or nothing to do with 
the invention, though be certainly had a pecuniary interest in 
working ic. The iuveution, though wonderfully ingenious, and 
^ Bupported by some of the distinguished men of the time, lan- 
ffuish^ and died. 

It next appears that Bighs, or Hays, a reed-maker at Leigh, 
took up the plan of attempting to spin by rollers in 1767 ; and 
he was assisted in his eiperiments by Kay the clockmaker, but 
with little success. Next appeared Arkwright, who is said to 
bare adopted the plans of Jiigbs and Kay, and the Spinning 
Jenny of Hargreaves. 

Such was the position of Cotton Spinning, when, in 1774, 
Samuel Crompton commenced the experiments which cventu- 
ited in his Hall-in-tlte-Wood Whed, or Muslin Wheel, because 
te capabilities rendered it available for yarn for making mus- 
[ns; and finally, it gotthenameof the j/it^, from its partaking 
if the two leading features of Arkwright's machine and Uar- 
[reaves' Spinning Jenny. Crompton's first Bu^estion was to 
stroduce a single pair of rollers, viz. a top and a bottom, 
rhtob he expected would elongate the rove by pressure, like 
)be process by which metals are drawn out, and which he ob- 
erved in the wire-drawing for reeds used in the loom. In this 
K was disappointed ; and afterwards adopted a second pair of 
oilers, the latter pair revolving at a slower s^eed. 1\oa '^«ii 
bnner, and thus producing a draught tA owft \.mi>\ v'n. 'OKtr " "" 
ibur. This was neither more not leas ttian *. ■m'i'S&'Si.'i 

318 Crtmpton'f Spin 

Mr. Arkwright's roUer-beam. But Crompton assured M 
Bed;, hia nearest frieud, tliat when he constructed hia m 
be knew notiiing at Arkwright's discovery ;♦ and the n 
of Crompton's nmchine, moetlj' of wckhI, shows tliat hi 
Boquaioted with Arkwright's superior rollers and fi 
iron, and iheir couueciiou by clockwork. *' *" 

antmoed only nbnut twanty 

qiiDdlH. Hoflmilly put dBDtaol . 

said IhDB abt4iin(rd a fluted roller. But Uie groat and im] 
tion of CruiDpCon w>a hiB spindle -duriage, and the 
thread hartliK no slrsin upon it unti] it was oompleterL. 
withtho Bptiiillai oould, by the moTementoftho t^d ood 

..._ __..__ ii___ j_.. J ...4. iLg olongntiid thread in 

ble Htretofa before tfa< 
<D Iho stnndle. This 
tbnu nfOu vuriu nfhu innnliaii. 

JuBt as Crompton had completed hie first Mule, 
was about to put it to actual work, the Blackburn Bpiunen 
weavers, who had previously driven poor Hargreaves froinlul 
home, renewed their tumults, and destroyed every jenny roanS 
Blackburn, eicepl such as had leas thau twenty spindles. In 
save his new machine from destruction, Crompton took it U 
pieces, and concealed the various parts ill a loft near the cloS 
lU the 6ld llall. Thert they remained hid for many weeks a( 
he dared to put them together again : but in the same year tht 
wheel was completed, and the yarn spun upon it used for fint 
muslins ; and one of the earliest results of this succeffl v>( 
Orumpton's purchase of a silver watch, out of the wfaed^ 
f oaminga. lu ITtlO he maiTied, and the young couple went 
to reside in a cottage attached to the old Hall ; but CromptOB 
ooiitinued to occupy one of the large rooms in the msnnon, 
and there operated upon the Mule, " with a success wMcR 
startled the manufacturing world by the production of yara 
which, bath in jh^eiiea and Jirmnai, had hitherto been tn- 
attaiimble by any means or at any price." Assisted by liii 
amiable young wife, he industriousl; spun at the Hall, wift 
the greatest possible privacy, small quantities of the rancb- 
coveted yam, producing week after week higher counts ud 
an improved quality, for which he readily obtained bis om 
price. The supply, however, could not satisfy one-himdredtb 
part of the demand : the old Hall was besieged by cunoing 

I persons, who came not ouly to purchase, but also to get at thfl 
mystery of the wonderful new wheel. Admission was deniedi 
when many climbed up to the windows outside by the aid ta 
harrows and ladders to look in at the new machine. Crompton 
blocked the intruders outwYtt 5iWKe«tt.','^io.\. an^ Vanfi aijaiH ' 
• flij«r read to Iha Litersry a»4riii^™ipi*»'^ *"*'*'"' 

Crompton's Spinning Mule. S^^l 

seeker concealed himself for some days in & loft, and watched 
Bamuet at work by means of a gitnlet-hole pierced through the 
oeiling. Eyen Arkwright travelled eisty miles to eudeavour 
to diseover the secret of the new wheel, which all but eclipBed 

IS wnter-frame. 
Grompton now found it impoasihle to retain the secret of 

is maohiue : be had no patent, nor the means of purchasing 
one: when, rather than destroy the Mule, he gave it to the 
'publiCj upon condition of oertaiu " manufacturing friends" pay- 
ing him a sum of mouey, which did not exceed GM. ; jet the list 
of nalf-guiuea subscribers of this paltry amount contains " the 
names of many Solton firms now of great wealth and eminence 
AS mule-epinuers, whose colossal fortunes may be said to have ■ 
1>een based upon this singularly small inTCSlment" (French). 
Xhe money received merely sufficed to replace the machine 
which Crompton had given up ; for his time, study, and toil, 
be received not a shilling. After the secret had been made 
fiublic, many persons who bad promised subscriptions refused 
tp pay, and even denounced Crompton as an impostor. This 
sfatuneful treatment made htm, to some extent, a moody and 
nuBtrustful man. In the five following years the Mule was 

gnerally employed for fine spinning throughout the manu- 
ituriug districts of England and Ireland, and particularly 
Scotland. Before 1785 Crompton removed to a ferm-houso 
near Bolton ; and there, besides farming, he worked secretly at 
his machine in the upper story of his house. Curious visitors 
atill came ; and among them wilh Mr. (afterwards the first Sir 
Bobert) Feel, who attempted to get at the Mule in Crorapton'a 
ftfasenoe, hut was defeated. He offered the inventor a lucrative 
dEtuation, and even a partnership, in his establishment; both 
which Crompton declined to accept. 

In 1800 a subscription was opened at Manchester to re- 
WBrd Crompton; but it did not exceed 600J. With this sum 
be rented a factory story in Bolton, aad there bad two Mules, 
with the BouiCT' to turn the machinery. Crompton now toiled 
onward ; he submitted his invention to the Boyal Society and 
the Society of Arts, but by neither was it entertained. He had 
Itorted the stream of manufacturing prosperity, but no portion 
' f it had reached the poor inventor. In the hope of soma 
emnneratiou, he visited the manufacturing districts of Eng- 
Iknd, Scotland, and Ireland, to ascertain the results of his in- 
vention; when he found the number of mule-spindles in use to 
I be 4,600,000, spinning 40,0(X),O00 of pounds of cotton- wool in 
a year. Armed with these data, and a certilicate signed by 
many mannfacturing and machine-making firms, Croni^Wro-ij*- 

Ititioned Parliament for public remunetalion-, " wiiiA^fct'O'^^ 
delay, the paltry sum of SOWl, waB graulti \iHx" ^-m- %S>^ * 

220 Neglect of Crompton. 

memorial was presented to Parliament for a second grant, but 
without eff(.<ot. On June 26, 162T, Crompton died, iu Eiit 
leveuty -fourth year, aud wua followed to the grave by a host of 
Baltoa worthies. Yet, in the next page of his very intereetiif 
Tolume, Mr. French tells us: 

Froin (hot day little hu boen sud or thought of Samiiol Cromptm. 
Men hare beso ooutent to oajplc^ bia groat laveutioQ for their iii£- 
vidual |irofit. and for Ihe beneSt of the biunan race ; but the memocjol 
tba inrtmUir ha» paaaed from the public mind almost like the shadowof 
a summer cloud. The oldor maDU&LCtorora of the ooujitry hnva betf 
Ibr the m»t part oaUirall}' williae to ibrget the man to whom tiiq 
Here so groutly indebted, because iSejr eould not remember him viOuMt 
bkkinB aluune to themaelTes Cortbe injustice and iugratitude vrithnhisb 

Without underrating the importance of other inTeutioiiB, it 
may safely be asserted that Crompton 's Mule is the fulcrvn 
which sustaiuB that mighty leTtr, the Cotton Trade, the most 
valuable and the most powerful of our national reeoux«ea. Ai 
the Jenny is now almost disused, and all the finer yarns an 
spun eiclusively upon the Mul«, its importance and value con- 
tinue to increase. During eighty years the principle of Crwnp- 
ton's invention has remained unchanged ; while modifications, 
improvements, aud auxiliaries have increased its productive 

Sower a hundred-fold. In ita infancy it was carefully tended 
y the human hand ; then it was nursed by water-power; next 
Bteam lifted the water bacic again to duplicate its work in turn- 
ing the young machinery. Bat steam was not long employed 
in this secondary oflice ; and as the powers and capabilities of 
the steam -engine were develop-ed, they were laid hold of by the 
cotton -spinner, aud riveted to his maohiuery, thus raising Hs 
art to a stupendous power. 

Meanwhile, the results of Cromptou'a genius have been 
ptaotically commemorated upon the site of his invention. Nor 
the Hall-in-thc-Wood rises an octagonal chimney-shaft 306 feM 
in height, in connection with eteaui -engines aud furnaces iu» 
huge factoty, where some thousands of men and boys are em- 
ployed iu making mule-spinniog machinery, and in the weeldy 
production of thouwnds of mule-spindles. The old Hall has be- 
come the veritable centre of the existing cotton -mamifacturing 
district. " Could we," says Mr. French, " tie a cord twenty milei 
in length to the top of the tall chimney that marks the egiA, 
aud eweep it round the country, the cirele thus formed would 
embniae the populous towns aud teeming vilhiges engaged in 
spinning and weaving cotton : they radiate from that centre 
with compass-like r^ularity ; Manchester, Preston, Oldhanij 
aud Blackbuni being the cardinal points." 
k To this small spot of earth (.Te-mmtolilB only the other day for nO' 
KlUii^ beyond the BteriUty o{UaauclwK'i,en^tA\^a\w\efu>>^ji!(A»iijishit- 

Cartwrighl's Power-loom. 

ants, Providence appeara to have nssie:ned the particulsr and special 
P duty of olvithiug mmikiud. In fiirtlmraDce of this wort, thej hare 
■- dragged M Cbo surfacs much of tha mlaoml wealth which it contained, 
i and bttve perlbratoii it with thirty miles of subterranean canals, and 
1^ ooiintless miles of buried rMlways, They have crusted Dvar its surfaoo 
VFitb factories and milla. Wealth, Khich can u-arcely bo reckoned, ia 
repreeontod bj mllliona of spindles, which, with their auxiliary engines, 

5 are rovulvin^ day by day. The land on which tl^ey stand has beeq 
^^ qiiadnipled in value. Railways spread over it Uke a close network of 
ton; and it is covered with a conglomerated moss of towns and villages, 
largo anil so closely set together, that in many instances their longer 
'eet^ meet each other, and populous places said to be seven muea 
Asunder are really connected hy continuous rows of gas-lights. 

Many groat HQrl active minds have been at work to produce this 
impraoedented result | but to otu, more than to all others coliectively, it 
Jadua. It was the mind of Samuel Cromptou wbicb, under ProTidenee, 
vivified this crovrdcd area, and now KUs it with a vitality not the less 
troe that its action is unseen and un acknowledged. — French's Life and 
^tisui qfSamutl Cromptou. 


This stupendous weaving-machine, a crowning adiieTement 
»f the Cotton Manufacture, we owe to the genius of Ed- 
mund Cartwriglit, horu, iu 1743, at Mamham in Kottingham- 
iShire. He was educated for the Church iu the Diiiverstty of 
.Oxford, and published a vuluiDe of poems whUe yet a young 
mail. He had reached his fortieth j'ear hefore he had given 
Koy attention to mechanics. Happening, in 1T84, to be at 
Alatlock, in the company of some geutlenien of Maticliest^r, he 
maintained the practicability of inventing a machine to weave 
titB vast additional quantity of cotton spun by Arkwright'a 
-lUUihinery ; and this Cartwright asserted was not a whit less 
jtmoticable than the construction of the Automaton Chees- 
jfiayeF, then exhibiting in London. Soon afterwards it oo- 
idnned to Cartwright that, as in plain weaving, according to 
ue oonception he then had of the business, there could be 
Oilr three movements to follow each other in succession, there 
ami be little difficulty in producing and repeating them. He 
ten employed a carpenter and sinith to construct for him upon 
bis principle a machine ; and getting a weaver to put in the 
cp, to his great delight, a piece of cloth was the produce, 
e warp was laid perpendicularly ; the reed fell with a force 
of at least half a hundredweight ; and the springs which threw 
lliQ shuttle were strong enough to have thrown a Coa^e,-i« 
Ttookot, Conceiving this to be a valua-bVe Yavwi'L\OTi,\n. V\^i 
3artwright secured it by patent. He feeii cuuieftCK&is* *"~ 


Power-looms, ^^H 

eee how other persons wove (for he had never before & 
loom); wheu he was aEtoniahed at their easy modes of open- 
tion compared with his powerful nmcbiiie, which he ^d not 
patent tiU 1787. 

Some time after, a manufactorer, on seeing Cartwright^ 
€rat loom at work, observed that, wonderful as was the inven- 
tor's meohauioal skill, he would be baffled in weaving pattemi 
in ohecko, i, e. oombining iu the same web a pattern or &ivof 
figure with the crossing colours to form the check. C»r^ 
Wright made no reply to the manufacturer's observation, but 
some weeks after showed him a piece of muslin beautJruU)i 

Ten in checks bj machinery. 

After this Dr. CartwHgbt made some valuable improve- 
ments in the combing of wool by machinery, in ropemat 
ing, and other departments of agriculture and mauufactorK 
£ven the steam-engine engaged hia attention ; and he Dwd 
frequently to tell his son, that if he lived to be a man, he would 
le both ships and land- carriages impelled by steam. As aalj I 
I 1793, he constructed a model of a steam-engiue, attached lo i 
barg^ whicb. he explained, in the presence of his femily, to ' 
Robert Fulton, whose zeal and activity afterwards, as isv^ 
known, perfected the project of steam navigation in Americ*. 
Even so late as 1823, Dr, Cartwright, then in bis seventy-ninth 
year, contrived a plan of propelling land -carriages by steam. 

Dr. Cartwright was defrauded of the pecuniary profits from 
his great invention of the power-loom by persons who deyised 
contrivances for the same purpose slightly different fi^om his> 
A manu^tory containing 601) of Cartwright's machines was 
destroyed by £re almost immediately after it was built. On 
these and other accounts, the power-loom only began to be 
extensively introduced about 18D1, the year in which Cart- 
Wright's patent expired. He was, however, in some degree 
subsequently compensated by a Parliameutar; grant of 10,W0i. 

Power-looms were not immediately introduced into ijw- 
toriea. They remained an unprofitable speculation until it WU 
discovered, iu J 803, that the warp might be dressed befbn 
being put into the loom, and the service of the man employed 
for that purpose dispensed with. The construction of the mv 
chine, and the method of dressing, have been improved wnce 
that time ; and cloth is now woven by the help of steam with ■ 
rapidity and to an estent formerly unknown, 

A steam-engine of forty or sixty horse-power gives motion 
to thousands of rollers, spindles, and bobbins for spinning yarm 
end works four or five hundred looms besides. This gigantio 
"pinner and weaver needs "iet5 \vlt\e sBBia^aBoe fcora man. It 
ndertakes, and faithfaUy a\6c>vai?,eB, nW lOfte "rwi-i ■« 
ittiDg shafts, wheels, and pijUe^a m la-^tYO'tt, ■Aft 

.'sail ■»i«iij*1 

Calico-printinff, and the Peels. 

shuttle, working the treadlea, driving home the weft, and 

tuming round the warp and cloth beams. One man itiay now 

aa much work as two or three hundred ninety jeara ago. 


The process of Calico-printing is not confined to 00 tton-oloth, 

the former term would lead us to suppose ; it is applied 

to linen, silk, find woollen cloth. The art ia supposed to 

' originated in India, and to have been known in that 

itryforn very long period. From a passage in Phny'sNatu- 

_ History, it ia evident that Calico-printing was uuderstood 

nd practised in Egypt in his time, but was unknown in Italy. 

'There exists," says Pliny, "in Egypt a wonderful method 

£ dyeing. The wiiite cloth is stained in various places, not 

rith dyO'Stufis, but with substances which have the property 

f absorbing (fising) colours. These applications are not visible 

ipon the cloth ; but when the pieces are dipped in a hot caldron 

eootaining the dye. they are drawn out an instant after dyed. 

3^he remarkable circumstance is, that though there be only one 

in the vat, yet different colours appear on the cloth ; nor 

the colours be again removed." This description of Pliny 

evidently applies to Calico-printing. It is httle more than a 

century and three-quarters since the art was transferred from 

[ndia to Europe, and little more than a century and a quarter 

^nce it was first miderstood ia Great Britain ; where, by the 

^plication of machinery and improved chemical processes, the 

npidity of the execution, and the beauty and variety and fast- 

X.OBB ot the oolours, are unequalled. Ia this triumph of art 

Ktaiid m^roineiit the family of the Peels. 

At Bamber-bridge, about the year 1763, the art and mystery 
Caliao-printing in Lancashire was first attempted by the 
tytons. Near Knuydon-brook, about two miles east of Bhck- 
lURi, there lived a tall robust man, whose ordinary dress was a 
roollen apron, a calf-akin waistcoat, and wooden-soled clogs, 
Dd whose grisly hair was of a reddish colour ; he owned forty 
term of poor gms-land, and three of his sons worked each at 
i loom in the dwelling-house. About 1T65, one of these sons 
flunoed to spoil in the weaving a piece of cloth made of linen 
■md thread; it was therefore unsalenhle, and the lather took 
tile ^railed cloth to the Claytons at Bamber-bridge, requesting 
do h&ve it printed of a pattern for kerchiefs; which was done. 
iiid the articles were worn by the famiVj. 1\ife\ii^ ■%■« 
Ituu^ged for priutiug this piece ot dotliiuiMCtti ^Xtfi •i--"^'" 



S34 The Cotton Manufacture. ^H 

attempt the art himself, which, he did in a secret apartment of 
hie house at Peel Fold, the name of the above-mentioned fortj 
acres of grnss-litnd. The experimenter waa Robert Peel, &th« 
of the first Sir Robert Peel, the great calico-printer of BuiJ 
in Iiancasiiire, and of Faxdy in Stafifordshire. 

The 8ret suoceasful experiment was a " Parsley-leaf," which. 
Peel engraved upon a pewter plate and transferred in colour 
to a piece of doth ; and, as this experiment was made in thi 
absence of Peel's family, Mrs. Milton, a next-door neighbonr, 
performed the calendering process with a flat Bmoothiag-iiou. 
It was requisite that, in addition to a sharply-defined vivid in< 
pression of the pattern, the mordent should bo bite-in (ht 
colours that thej should resist the dissolving action of BOtp 
and water. In thistoo the experiment succeeded to admiration; 
and " Parsley Peel," as he was afterwards called, exclaimed, 
with a shout of exclamation, that he was "a made man. 
The women of the family ironed the pieces of cloth in the secirt 
room, to prevent prying neighbours seeing what thef did. Sot 
this Robert Peel did more: he was the first person to super- 
sede the hand-carding of cottou-wool; and this he did bjuBif 
the cards, one fixed in a block of wood, and the other slin^ 
from hooks fixed in a beam, where they remained in iIm 
kitchen-beams at Peel Fold in 1850. Peel's carding- maahiM* 
were broken by a mob of persons who came from Blackburn hi 
Peel Fold for that purpose ; and thej afterwards destroyed bil 
works at Althain. Peel was at length driven out of the coon^ 
by the violence of hia neighbours, and took refuge at Burtoo- 
on-Trent in Staffordshire. The son of this humble inventor, 
the firet Sir Robert Peel, established his print-works at Bury; 
and in the neighbourhood was bora his son, the great states- 
man. Sir Robert Peel, whose statue has been set up in. tiifl 
market-place of the town of Bury. 

To detail fully the results of the Cotton Manufacture, and 
how largely it has contributed to the financial and national 
greatness of England, would fill a large volume. Its salient 
points have been thus glanced at by Mr. Henry Aahworth, is 
a paper read to the Society of Arts in 185S. 

The origin of the uses of Cotton is very remote. Its pro- 
duction over many parts of the earth is spontaneous, and Ibr 
3000 years it has been wrought into garments by the people trf 
India. This knowledge was also, at a very early period, po»- 
aeesed by the people of Egypt and other eastern couu tries. The 
EgjTitiau looms (says Wilkinson) were famed for their &ie 
cotton &brics, and many of these were worked with the uee4l9- 
in patterns in brilliant co\ovtrB,'\iMt soiaB ■«e«i-«Q'iiai"\3 "- 
Ueoe, Of these last were the cwtwj'o.fcCoEviia VilCciVaiftV 

Colton-tpinning Machinery. 

Mie of whiuh are in the Lousre ; though their date is un- 
irtain, they suffice to sliow thst the inanufacture was Egjp- 
3.n ; and the miiuj dresses painted on the motiuments of the 
^hteenth dynasty prove that -the most vaiied patterns were 
"d by the Egyptians more than 3000 years ago, aa they were 
a later period by the Bobjlonians. In Spain, Cotton was 
iwn about the tenth century, and eventually it found itB 
/ to England. The Genoese were the first to supply this 
mtry with the raw material, pi-obably from the Levant ; and 
le Flemish emigrauts are thought to have introduced the re- 
^^^oisite skill to use it. Except, however, for candle-wicks, for 
^fch use it was imported during the Middle Ages, cottou-woal 
Tw not employed as a material for manufactures very long 
sftwe the year 1641, when Manobeater purchased cottou-wool 
pta Cyprus and Smyrna, with which to make fustians and 
imities for home consumption and exportation. 

The arts of Spinning and Weaving appear amongst the ear- 
Mt mTentions of our race. They are mentioned in the Scrip- 
tR^ in the Homeric poems, and by Herodotus, Strabo, Ar- 
tia, Fiiny, and other early historians. Yet, strange as it may 
^^lear, in past ages we find that no mention is made of any 
tiproved proaess. It would appear to have been reserved to 
TWlem times, and to the people of Lancashire, to subvert the 
id roBtic contrivances, and to substitute the mechanieul in- 
mtions of Hargi'eaves, A.rkwright, and Crompton, as the bads 
t a manufacturing system. We owe it to the genius of these 
— sntoTB, sulaequently aided by Watt, and carried into prao- 
I operation by the enterprising efforts of other men, that 
e previously otraoure and humble pretensions of cotton have 
1 raised from insiguificaace, and invested with an im- 
Biice truly national ; that, along with the progress of this 
mufacture, our population has' increased beyond any pre- 
lUBly-couceived limits, the bounds of our industrial pursuits 
Ave been immensely eulargod, and articles of clothing have 
a rendered abunilant and cheap. Mr, Porter, in his Pro- 
* of the Saturn, says: " It is to the spinning-jenny and the 
lAun-engine that we must look, as having been the true mov- 
ing powers of our fleets and armies, and tne chief support also 
OCK long-oontinued agricultuiiil prosperity." 

• Among the results of Cotton- Spinning Muobinery, the dimi- 
jltltion of price ia as extraordinary as the fineness of the fabric. 
^Hie raw material is now brouglit from India, and manufiictured 
Into cloths in England ; which , after being returned to India, 
axe actually sold there cheaper than the produce of the native 

In Cotton Spinning, such ia the economy cS \iiiWV! '«toss- 
iducedby the use of machinery, that one mati a.Ti.4 ^o-it iJvSAs'soi-, 

S26 Indian Mtalim 

will Bpin &s mnoh jram as wks n)un hjr six hundred r 
fifty girla eightj yean ago. And in the present day 0_.. 
otrded, spun, aod wo»ea Into cloth in the same factory; tl 
different operations being performed by maohinery, the aewll 
port* of which are all set in motion by a aiugle stenm-eogini 
By lhe» oomlrinBd ngeooieti. the nctonl Talue of tie (-'otton I1& 
tMtiire. which in 1TS7 wbi wtinitCed kt 3.301.871/., rose in 1833 
n.3SS.fiD3J-. noooniiiiR ta Mr Bsioaa, uid the cKpitiJ emploTBd in 
BUU&uUire »» Stfim.0001. ; while Mr. M'Cullocb, in the Emmr 
DMivwry (1B4B), gi»Bs 38,000,000;. lu the ™.lue of ths gomia tt 
made, and t7,000,000(. u ths eatiniate of ths oapitat empb ' 
nporta of the eoctoo mnnafactura of the United Sinicdom u 
18*9 to 26.T75,1S«., and in 1858 to SS.lSl.MSf. Mr. Bau. 
ntisiatwi the anmber of psrsoiu smployed at 237,000, i 

l,»0,000bif iipwardaof6,000,00W. ofanniuil » - 

lir.M*Ciilloch(»lciihLtMthatSt2,00p8[«nnBPi, , _._ 

and 80,000 onifineers, machlne-inalEerB, Btnilb*. mnaoos. jnji 
wore oniploved, atannaal wngo* amnuntinK to 17,000,000;. ^9 

workman. The ileretopmenC trom 1349 to 1S.~>0 h^ pmoaeded ati 

at lasat aa great u that which preceded.— S^r /. Ka^ SkiillUwrtlk f 

To these notices of British Cotton Manufacture shoidd^fl 
ftdded come account of the beautiful products of the laAtt I 
art. Dr. lloyle pictures the native womun spinning thrtil " 
for those wonderful fiibrios to which the names of " dew-*!^ i 
night," " running- water," are figuratively applied. He 4f I 
scribcts her first carding her cotton with the jawbone of a badW I 
fish ; then separating the seeds by a Kmoll iron roller, WO>M ' 
backwards and forwards on a fiat board; then with a nm | 
bone reducing it to the state of a downy fleece ; and fin^ I 
worlcing it into thread in the warm moist atmosphere of a In- I 
pical morning or evening, aometiraes over a shallow venci it J 
water, the evaporation from which Iielps to inipurt the ttea» i 
sary moisture. Her spindle is delicately made of itxjii, tritll I I 
ball of clay attached, to give it the requisite wol^ht in tuniilist I 
and it revolves on a piece of hard shell, imbedded in anotflt ' 
lump of clay to avoid friction. In spite of her delicate fingM 1 
and all her old-world ingenuity, the rntliless Manchester muA^ I 
faoturer, with his mules and Australian -grown cotton, harieil f 
to supersede her ; and so, one after another, die out the alft [ 
of our older civilisation, leaving to the governed and thegf j 
vemors of the East the mighty task of founding a new aysteffli 
and new means of employment, upon tlie wreck left by tin I 
conquests of machinery and steam. . 

The weaving art is similarly primitive in India ; hut tbi 
very fine muslins are viewed aa curiosities, and made in snuil I 
quantities; ao that their use ia limited almost exclusively to .' 
>a of the land. 



e Emperor Juatinian we owe the introduction into Europ« 
le labours of the silk-worm, which, until his time, had been 
>% confined to China. The meatus bj which the secret of 
lining silk was conveyed to the Emperor diBplajed fur- ' 
■ ingenuity, which hears some analog; to the stratagem by 
^di the mauuiacture was conveyed to England. It appears ' 
t two Persian monks, employed aa misBioiiarteB from India, 
Hug penetrated into China, "here, amidst their pious ooon- 
llona, viewed with a curious eye the coinmon dress iif the 
Hiese, the manufactures of silk, and the myriads of silk' 
~ BOB, whose education, either on trees or in houses, had once 
1 oonBidered Che labour of queens. They soon discovered 
i it was impracticable to transplant the short-lived insect; 
i Hiai in the ^g a numerous progeny might be preserved, 
l multiplied in a distant climate.'' On their return to the 
t, instead of communicating the knuTiledge they had ao- 
^ sd to their ovm countrymen, they proceeded on to Con- 
otinople, and there imparted to Justinian the secret hitherb) 
veil preserved hy the Chinese, that silk was produced by a 
nee of worm: and they added, that the eggs might be succe^' 
f transported, and the insects propagated in his dominions. 
jf likewise explained to the Emperor the modes of preparing 
I manufaoturing the slender Slameut,~~-mysterieB hitherto 
_lItoKether unknown, or but imperfectly understood, in Europe. 
By flie promise of a great reward, the monks were induced to 
return to China ; and there, with much difficulty, they suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a quantity of silk-woi-ms' eggs; these they 
concealed in a hollow cane, and at length, in the year 56S, 
conveyed them in safety to Constantinople. The eggs were 
hatched in the proper season hy the warmth of manure, and 
the worms were fed with the leaves of the wild mulheny-tree. 
These worms in due time spun their silk, and propagated, 
under the careful attendance of the monks ; who also inaWw^sA. 
the Romans in the whole prooeaa of raii\iULfe).otQsm% "Ows« ^so' 

Early Silk Cultvre. ^^^Hl 

The insects thiis produced urere the pK>genitors of all ttit 

generaticiijs of Bilk-worms which have Biiice be^-a reared in Ea- 
rope and the western parts uf Asin, — of the couutlesa mjriadi 
whose c«DStaut and Bucoeasivc lahourB are engaged in suppljiog 
ft great and Btill increa^g demand. A canehil of eggg of Vl 
orieutol insect thus become the tDeana of establishing a mauB- 
bcture which fashion and luxury had already rendered impoV: 
taut, and uf saving vast eums tuinuallf to European natioi^ 
whicl), iu this respect, hud heeu soloagdepeDdent oii,andcoia- 
belled to submit tu the exactions of, their oriental ueighbowt- ' 
Justiiiiaii, however, took the infant mautifacture iuto his em 
hands, made it au imperial monopoly, and raised the prios 
of silk higher than those vbich he bad formerly prohibit«d 
■■ excessive ; so that an ouuoe of the fabric could not be \it 
t&ined under the price of six pieces of gold. Thus the Emperor 
proved any thing but a free-trader when he hiid olitained Uw 
■ecret. However, the rearing and manufacture did not loot 
remain merely an imperial preri^ative, but were extended H 
Greece, and particularly in the Peloponnesus. The Teuetiau 
opened commercial relations with tiie Greet Empire, andooft- 
tmued for many centuries the channel for supplying the westei^ 
parts of Europe with alks, which were now highly prked; fit 
in the year 790 the Emperor Charlemagne sent two silken mti ' 
to Offa king of Meroia. The Roman territories continued tg 
supply moat parts of Europe, until Roger I, king of Bidtf. 
up:>u his invasion of the territories of the Greek empire, iM 
into captivity a. considerable number of silk-weavers, whom 1« 
oompulsorily settled iu Palei'mo, obliging theai to teach liii 
subjects their art ; and in twenty years the silks of Sicily hiJ 
become bmouB. j 

The knowledge of the several processes spread over Italy. | 
and was carried iuto Spaiu ; hut it was not until the reigo i 1 
ITrands I. that the silk raaiuiiacture took root in France; sol } 
at this date, even our magnificent Henry VIII. could only obtail J 
a pair of silk stockings for gala-days from Spain. His dau^W I 
HuMheth was presented by her sili-woman with a pair of En(- I 
lish-knit likck silk stockiuga; but the manufacture in EuglaS ' , 
did not make much progress iu her reign until 1585, wheu miQ' I , 
of the silk manufacturers of Antwerp fled to England fi^ I , 
the persecutions of the Duke of Parma, then governor of tli I 
Spanish Netherlands. Near the close of his leigu, EiizabeffA > I 
successor, James I., eucoui-aged a London merchant to iHiBj! \ 
from the Continent of Europe some silk throwsters, silk Aject, : 
and broad weavers ; and a beginning was made in the maint' 
fecture of raw silk into broad silk ftbricg, which increased » , 
tapidJy, that, iu 1C29, the Silk Throwsters of London were in- | 
coiporated, and the trade \iaA \ta43e,TOaa6.'-'\iQ\\d(in black." 

I Silk-throwing established in England. 

In 1661, the Company of Silk Throwsters in London employed 
abore 40,000 men, women, and children. The r *■— "' 

ajthe Edict of Nantes, iu 1685, compelled Protestant merchants, 
Banofitcturera, and artificers, to emigrate from France in great 
Hmbers; when about 70,000 reached Engknd and Ireland, 
ad there established such seats of manufacture bh that of 
pilalGelds, in silk of the highest styles of art and ingenuity 
'&bric then known. In 1713, the petition of the Weavers' 
lompatiy to parliament at the peace of Utrecht against the 
nnmeraial treaty with France, represents the silk mannfac- 
ire as twenty times greater ia amount than it had been in 
B64, and that it had caused a great exportation of woollen 
ttd other manufactured goods to Turkey and Italy, whence 
M raw silk was imported. 

T7p to the year 1718, however, the whole of the silk used 
1 Bngland, for whatever purpose, was imported " thrown," 
«. formed into threads of various kinds and twists. In 17fS, 
Mr. Crotchet had attempted to establish the silk-throwing 
ide in a small mill which he built at Derby ; but, from defects 
his machinery and other diffieulties, he was soon compelled to 
wndon his project. In 1715, John Lombe, whose name will 
Ways be remembered with veneration in connection with the 
"k Trwle, resolved upon visiting Italy, and acquirine, at any 
k and any cost, a knowledge of the prooosa adopted in that 
mtry, and of introdnciug it into England. Having well 
latuKd his plan, he started on his enterprise. On reaching 
taly,he found difGculties greater than he had anticipated; for 
lie jealousy of the Italians guarded their secret with the most 
fttchful care. At Piedmont, finding that an examination of 
s Bilk machinery and processes was strictly prohibited, and 
ling to gain open admission to the works, he bribed some of 
A work-people ; and by their connivance, in the disguise of a 
tnmon workman, he made several secret visits to the mills, 
id at each time carefuUy noted down every thing he saw, and 
Dade sketches of parts of the machinery, so as to perfect him- 
df in the operation of throwing. His plot was before long 
boovered, and he was obliged to fly with the utmost pre- 
'tanoy; bringing with him, however, his notes, sketches, and 
dons of the machinery, and, better still, a mind which had 
iped a:)d comprehended the whole process. He fled to avoid 
^^^ Bsination, and took refuge on board ship ; and returned to 
lOgland with a full knowledge of the trade he had run such 
omlnent risk to acquire. 
IiOmbe was accompanied in his flight by two Italian work- 
i, whom he bad bribed, and who risked tUevt VvfeaNxv^i* 
On arriving in England, he a,t tmce t-sei a\v^«*^ 
ane of iis operations; and in IT \" Mva.-tt?,ai--«">-'^^^*' 

S30 Lombe's Silk-mill at Derby. 

Corpuratiun for an iglaud on the river Derwent, at tbeyarij 
rent of t4. On this ieUnd Lombe erected, at a coal of 30^, 
Ihe mill, jet itandiag, called "the Old Silk Mill." TU 
ground IwiiiK BWiimp)', Lombe, before he began to build ist 

1, Ckiiiird immense piles of oak, twenty feet iu length, to 
driven close together by qiduib of an eugitie which he cob- 
tfived fur the purpose ; and oo tliese piles was laid > sttw 
foundkUou, on which were turned the stone arches that sup- 
port the whIIb. 

Piiring the four years occupied in the erection of the miDi 
Iiombe, iu order to save time and to mise money to canyoi 
the works, hired rooms in various parts of Derby, sud amogeJ 
with the Corporation to use the town-hall, where he set up 
mtchines, which were for the time worked by hand, Tlieef 
engines more than fulfilled his expectations, and he was eoablei 
to sell thrown silk at much lower prices than it could be ob- 
taiined for from the Italians. By the time his large niiUint 1 
completed, and his machinery in active operation, he bad pa- I 
manently eslabliabed the silk-throwing trade. Iu 171^(, he ob- I 
taiued a patent for the sole aod exclusive property in the ndU I 
for fourteen yuan ; and, with the aid of his Italian workmffli ? 
carried od his new maniifitcture with great success. I 

John Lombe did not, however, long enjoy this prosp^tj) I 
for soon afterwards he died, at the early o^e of twenty-niiM) I 
from the effects of poison administered to him by the Itaiiiaa ] 
through whom he had learned the art. William Hutton, tl» i 
venerable historian, and a native of Derby, whose early diyi I 
were spent toiling wearily in this very mill, says quaintly, among 1 
other interesting references: ' 

Bui, aliis, ho had not pursued ti . 

th»B or four vDnnt, «hon ihe Italians, who folt the etTect of the theft I 

tmta tboir nant of trade, determitied Au cIcatruotiDn, and bopedtiuui' J 

hia worlti would follow. An Brifnl woman c&nie over in the charMi* ] 

ofk frioDd. nssoclated with the parties, snd as^usted in the bugineu; die t 

attempted In gain bulb the ItAliane, ujd sucoeedad with one. By ihuai I 

■low poison was auppoaod, and perhaps justly, to baie been adiuuilaWnd I 

to John Lumbe, who lingered two or thros years in a^ny. The ItaluA * 

fled to his own uuuotry, aiid lbs woman was interrogated ; but nothiiV t 

Itanspired except what strengthened suspioion. Grand (unorals wett I 

the fashiuu ; and perhaps the most superb iubumation known in Deitir I 

was that of John Lomba. Ho was a man of quiet deportment, who \ 

had brought a benefioial manufactury into the place, t)mpk>yed the poet, . 

Lombe was buried in All Saints' church, Derby. Dying n 
bachelor, his property fell into the bands of his brother, Wiluun 
Xombe, who Bhortly afterwatds., tevug of a tnelancholy tem- 
peraiuent, shot himsuii. towiA. VH^i 'Ccie \rSis ij^jsjai. vk, tjs | 


Sir Thomas Lombe. 

ain, 8ir Thomas Lombe. In. 1732 the patent expired; when 
Thomas petitioued Parliament for a renewal, and pleaded 
thSit the works had taken so loug a time in perfecting, and 
I people in teaching, that there had been none to acquire 
olument from the patent." '* Bnt he forajot, " saya Hut- 
i, "to inform them that he had accumimted more than 
),000i. !" The Government declined to renew the patent; 
b granted the sunt of 14,00W. to Sir Thomas a,s compensation, 
condition that he would prepare, and deposit in the Tuwer 
liondou, an exact and faithful model of his maohinerj, for 
~i inspection and advantage of others who might purpose oon- 
loting and canying on similar works. 

The Act authorising the issue of the money mentions, 
ing other causes which justified the grant, the great ob- 
Dtion offered to Sir Thomas Lowbe's undertaking by the 
Iff of Sardinia, in prohibiting the exportation of the raw silk 
[oh the engines were intended to work. 
The account of the machinery of this immenee mill, five 
ries in height, and one-eighth of a mile iu length, has 
n mueh exaggerated. The gra.nd machine is stated to havs 
n constructed with 26,58); wheels, and 96,746 movements, 
ich worked 73,726 yards of organzine silk-thread with every 
olution of the water-wheel whereby the machinery was 
cen ; and as this revolved three times in each minute, the 
lost inconceivable quautity of 318,504,960 yards of ot^an- 
e could he produced daily ! Button's authority is, however, j 
be preferred, for he served an apprenticeship of seven 
the mill; and he reduces the number of wheels to 13,31 
Soon a&er Lombe's patent had expired, a mill waa erected 1 
Stockport; and this was followed by others, ioDerbya,-^ 
various p^ces ; until now there are about 400 silk-thro 
[ &ctoriiM in England, employing, it is computed, conaide^• I 
\j more than 100,000 operatives. [ 

The chest in wbicii John LoiiLbe brought over to England \ 
1 Bpini^les, and various matters connected with the trade, we ! 
re engrave. It is one of the mcst richly oarved and pauited 1 
BBtS of its kind which is extant. Since Lombu's time, it hae, J 
til within the lost few years, been preserved iu the mill whioh | 
built, but is now the property of Mr. Llewellyim Jewitt, | 
B.A., of Derby. This chest is, of course, much older thao 1 
mbe's time ; and apart from its association with his e " 
A career, is a remarkably fine example of art. The Millie, 
resquely situated on the Derwent : since Lombe's time it haiil 
wived many additions; but the old mill, as built by him, still'l 
nains, and is likely to last through many genc:Pi.i.\trtift. ™^ 

wmpanying view hus been aketcned ftoni S^-.WnAi.'iiM* .^ 

Varioua attempts have been mad« to rear b^\\i. -flonoa \ii "&&*»»&" 

Juna I., to nblj^D tlu- nqolBt* fVioil for Hid ■Uk-wonrB, in ISIKad 
Oireuliir lotMr" U> nil Urn counti™ of EogUnil. gtrouefy reoon '"" 
ttio InhiibllAuM to pluit miiDwrry-trew 1 unil he dLrected ti 
IxitMibHl 1U,0UU mulbem-planu, wbiih wen to be prucnrvd in 
•t UirM (Brtbinn per plant. In 1609, Junes expended 036 
T^UitiDg of niu1bt)rt7-lrefl* upon tbe oita of the preoent Buc 
Paiiue uiil (Ivdeni, St. Juoea'a Park. It iru at this time tbi 

■pur* plHnted bii mT;1ben?-tree. KiDeJamefl'a e&nlen did 

■wad: tnit CharlH 1., by lottars-pBtent, in the fotirUi year of his i«n 
gnuilail to Walter Litm Aalon ths ciutodf fuid keeping c>f tJie guwS 
■nd nf Iho mnlberriea and idlk-irormB there, and of all the honaia Ho 
bulldinua to the same garden beliwein^, fgr his own and his ud'i tiftf 
In the Dcittiro reigns, " the Uulbenr; Uaidea" beoame a pI.iL-r orpnlffT 
reftvehmont: it i» a faTaniila loonlitj in tha gay comet) in" -''• ■i.--t~' iii« 
Bteond's time. The ^k- Garden scheme waa reTivt:4 
part of the eri&te of Sir Tbomaa Hare (Chelsea Park ' . 
tompaiy. and 2000 roulberry-treoi were planted. Thor.. ■ 

ofBngliiihidlk-ironnB for the Frinoent ot Wales, wliicL _ 

Bod traautinil." This scherae aim failed; but the CliK'k-liiiii'c m Loco 
Ohelsoa «a« long after tamotu tor the aale of midbsniea frum the IrMM 
planted for nlk-rearing. ^i 

In 17W, the Sodatj' of Arte awarded a premium 6>r tilk am 
Hm neitfUbourhood of l/iu'lon. No rimilar anocesa la recorded 
18SS, when Mr. Pelkin produced nt Nottinsbnm some fine oocoons 
eega from Italy. Mrs. Whitbj, nt Nowlands, near Lyniin^rtaa. B 
bu plantatiuni ot miilbeny-treBi. and baa for numy'yQuni reami 
with suocea from e^ge of the lor^e Italian sort, of (bur ohu 
from wUicb she obtains as great a proportion and as ttnad aau 
of Bilk as they do hi lul; or Fmnce. Mn. Whitb; haa prM 

Queon twenty yards of rich and brilliant 

Ik mined at Newlands. The obtaining a aufitcient quaaliW 
of fiiod fi>r the norms at the right diuB had bitherto been the gi2tl 

difBoultv ofgrowing silk in EnRland. This 

Mra. Whitby, whose silk Is worth as much in the market as ths iA 
farei^ silks; and making allowanoe for nntaiaurable seasons, labtHt', 
nuehiuery, ontiay of money, fee, Mrs. Whitby states tbtit land MC 
ont for the ulkworm'a food will affbrd a largeproflL Some of IhetS 
((Townby her has been pronounoed superior to the best Italian rawrillC' 
[n 1S40. HCnrves were mnnufactured in Spltalfields fnaa ths prodow 
oflatwean 700 and 800 worms kept io an attic-room in Truro. In «■*. 
and weight tho worms surpasaed those in Italy ; the cocoons nm 
larger ; iho quality of lilk whan reeled was fiilly equal to tho best h* 
ported ; nnd the quantity eioeeded the Italian average, and this in • 

arkably prt^tio 

t object, since the Tains gl 

ulk brought to England is above 2.00fl,noW. annunliy ; and ihe aiik ibk I 
nufactnru engagos perhaps fifty millions of our capital, and emn toa * 
one million of oar population. rrt^^ 



V Silk Stockings iiuide in England were first worn by Que 
mbeth, who refused to wenr auy cloth hose aflerwards. Ahj J 
^pprcBtice, soon a-Rer, borrowed a. pair of iuit vforat«d stook-J 
£agB, made at Mautua, and then made a pair like thmn, whiolnfl 
lie preeeiited to the Earl of Pembroke; and these are the firata 
Worated stockings known to be kiiit in £u gland. This humblal 
process of knitting ieemt to have been superseded by the stock* T 
iBg-frame almost immediately after the iutrodtiotion of knit I 
Btockiugs ; fur the invention of the stocking-frame dates from I 
' US89, the thirty-first year of Elizabeth's reign. I 

■ Aeiugular confusion pervades the early bistoryof tbeatocki-,1 
^K^Rune ; there is a stranjre jumble of persons, places, KnifT 
^Meq in the acppunts given of the inyention and the inyentco',,] 
^Blch it is difficult to reconcile, unless we implicitly believe theel 
^Hdenoe of a painting which long hung in Stocking- Weavera'J 
Hall, in Redcross-strcet. London. This picture contained tb$ 
portrait of a man iu coUegiate oostuine, in the act of poiutiiu 
to an iron stocking-frame, and addressing a woman who u 
knitting with needles by hand. The picture boi-e the follow- 
ing inscription; "In the year 15S9, the ingenious WilUam 
I«e, A.M., of St. John's College, Cambridge, devised this pro^fl 

fitable art for stockings (but, being despised, weist to Prance),'! 
yet of iron to himself, but to us and to others of gold; £d] 
memory of whom this is here painted." 

From Deering's Acconni of JfottiTigham, it appears that Wil- 1 
liam Lee (whose name ia sometimes written Lta) was a native ] 
of Woodborough, a village about seven miles from Nottiiigiiai 
He was heir to a considerable freehold estate, and a graduate 
of St. John's College, Cambridge. It is reported timt, being 
enamoured of a young country girl, who during hia visits 
paid more attention to her work, which was knitting, than to 
her lover and his proposals, he endeavoured to find out a 
maohine which might facilitate and forward the operation, at 
knitting, and by this meaas afford moTe \e\wwe Vi 'Cnft Oaiesi(. 
ofbia HffeatloB to converse with him. BftcV-mwon ea^*, " ^"^ 
a^eed is fei-tUe in inventions, and ^-ve -viWi^t'^ «!i6.,'w> '^^ 

hee^s Stocking-frame, 

wt oT paintiDg ; but a machine 10 complex in its p«t% mj I 
» wunderful in iu effects, would seem to require loogef ml I 
greater reflection, more judgment, and tuare time ftod V I 
tienoe, than could be expeoted iu a lover. But eveu if ai | 
caae should appear problematical, there can be no doubt h 
n^rd to the inventor, whom Inoi^t of the English writers polt 
tivelj' assert to have beeu William Lee." Deuring exprajf 
states thnt Lee made the first loom in the year loV.'A, the ddt 
named on the paiuting. 

Another version of the story states that Lee was expeUai ' 
from the Universitj for marrying contrary to the statutes. Ei^ 
ingno fortune, the wife was obliged to contribute to their jiUBt 
support by kuittiii|; ; and Lee, while watcbiug the motiou tf 
his wife's fingers, conceived tlie idea of imitating those mDW- 
menta by a machine. According to another vereiou, Lee, whSl 
yet unnianiiMl, excited the contempt of his mistivss by e«t 
triving a machine to imitate the primitive process of knittiix 
And was rqected by her. But both accounts agree that ul 
8tockiiig-&ame was iuvented by Lee, and that aliout the data 
asngned. A writer in the Q-aarterly Hrvietg, 1816, howeTCTj 
obs^vea ; " This painting might give rise to the story of Let!f 
having invented the machine to fiuiilitate the labour offaii^ 
ting, in consequence of fejling in love with a young oountl7 
cir^ who, during his visits, was more attentive to her knittiuc 
than his propoBals; or the story may, perhaps, have suggfflt3 
the picture/' 

But there is another claimant. Aarou Hill ascribes the in- 
vention to a young O-xoiiiaii, who, having contracted an in- 
nrudeut marriage, and having nothing to support his iami|j 
but the produce of his wife's knitting, invented the stocking } 
iiame, and thereby acauDiula.ted a 1^^ fortune. Evelyn, u I 
his Diorff, records having seen this machine as follows; "9 I 
May 16'll. I went to see the wonderful engine for wieaviiiC \ 
Bilk stockings, said to have been the invention of an OxGm J 
Boholar forty years since;" thus placiiig the iiiveution mai{ I 

gars later than the date of the picture in Stocking- Weavw I 
all. J 

The story of Lee's after-life, however, corroborates his beiu | 
the inventor : his name is mentioned as such in the petitiwiM I 
the Stocking- Weavers of London to allow them to establish K * 
guild. It is related that Lee, having taught the use of the mt* i 
cbiue to hia brother and the rest of his rebtions, established I 
himself at Culverton, near Sottingham, as a ato eking- weavw. I 
After remaining there five yea.rB, he applied to Queen Elizabetil / 
for countenance and support ; but finding himself neglet ' 
both bj the Queen an<l tier successor, James I., be trad '" 
Aiiuseifand hia macWnea lo^«.iicB,'«\im%asnttri.W.j 

ili neglee^i^^ 
e traUB&^^H 

Picture in Stocking-Weavers' Hall. 

riouH minister Sully gave the inventor a welcome reception. 
LB said to have carried over nine jouniejmen and several 
9 to Rciieii in Nonnandj. Nevertheless, after the OBsaa- 
lation of Henii, Lee shared in the pereecutions suffered bj 
e Protestants, and is said to have died in great distress, of 
'"l and difiappointment, in Paris. Some of his workmen 
e their escape to England; and under one Aston, who had 
I Lee's apprentice, established the Btocktiig-manu&.eture 
uientlf in England. Of Aston we find the following ao- 
; in Thornton's Nottirt^haTnahiTe, 1677, fol. p. 297 ; 
'' At Culyertoii wsa horn William Lao, Master of Arta in Cambridge, 
hd hair to a pretty freehold here: -who, seeing a, woman knit, invanled 
fcilooni to knit, and which he or bis brother .lames porformad and eier- 
'■^-d before tiiioen Elianboth; and leaving it to ... . ABton, his ap- 
□t bajond the seas, and was thereby enteemari the author 

... „.nioUB engine wherawitt they now weave silk and other 

jngs. This .... Aston added something to his master's inven- 
; he waa soma time a miller at Thoroton, nigh which place ha waa 

B invention was important, aa it not only enabled our 

incestors to discard their former iiielegant hose, but it like- 

'riae caused the English manufactures to excel all of foreign 

roduction, and to be sought for accordingly. Our makers 

" n exported vast quantities o( silk stockings to Italy ; these 

intained their superiority for so loiig a period, that Eeyslar, 

1 his Travels througli Europe, as late as the year 1730, re- 

u*kB, " At Naples, when a tradesman would highly recom- 

rod his silk stockings, he protests they are right English." In 

63, Charles 11. granted to the Framework- Knitters' Society of 

mdon B charter, which Oliver Cromwell had refused them. 

^e painting of Lee and his wife, however, was parted with 

J the Company at a period of pecuniary embarrassineut. Mr. 

'"~net Woodcroft has collected some particulars of the dia- 

J of the picture, m the liope that they may lead to its re- 

mtion. In a list, dated 1687, of plate, paintings, <bc. belong- 

I to the Company, is an item, — "Mr. Lees picture, by 

(UderBton :" it is also described iii Hatton's London, 1708. 

m 1732, the Company's books show no more meetings at 

r Hall, or any further entry of the picture. The Company 

(nbeeqnently let their Hall, and met at various taverus. The 

■■"1 of the Court Summons, dated 1777, is engraved from 

fl picture; and from this plate ib copied an engraving in 

the Gallery of Portraits of Inventors in the Great-Seal Patent 

» Office. The picture is thought to have passed, about 1773, 

I into the hands of an influential member of the Court of Frame- 

\ work Knitters, who, from time to time, leiiti t'na C<svK"jan-l 

oney, sh their books testify. ~ ~ -■ ■ — ' •■ ^ 

i9 \QBg been taken down. 


P*Ps» aereml looms employed in weaving appear to have h 

:e eclipsed liy the eiquisite apparatus of M. Jacquard, —^ 
IB very pruperly uamed after the iuvuntor. Like too 
other inveutorg, he was treated with coldness and ingratitndt 
bj the community which be has so largely heoefited. 

Joseph-Marie Jacquard was bom at Lyons, in J7o2, 
ble parents, both of whom were weavers. He is said to haw 
bean left even to teach himself to read and write ; but at > 
verj early period he displayed a taste for mechanics by oini? 
Btmcting neat models of buildings, furniture, &c At the igs 
of twelve his father placed him with a bookbinder; he wu 
aubseqnentlj engaged in type-founding and the manufactuie 
of cutlery, in both which occupations he gave evidence cf 
skill. Upon the death of his father, young Jacquard, with 
the smoli property left him, attempted to establish a businas) 
in weaving figured fabrics, "but failed; and he was com- 
pelled to sell his looms to pay his debts. He subsequent!} 
married, and, disappointed of a portion with his wife, he wu 
forced to eell his patomat residenoe. After occupying himsdf 
with ingenious schemes for improve tu cuts in weaving, cutlery, 
and type-founding, which produoed nothing for the support « 
his family, Jacquard was driven into the service of a lime- 
burner at Bresse ; while his wife had a small straw-hat bii^iu^ 
at Lyons, whither, in 1793, Jacquard returned, and assisted in 
the defence of that place against the army of the Conveutiiu^ 
his only son, then a youth of fifteen, fighting by bis side. Th^ 
e compelled to flyj and joining the army of the Rhine, M» 
una killed in battle, and Jacquard returned to Lyons, whMS 
he assistud his wife in her business of straw-hat making. Lyonf 
at length began to rise irom its ruins ; and its artisans returned 
from Switzerland, Germany, and England, where they had 
taken refuge. Jacquard now applied himself with renewed 
energy to the completion of a machine for figure- weaving, of 
whicn he had conceived the idea as early as 171)0. He sat- 
ceeded, though imperfectly; and in 1801 he received frfim thS 
National Exposition a bronze medal for his invention, which 
^^^ateuted. He set up a loom on this new principlej whi^ 



JacquariTs Loom. 237 I 

About tliia time Jacquard'a attention 'was directed by an 
i;liBh newspiiper to a reward offered by a, Eociety for the in- 
ition of a machine for weaving nets for fishing and maritime 
aOBCB, Jacquard made the apparatus, but threw it aside; 
his machine-made net falling into the hands of the prefect 
Lyons, he and his machine were placed under arrest and 
iveyed to Paris; where the iuTention was submitted to in- 
1, upon whose report a gold medal was awarded to Jac- 
1 February 1804. He waa now introduced to Kapoleon 
Oamot ; when the latter, not undeiBtanding his meehanisw, 
;hly asked him if he were the man who pretended to do 
apoBaibility— to tie a knot in a stretched string. Jac- 
not disconcerted, explained the action of bis machine!}' 
o simplicity, and convinced Caruot that tlie supposed im- i 
aihility was accomplished by it. He was then employed to 1 
air and put in order the models and machines in the Ooa* 
ratoire des Arts et Metiers; and while there he made soi 
eniona advances in weaving inachiuery, one of which w 
ptoduciug ribbons with a velvet face on each side. He al 
itrived some impi'ovements upcn a loom invented by Taa- ] 
iBon, ■which improvements have been stated to be the or^pa J 
ihe Jacquard machine. According to another account. Tan- I 
ison's loom is iu no way connected with Jacquard's ; and, av I 
ineohanism is very complex, its application limited to ywf i 
k11 patterns, its action slow, and its coat very great, it bfr> I 
^ rather to the class of curious than of useful maahinee. I 
ui 1804, Jacquard returned to Lyons, to superintend hi» J 
entions for flfrure- weaving aad for making netsj and in. I 
16 the municipal administration of Lyons purchased tli9 I 
for the use of the public. For aome years, however, Jao- J 
had to struggle against the prejudice of the LyoneBe i 
'8. who conspired to discourage his machinetr ; and even- | 
publicly broken up and sold a« old materials. 

lie the inventor's personal safety was at times endangered. , 
length, under the effect of fure!"ii competition, the valoB 1 
Faoquard's loom was acknowledged ; and it waa brought \&n I 
BOBively into use, not ouly in France, but in Switzerland. ] 
noany, Italy, and America ; and it has even been introduced 
the empire of China. 

Jacquard was solicited by the manufacturers of Rouen and J 
Queutin to organise their factories of cotton and batist^. 1 
d he received a similar offer from England ; but he prefetred I 
■ remaining at Lyons, and continued to promote the use of his 1 
great invention until lie retired to the neighbouring village 
of Oudlins, where he died in 1834, at the age of ei^tY-W 
IJuring his life he received the cross of t\ic lle^cm (A'fto'QK 

IngratUude to Jacijuard. 

■norabTe epoch in the textile Ml. By its agency the ritb» 
kud mott Domplei designs tare produced wiih facility U lit 
RiMt moderate price ; and bo fe.r from dimiiiisbiug eropWinoiii 
M soiue feared ou its first latrod action, il is stated to hawi^ 
creased tho number of workmeu tu the mauufacture in MA 
it is used tenfold. Man; iugeaious applications of the Jaoqmd 
loom have been made, either to produce novel coniblnationiv 
to work with more than usual rapidity. 

Jacquard'a invention iBnot,strictly8peakiDf!,)i loom, butfll 

Spendage to the loom, intended to elevate or depress, byhtt 
9 warp-threads for the reception of the shuttle ; the pattRV 
being produced liy means of bands of punched oards a-""*'* 

on needles, with loops or eyes, which regulate the ti^un 
■pparatua was first applied to silk-weaving oulj ; but it U 
be«n extended to bohbin-neC and other bncy manu&cturt^ 1 
oarpet -weaving, 4c. Formerly the most elaborate brocaAl 3 
OO^d only be produced by the most skilful weavers and tiW I 
most painful labour ; now, bj aid of the Jacquard loom, &t 1 
most beautiful productfl may be accomplished by men 
ingonly the ordinary amount of skill, while the bibour at 
Upon the actual weavina is little more than that required ft* 
making the plainest goods. The name of Jaccjuard has beaant, 
BO tu speak, technical iu both the old itnd new world ; ul 
his loom will prove a lasting record of his mechnnical talsit, 
though it has not uniformly secured him the respect of his 
own countrymen. 

Iu ltt53, a strange instance of ingratitude was added to Ihi 
history of Jacquard and his Loom. Two of the inventoi'a 
nittces were compelled by poverty to offer for sale the gold 
medal bestowed by Louis XVIIl. on their uncle, the sav 
Ofiked being 'he intrinsic value of the gold, 201. The Chamber 
of Commerce of Lyons beiiia acquainted with the clrciunstjino^ 
agreed to purchase the medal for 34^. I Buch was the gratitude 
01 the matiufaciuriiig interest of Lyons to the memory of ■ 
man to whom it owes so large a portion of its splendour. 


Tbe Abb^ NoUet, and other iiive&tigatorB, had already madd J 
lUme iugeiiious suggestions respecting the analogies between I 
electricity and Lightuing, when, in 175S, their truth waa I 
;^BpIy proved by Franklin, who, like his predeceasors, medi- i 
'fating upon the similarity of their effects, traced out further ■ 
.IKBeiuhlances, and at length hit upon the happy expedient o 
iBpnding up a common kite to an electric cloud, and thus ei 
oerioientally demonstrating their identity. The following ai 
the particulars of this great discoTery ; 

Franklin bi^ns hia account of thoainoilarity of the Electric Fl 

IflghtiiiD„ , 
,£Sereuce of ofTocta in point of desres, i 

ment oouM be drawn of the notual diapari , 

'■ys, no wonder that the Bffaota of the one should ho far oxcBod too 

'Oitlie other; for if tno gun-barrels electrified will strika at 

^tajioe, and make b report, al how great a " ' '" ' 

disparity of their m 

a dist<ui(» 10,000 oi 

l-unok! He then adds, that fiashes of lightning- are ^nertdlj crookei 
waving, and sn is a loU;^ electric spark ; that lightning, like con: 

' etoatrioity, etrikes tha higheat and most pointad objocta in its wi 
jtreferenoe to others, sueh as hills, trees, towers, spires, masts of s 
pi^ts of spe 


ic ; that it takes the readiest aud best « 

icflammnblB bodies, rends others to pieces, aad m. 

Lightning, he adda, baa ofton been known to atiike peo 


Uind^ and the 

■hock of slectricity; In otljer 

abo been killed by electricity. 

, has ofton ] 

a pigeon which hnd n 

uases it killed animala, and they h 

tors appear to attract etectricit;, ho conoeivi 

fixed ID tho nir, tni^ht draw (rem clouds t> 

noise or danger, and disaipato It at their ten 

following is hia memorandum on thia subject 

tiaotfld by points ; wo do not know whether thia projierty be in light- ( 

ning; but since they agree in all particulara in which wo oan alrrady 

compare them, it ifl not improbable that they agree likewise ii ^^ ' 

Ltt tit apei-iiHent bi made." 

In the jeor 17S2, while waiting for the erection of a spire 
city of Philadelphia, • not imagining that a pointed rod of any moi 

240 Idetililtj of Lightning 

bolirlit wiu^ moiiwcr Uw purpoM, it ooanrrad to Pr&Qklin, that bf ■■ 
til a minnwii kit» ha niinht h«Te ready nwwas to Uie higher P0-=- 
tlw utiuiHiihor*. Piw[Kiriin{. themforo, a. large silk hw " 
twooroes Btiuks ti> exiciid i( on, he tonk the oiinortiiu 
icnroochins thundentDnu, uid went into a field, nhc 

i£ed proper for the iinrpose. But dreadingtbe ridinulei 

mh^t Klteod an aluaiwciMfUl alt(iin|it, Iia ooioniiaijciited his in 

to DO one but his •on, who auiated him in Hyiag the kit-- * — 

Rble time eUpted vithoiit appEarance of nicosia, and a i 

piMiiil oTsr the kite with do effect ; when, jost rb ho ii 

aeniljr, he obiervod mme loDH thi'eids upon thestrir^- < 

to iBverKO and «tAnd or«t : on thie. ha fastened a kei- [ 

<m preAenling hJB knuckle to it, waA gratified by tbc ]> 

lluit had beoi tbua drawn from the clouds: others 

vrheD the Mrin^had become vet by the foiling raiu, ji 

oloctric ftre paaaed from the conductor to hbi hniuL \V 

Uii'* enuitions upon this interattiiig oocubod it is ii'i 

OaiTs: we atd told, that when he uw tbo fibres of tli 

Wid the Bpark paaa, " he uttered a doop sigh, and wisli. 

ntont were hii InU/' hs felt that his name would be inii.inj-uili'oli? I 

the disooTBry. 

Pr. Fra.ii1tlm pursued these experiments with much h( 
duitjr and success. He erected aa instilnted rod to drtit lb 
lightning from the clouds into his house, and pcrfcnmed, idt' 
the electricity thus derived, near!/ all the experimeDla^ 
which he had before employed the common maehine; and,tllili 
no opportunity might be lost of making such experiment^ ll 
attached a chime of bells to the electric rod, which gsvewi 
notice by their ringing of the dectria state of his appar^tul 

It should, however, he stated, thnt two Freuch gentUnuBi 
Messrs. Dalibard and Beioz, were probably the first who eiff 
rimentally verified Franklin's hypothesis, although the DoiW 
was utuuxjuainted with their proceedings. The Torraer prq«Ml 
his apparatus at Marly, uear Pans; the latter at his hoiift 
which stood upon high ground iu that city. M. DnlibnA 
apparatUB consisted of an iron rod forty feet long, the IdW 
eud of which was brought into a sentry-box, where the ni* 

thDOKbt, ho nlglit hKTe hern ditllnsuitlied In hi« nwn I 

bli bon« lie IndlHriiDlnsCelr lions with thoH of oniiim 
t«nb. alreiidT well-nigh hid In the rabhUh. mtj wkhi he i 
daubcnuchff onela > bundred ottbepTennlpwerKUa" ' 
sm nen Fnniilln'i snve. Thonskadi fru dally with! 
tpotwherBhls sshos ami Ihmeof hlswife repose, wllheiitU 

Richmans fatal Experiment. 


old not enter ; while on the outside it was foatened to three 
a posts b/ silken stringE defended from the rain. Thia 
tobiae wiU) the first that happened to be visited tiy the ethe- 
. Dalibard himself was from home ; but in hia ab- 
e he had intrusted the care of his apparatus to one Coisier, 
B directed to call some of hia neighbour*!, particularl}'' 
e curate of the parish, whenever there should be any appear- 
N of a thu[jderBtorm, At length, on May 10, 1762, between 
B and three in the afternoon, Coisier heard a loud clap of 
■ ider ! he immediatelj' ran to the sentrj-bos, and, in thepre- 
e of the curate and several neijishbours, drew sparks from 
A conductor. A few dajs afterwards, a successful repetition 
■ the experiment was made by M. Deloz at Paris. 
m These important and interesting experiments were repeated 
talinoat every eivilised country, with varied success. In France 
and result was ohtaiued by IVl. de Komas. He constructed 
te seven feet high and three feet wide, which was raised to 
e height of 650 feet by a string with a fine wire interwoven 
R>ngh its whole length, to render it a better conductor. On 
a 86th of August 175(i, sparks, or rather streams of light, 
m darted from the string of this kite of an inch in diameter 
dten feet long. 
' Considering the facility, and at the same time the danger, 
e esperiments, it is curious that they have only in one 
le been attended by a fatal result, namely, in the case of 
lor Richmanof St. Petersburg. He had constructed anap- 
zstus for experiments on atmospherical electricity which was 
"relj insulated, and had uu contrivanoe for disebargiiig it 
a too strongly electritied. On the 6th of August 17S3, 
^ was exhibiting the electricity of his apparatus in company 
■"'Ti & friend ; whilst attending to an experinient, his head ac- 
mtally approached the insulated rod, and a flash of light- 
g immediutuly passed from it through his body, and deprived 
1 of hfe. A red spot was produced upon his forahtad, his 
B hurst open, and a part of his waistcoat singed; his 
Hxmpaaion was for some time rendered senseless; t be door of 
\'e room was split and torn off its hinges. 

Franklin's discovery of the identity of lightning and eleo- 
ifflty has not been without its important practical results, 
inong which is the application of conductors to buildings and 
[lipB, hy which their safety during a thunderstorm is almost 
^nsured. The discovery has lieen most extensively applied by 
l^r William Snow Harris in hia lightning-rods, whioli, by en- 
iBTUig the securitv of ships aud buildings, have saved many 
' IS and much valuable property. 

^k vitl 


Is the time of Vau Helmont, early ill the seventeenth century, 
the workmen in certain Qemian mines were molested, just M 
our colliers still are, by poiBonoua choke-damp and ^rplcdn 
fire-damp ; that is to say (for the words were Gennaa, thonA 
only too easily domesticated in England), by Buffowitlag sudor 
fieiy Tapours, the former of which put out life silently bDl 
Biimmarily, while the latter might blow its unfortunate vietiai 
to pieces. In sarcastic playfulness with the popular superstitJilB 
&s to these guardians of the mineral treasures of the old oA, 
Tan Helmont imposed upon them the name of Gliosis or (lOtBl ' 
but he knew little or nothing positively about them. Sojb J 
was probably the lirst to suspect that some solid bodies do in j 
certain oircuiuBtatJCea— when the? are Leated, for inatanw- [ 
throw off artilicial airs, reseoibling the commoii atmospheric I 
gases in thinness and in elasticity, as well as in dryness wi | 
permanency, but differing from them he could not tell hov. | 

It was young Black, the greatest chemist Scotland has wo- | 
duced, and the discoverer of that iaot of latent beat wniob ■ 
Watt has embodied in the steam-engine, who took the Gnt 
positively chemical step in the progress. He discovered thlt 
limestone (or chalk, or marble, or oyster-sheU), when bumedin ! 
the kiln, and thereby rendered quick, parts with a kind of mi : 
in which no animal can breathe or live ; and also that it it I 
owin^ to its setting free this air or gas that the ciiange fitm | 
inactive hm^tone to caustic quicklime is due. He colled it j 
fixed air, imprisoned in the rock till the furnace, or oU of j 
vitriol, or the spirit of salt, extricated it from its fixture. Be I 
perceived and proved that this fixed air was neither more nca I 
less than of the nature of an acid, but existing, alone of all ' 
acids, in the airy or gaseous state ; and it was theu conceived , 
that there may eiist many different kinds of airy matter, just I 
as there are many kinds of solid and liquid substances. I 

This magnificent discovery was made at Edinburgh almost ' 
within the memory ot ite -pieBeixt ViiaKvyjKQ.'w,-, miA tt ia the | 
reatest discovery in nRtural acveace ^iiiAtaa ^i^e^^swHl.■^l■ 
rere. Iir. ChalmerB B^dot*laBcWTfi\*to3ril'Ci«'eaR*-.'J^ai 

1 acid, at 
the great 

Choke-damp and Fire-damp. 

if Black catching fixed air, and diBceming it to 1: 
k time when nobody thought of euch things : that 
Btroke ; it was a very great thing to do." 

Soon eftcr this iuitiative had been taken bj Joseph Black, 
friestley invented an easy waj of collecting and handling gaseous 
podies (the pneumatic trough with its jara), and actually came 

" ime nine kinds of gas (all differing from ordinary air, 

B from another) in a few years. Scheele had, mean- 

■llile, been making conquestB of the stime sort in an obscure 

Modish town, with no apparatus but phials and bladders; and 

1 added two or three more to the list of new gases. All 

Europe followed these sagacious leaders, — Cavendish, the dis- 

yerer of hydrogen ; Watt, who first suggested that water is 

npoaed of two gases ; Butherford, the discoverer of nitrogen ; 

ijsier, the interpreter, though not the first discoverer, of 

en, and the rest; — until every body has at lensth become 

e that gases are just the steams of liquids which boil at 

nensety low points of temperature, these liquids being the 

Iquefactions of solid bodies which melt at temperatures lower 

; and that, therefore, there may he no end to the number 

^of the kinds of gaseous matter, precisely as there is no known 

■ limit to the vast variety of liquids and solids. — Nor tfi- British 

eview. No. 35. 

Of Joseph Slack it has beeo said, he lived as fine a life of 
' ice as was ever lived, and died with a oup of milk unspilt 
is hand. 

FHre-dampf or dmplj dump^ ia only met 

d1 coal. It is especinlly nbimdant in tile 

isld. Elaewhoro what is coMed Ciuh-damp prevails, 

ioacid gas | and it in not unlikelj that otter gaaes are 

I to time wiib these. When It ia remembered that 

,e number of men, and often man; horaes, are employed nndra-- 

id; and that frequently there are miles of undersround passHgea, 

iiindroda of miners, widiout more than two or throe ahafts com- 

oating with the upper air, — and these only chitnneye, many hundred 

on^. and ofsmBll area, — no one will be surj'^^od that the (ur be- 

M ntiated, and that a amaU adJition of foui gan reudora it unfit fbr 

^npport of life. When, however, gas of whatever kind comes ttS 

lariy, tbe meehanieal meane of Teutdlation cotnmoidy adopted are 

loient. It is enly when there are audden, uiiexi:eetod, and large jets 

neoualy jioured forth, and when thia gaa, mixed with 

oomea lu^bly exploJdve, tbat the real danger BTiaoa. 

e gaa oalled by mini 


Tbb origin of this great "invention for the preservatif^l 
humikn life" greatlj parta^lies of that interest which is alm^ 
oooceutrated ou the BCrU[g(le «f life. Its principle was doaU- 
less eiperimenteii on by Davy, when a yonng man at PenzaoW 
and writing hia Euai/a on Htat and Light, even before he hu 
commeDced the study of chemistry. It ia true that he ihoot 
early iti the eye of the world, and was by nature moch indw 
than equal to the kind of researches he undertook ; yet hi) 
great achievement of the Safety-Lamp was the result of nHBff 
Tears' patient and enlightened research, and rniiy he traoH 
from the CO mmeti cement of his career of original researeh in 
tbe most remote town of Cornwall, to his ooustruction of iht 
lAinp itself in the theatre of tlie Royal tnetitutioii in Londoa; 
where, in like manner, he developed heat hy rubbing twopuM 
of iee lofjtther, which he had many years before reheareei iri^ 
Tom Darvey, one winter's day, beaide Larigan river. 

The boyhood of Davy has been sketched in sume of t!)« 
most fascinating pieces of biography ever written :* the aniuJl 
of science do not present us with any record that equals tl» 
Bcbool-days aud self- education of the boy Humphry in popnbt ) 
interest; and, unlike many bright mornings, thia commenn- '. 
ment in a few years led to a liriUiant meridian, and by a siie> I 
cession of discoveries, accomplished more, in relation to chang* I 
of theory and extension of science, than in the most ardent vA | 
amhitioua moments of youth he could either hope to effect « t 
imagine posaible. I 

Huniphiy Davy was bom at Penzance, in I77S ; w»s t I 
healthy, strong, and active child, and could speak fluently b»- ' 
fore he was two years old ; copied engravings tiefnre he leaned i 
to write, and could recite part of the PUffrim'i Pragrtm betlM I 
he oould well read it. At the age of five years, he could gsiil 1 
a good account of the contents of a book while tiiming V~ 

Davy at the Royal Institution. Sl^H 

the leavea; and he retained thU remarkable faculty through 

life. He excelled in telling stories to his playmates; loved 

fishing, and collecting and paiiitintr birds and 6ehes ; he had 

hie own Utile garden, and recorded his impressione of romautio 

scenery in verse of no ordinar}! merit. To bis self-educatioii, 

however, he owed almost every thing. He studied wilh in- 

ienaity mathematics and metaphysics and physiology ; before 

he was nineteen he began to study chemistry, aud in four 

months proposed a new hypothesis on heat and light, to which 

'on over the eapcrieuced I>r, Beddoee. With his associate 

|ory Watt {son of the celebrated James Watt), he collected 

'mens of rocks and minerals. He made considerable pro- 

esE ill medicine ; he experimented zealously, especially on the 

Feats of the gases in respiration : at the age of tweuty-one he 

id breathed nitrous oxide, and nearly lost hie hfe from breath- 

g carburetted-hydro^en. Hext year he commenced the ^sl- 

lOio experiments which led to some of his greatest discoveries. 

1 1S02 he began his brilliant scientific career at the Uayal 

laUtution, where he remained till im2 ; here he constructed - 

■ great voltaic battery of 2000 double plates of copper and 

no, aud commenced tlie mineralogical collection now iu the 

uaeum. His lectures were often, attended by IDfH) persons : 

s youth, his simplicity, his natural eloquence, his chemical 

lowledge, his happy illustrations and well-conduuted espe- 

uents, and the auspicious state of science, — ensured Davy 

The entliusbstic admiration with which he was hailed can 

"ly bo imagined now. Not cnly mun of the highest rank, — 

eu of science, men of letters, and men of trade, — but women 

'b^hiou and blue 'Stockings, old aud young, pressed into the 

leatre of the Institution to cover him with applause. His 

'catest labours were his discovery of the decomposition of the 

ced alkalies, and the reestabhshment ot the simple nature of 

Jorine : his otiier researches were the investigation of astriu- 

it vegetables, in connection with the art of tanning; the 

ilysiE of rooks and minerals, in connection with geology ; the 

imprehensive subject of agricultural chemistry; aud galvaa- 

m and electro -chemical science. He was also au early, but un- 

KjoaBsfulj experimenter in the photographic art. 

Of the lazy conservative spirit aud ludicrous indolence in 

paence, which at this time attempted to hoodwink the public, 

k qnaint instance is recorded of a worthy professor of chimistry 

tt Aberdeen. He had allowed some years to pass over Davy's 

ffilliant discovery of potassium and its congeneric metals with- 

Dnt a word about them in hia lectures. At length the leecms^ 

doctorwas concussed by his coUeagucaoB iVe siAiie:t\.iW-&-'^i* 

condescended to notice it. " Both po\,adi aaii 6"^ '^^^ ^'^'* 

MS The Safety-L 

BLid M be nietaJlic oxides," said he j "the oxides, in fact, ottw 
metals, called potassium and ettdiutn by Ihe discoverer of thai, 
oue Uftvy ill London, a verra troublesome persou in chemigtij."' 

Tuni we, however, to the brighleHt eveut id our chssiMl 
pbiloeupheri career, Bj his uorivalled series of practical diioV' 
veries, Davy acquired such a r«putation for succesH among H 
oountrj'meti, that hie aid was invoked on every great ocoaiiai- 
The properties of fire-damp, or carbaretted-hydrogcD, in col' 
mines had already been ascertained by Br- Henry. Who 
this gas is mingled in certain proportions with atmospherical 
it fonni a mixture which kindles upon the contact ofu liriiM 
oaadle, and often explodes with tremendous violence, kilfiw 
the meo and horees, and projecting much of the ccmlentiS j 
the mine through the shafts or ^erturea li&e an enormon I 
piece of artillery. Soon after, a detonation of tire-damp eo- ] 
curred within a coalmine in tbe north of England, eo dre«dM f 
that it destroyed more than a. hundred miners. A commitW 
of the proprietors besought our chemist to provide a method 'i 
of preparing for such tremendous visitation s ; and he did it I 
He tells us, that he first turned his attention particularly to I 
the Buliject in 1815 ; but he must have been prepaid for it Vf , 
the researches of his early years. Still, there appeared littls | 
hope of fiuding an efficacious remedy. The resources ofm>- I 
dera mechanical science had been fully applied in ventijstioo. I 
The comparative lightness of fire-damp was well understood; ) 
evei; precaution was taken to preserve the communicationi I 
open ; and the ourreuts of air were promoted or occasioned, 
not only by furnaces, but likewise by air-pumpa and swsm 
apparatus. We mny here mention that, for giving light to tbe . 
ooal-miuer or pitman, where the fire-damp was apprehended, | 
the primitive contrivance was a steel-mill, the light of whioli I 
was produced by contact of a flint with the edge of a wbeel 
kept in rapid motion. A " Safety-Lamp" had already, in 1813, ' 
been constructed by Dr. Clanny, the principle of which wu I 
forcing in air through water by bellows ; but the machine wm I 
ponderous and complicated, and required a boy to work it I 
il. Humboldt had previously, in 1796, executed a lamp (« J 
mines upon the same principle as that of Dr. Clanny. I 

Davy, havii^ conceived that flame and explosion may ba I 
regulated and arrested, began a miimte chemical examination I 
of tire-damp. He found that oarburetted-hydrogen gas ewn i 
when mixed with fourteen times its bulk of atnioaphenc air, 
was still esploaive. He ascertained that explosions of inflam- 
toable gases were incapable of being passed through long narrow ' 
metallic tubes ; and that this principle of security was still ob- 
.tained by diminialuag tbeir Ua^h and diameter at the at 

Davy's Model Safety-Lamp. 

ime, and likewise diminiahiiig tlieir lengtk and increasing their 
tumber, su that a great uutnber of small apertures would not 

SB ejcplosiou wheu their depth was equal to their diameter. 

ia iact led to trials upon siepes of wire-gauze ; he found that 
[ a piece of wire-gauze was haid over the flame of a lamp, or 
oftl-gu, it prevented the flame from pasaing ; and he aacer- 
■ined that a flanie confined in a cylinder of very fiue wii'e-gause 
Ed not explode even in a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, but 
bit the gasea burnt in it with great vivacity. 

These experiments served as the basis of the Safety-lamp. 
%e apertures in the gauze, Davy tells tis, in his work on the 
^ject, Bhould not be more than l-32d of an inch square. The 
iamp is screwed on to the bottom of the wire-gauze cylinder, 
nd fitted by a tight ring. When it is lighted, and gradually 
ntroduced into an atmosphere mixed with flre-damp, the size 

" length of the flame are tirst increased. When the iiiflam- 
ile gas forms as much as l-12th of the volume of air, the 

Slinder becomes filled with a feeble blue flame, within which. 
B flame of the wick bums brightly ; its light continues till 
Jiie fire-damp iucreases to l-6th, or l-5th, when it is lost in 
flame of the fire-damp, which now fills the cylinder with a 
tty strong light ; but when the foul air constitutes l-3d of 
atmosphere, it is no longer fit for respiration, and this ought 
be a flignal to the miner to leave that part of the workiagB. 


— ._L._. ur- 

Sir Humphry Davy presented bia ^nt wgng'J.TnRa)a.'a&. J 
flpeotin^ his discovery of the Saiety-Laaap Wi ftift ^Wi^ii.%""^ 

248 Effectt of the Sa/eli/-Lamp. ^^^H 

in ISlfi. Thia was followed by a eeries of p&pers, crowned b^ 
Ui&t read on thu llth of January 1M16, when the principlera 
the Safety-Ijtmp was iinuounced, and Sir Humphry preseotrf 
to th« Suoirty u model made bj hia own hnuits, which is ta 
thii dny preserved in the oolleotlon of the Royal Society A 
Burtiugtoii House. From this interesting memori&l tiie U' 
" ~iipanyiiig vignette has beeo eketched. 

There have Utrea Beveral modificBtiona of the Safety-Lain^, 
ud the merit of the discovery has Iieeu claimed by othoi, 
among whom was Mr. George Stephenson ; but the qnestiin 
WM Bet at n»t in 1817 by an examination, atteeted by 9r 
Joteph BanVs, P.R.8., Mr. Binnde, Mr. Hatchett, and Si. 
Wollsston, and awarding the iudependent merit to Davy. 

It ahould be explained that Stephenson's lamp was fortari 
on the principle of admitting the fire-damp by uarrow tuhti, 

1 "ill such small detached portions that it Mould be eoo- 

led by combustion." The two lamps were doubtless dit- 
tinaC inventions ; though Davy, in allJuBtice, appears to be en- 
titled to pi-eeedeiice, not only in point of date, but as regudi 
the long chain of inductive rtajoninc ooucerning the nature of 
Bftme by which his result was arrived at. 

Meanwhile, the Report by the Parliamentary Oomtoitlee 
"cannot admit th&t the enperimeutB (made with the lamp) ' 
liaveany tendency to detract from the character of Sir Humphiy , 
Davy, or to disparage the fair -value placed by himself upon hu i 
invention. The improvementa are probably those which loogsr 
life and ailditioual fucts would, have induced him to contem- 

te as desirable, and of which, had he not been the inventor, 

might have hucorae the patron." 

" I value it,'' Davy used to say with the kindliest eittlti^ 
tion, " mure than any thing I ever did : it was the result ota 
great deal of investigation and labour; but if my direotionGbe 
attended to, it will save the lives of thousands of poor men." 

The principle of the invention may be thus summed tip. 
In the S.-ifety- Lamp, the mixture of the lire-damp and atmo- 
spheric airwithin the cage of wire-gauze explodes upon coming 
in contact with the flame; but the combustion cannot put 
through the wire-gauie; and being there imprisoned, cannot 
impart to the explosive atmosphere of the mine any of itsforoe. 
This eSect has iieen attributed to the cooling influence of the 
metal ; but, since the wires may be brought to a degree of 
heat Imt little below redness without igniting the fire-damp, 
this does not appear to be the cause. 

ProfesBor Plajfair has elegantly oharaeteriBed the Safety-Lamp of 
Davy on a j.rOBent from FhiiiHophr to the Arra; ndisoovery in doi^ — — — 

Iliio offoct of nccidoiit or chance, but the rnsuli of patient and onligl 
KUearoh, and strungiy exemptitYiiig \iiQ ^j^aJ. Mae r' — ■ - 

Death vf Sir Humphry J 

e add the honefioial conaei^euccfl, und tlie 
■ing of tie lues nf men, and oonaidar that iha effeetB are in I'emajn 
long as coa! continues to bs dug frum the howels uf the earth, it may 
fairly said that there is hnrdiy iu Che vhole coin{iasH of art or eoieaoe 
ingleiuveiitbn cilwliioh one would ratherxish to bo theauthor. . . . 
ii7' Bays Profesaor Pisyfair, '■ is exactly Biwh a ease as wo should 
Mse to place before Bacun, were he ta revisit the earth ; in order to 
shim, iu a email compass, an ide& of the advancement nhioh philo- 
thy fau made since the time wbe □ he had pointed oat to her tiie 
ila which she ought to [lureue." 

Honoura were showered upon Davy. He received from the 
jaI Societj the Copley, Royal, and Ruioford Medals, and 
rwal tiraea delivered the Bakerinu Lecture. He nlao received 
ipoleon's prize for the advancemeuC of galvanic researches 
ID the French Institute. The invention of the Safety-Lamp 
>ught him tho public gratitude of the united colliers of 
bitehaven, of the coal proprietors of the north of England, 
' the grand jury of Durham, of the Chamber of Commerce at 
DUB, of the cual -miners of Flanders, and, above all, of the 
al-owners of the Wear and the Tjiw^ who presented him (it 
18 bis own choice) witii a dinner-service of silver wortli S50W. 
L the game occasion, Alexander, the Emperor of all the 
lasias, sent him a vase, with a letter of coramendati'in. Iji 
17, he was elected to the dignity of an Associate of the In- 
tute of France : next year, at the age of forty, he was created 

Davy's discoveries form a remarkable ojioch in the history 
the Boyal Society during the early part of this century ; and 
on 18SI to IS^ almost every volume of the Trartsactwas 
tttains a communication by him , He was Preaideut of the 
lyal Society from 182(i to 1H27. His administration was not 
Ogether satisfactory; he was too setisitive. " Above all, he 
IB disappoiuted in his life-long foolish hope of one day moving 
B Qoverunient of Britain to piLtronise the cause of science," 
KS gi'eat an improbability iu the present day as it was in poor 
ivrt time. 

fond ot travel, geology, and sport, Davy visited, for the pur- 
se of miueralogy and the angle, almost every county of Gng- 
id and Wales. He was provided with a portalile laboratory, 
iX he might experiment when he chose, as welt as fish and 
' ' In 1827, upon resigning the presidency of the Royal 
"ESooiety, he retired to the Continent : in 1829, at Oeneva, his 
"_y-Blricken body returned to the dust. They buried bi.iD.aJ^ 
mevB, where a simple monumeut atnuda a.^. tW V.^^ oVCtA.^ 
spitable grave. There is a tablet to Uia mctQiT-;) \ti."^«SM 

Daily and Faraday. ^^^^^H 

minster Abbey; there is a monument at Fenxance; and hii 
widow founded a memorial chemical prize in the Univetstt? of 
Geneva. " His public services of plate, hia impenal vasea, hn 
foreign prizes, his roy^ medals, shall be handed down witti 
triumph to bis coliateral pusteritj as trophies won from tbi 
depths of nescience; bat bis wobk, designed by his owngeuini, 
execated by hia own band, tmcer; aod all, and every sii^ 
stone sisnalised by his own private mark, indelible, charaetv- 
iatio, and inimitable, — hia woek is the only record of his Dama 
How deeply are its foundations rooted in space, and how lut- 
ing its materials for time 1" {Norih-BriCUh Reoiem, No. 3.) 

One of the most pleasing episodes in the life of Davy is tb 
account of his first reception of Michael Faraday, described bf 
the latter in a note to Dr. Paris : i 

"Whan 1 was a bookaeller'ii appronlioe." sajH Famday, "IWB I 
very fond of Biperimsnt, and very averm to trade. It happened Halt I 
Eenllemnn, a iDembor of theBoyal Institution, took me to hearsmierf I 
Sir H. Darr's Imit lectures in Albemtu-le-street. I took notcB, nsd afta^ i 
wards wrote tiem out more fairly in a quarts volume. | 

" Hy daaire to eacape from Irada, vmicb J thought vinioiiit and aA I 
figh, aai to enter into the service of Bcieace, wliich I in 
pnr»u8r« aniiaTile and liberal, induced ni 

of writing to Sir H. Davy, aspresaing my wisDes, anil a iiope 
an c^^rtunlty came in iiia way, ha would fayour my views ^ anc 
avne time 1 sent the notas 1 had taken of his Wtures.*' 

To this application Sir H. Davy replied ae follows : 
To Mr, Fabaoat. 

U the end of Jar 

) be of any service to ji 
im, sir, your obedient hi 


H. Divi. I 

Early in 1813, Davy requested to see Faraday, and told him | 

of the situation of Assistant in the Laboratory of the Royal Ib- I 

stitution, to which, throtigh Sir Humphry's good efforts, Fan- , 

day was appointed. In the same year he went abroad with | 
Davy, as bis assistant in experiments and iu writing. Farads; 

returned iu 1815 to the Royal Institution, and has ever anix | 

remained there. ' 

There cannot be a better testimony than the above ciroiuB- I 
stance to Davy's goodness of heart. 


broel, the cloctmaicr of PariB, we owe the Bolutioa of an 
)rtaDt difficulty in lamp 'making, — tbe avoidanoe of the 
Ktiou of the aiade fi'om the reservoir. lu a. lamp which 
(mstructed, Carcel made the reservoir for oil at the lower 
«f the lamp, and placed close to it a clockwork which 
id a little force-pump, tbe piston of which raised the oil 
t as the wick. The spring was reached by means of a key. 
mechanical means employed by Carcel for raJBiiig the oil 
ke burner were aa ingenious as elegant; therefore naTe we 
■>ed nothing of the principle of the inventor's lamp. The 
[-work that he adopted has always been retained; the im- 
ments being secondaiy points in the mechanisin. 
IlTcel drew but a small profic irom hia important diEC0Tei7. 
i many originators of useful inTeutions, to whom we are 
bted for the luxury and cage of actual life, he left to others 
profits and benefit of his works. He died in 1812, full of 
toities. Life had been to hira but a long and painful 
Iggle. When he wished to patent and secure to himself the 
fetyofhiB discovery, and to commence the use of it, be 
Ivbllged to have recourse to a partner to find the necessary 
Bl. It was the apothecary Carreau who joined him : thus 
^tent, which was delivered the S4th of October 1800) to 
[uiventor of the Mechanical Lamp, bore the two names of 
Ml and Carreau. But the latter had nothing to do with 
WBCovery, though his intervention in the enterprise waa not 
But its advantages. Carcel, greatly discouraged, would not 
followed up the work he had proposed for himself, had it 
for the entreaties and encouragement of his fiiend. 
the term of the patent expired without having 
ieht any important profit to the two partners. In the Rue 
[Arbre Sec at Paria may still be eeen the old shop of Carcel, 
^ied to this day by a member of liis family, bearing this 
ji— " Cared, Iitvenieiir." In the doorway of this simple shop 
hha Been the first model of the lamp which Carcel con- 
The hot air whioh passes from the glass chimney of 
serves to put in motion the mechanism by which the 
ed to the burner. On other iaraps is clockwork, con- 

as by Carcel, the needlea of whioh are ^ut w\.^l!A.\!OTi. 

jB name mechanism which taiaea ttie coirL\iufiX:ftiV&\viifiiA.-^ 
% Bw jSyaJKW journal) 1867. 



Thk produclioQ of hydrogen g»s in a tobacco-pipe, 1 
the bawl with powdered coal, Chen luting it over and , 
It in ft fire, is well-kuown; but sveu more familiar at^S 
slten^ftte burating out nod eitlDCtion of those bunting jc 
^tdij vapour, which contribute to render a coinm '~ 
otgect 60 lively, aud of such agreeable conteinplat 
irinter evenings. We nay pursue the subject in tracing tU 
brilliant lights by which our streets are illuminated from th 
obscure recesses of nature, and showing by what siepa that 
trhich was once thought simply an object of curiositv, has bM> 
applied to H practical purpose of the most useful and agreeaUt 
kind; which an able writer, in showing what had been don* 
with the ^ses, felicitously illustrated : " One species, or ntbff 
ft Tftriable mitture of two or three, composed of carbon Hid 
bjdrogeti, ia made in the outalcirts of nearly every town novf- j 
. l-days, in eiiormouB quantities, and then sent away from 1 I 
huge trough or jar, or from a heart, to circulate through i lys- 1 
tern of uietullic arteries, fur the purpose of lighting streets w J 
houses," I 

The existence and inSamniability of coal-gna have beea ] 
known in England for two ceuturies. In the year 1609, Thomu 
Shirley Qorrt'Otly Bttriliuted the exhalations from " the bumiDg ' 
well" at Wigan in Lancashire to the coal-beds which lie uudn I 
that part of the county ; aud soon after, Dr.Clayton, iuflueoced 
by the reaeouing of Shirley, actually nude coal-gas, and detiuled I 
the results of his labours in a letter to the Hon, Robert BoylSi < 
who died in 1601. He siys, he distilled coal in a retort; ana 
that the cuuterita were phlegm, blaok oil, and a spirit which b« 
was unable to condense, but which he confined in a bladder. 
These are precisely what we now find, but under different 
names : the phlegm is water, the black oil ia coal-tar, and ths 
spirit is gits. Dr. Clayton several times repeated the experi- 
ment, and frequently amused his friends with burning thegu 
" 't came from the bladder through boles made in it with a 
" This is a. hint which, in an age more alive to economic 

Gas-lighting in China, 

eentury earlier ; though the mechanical difficulties might 
iVe been tou great to overcome at tha,t period ; a circumstance 
ioh has retarded the introductiou of so many valuable di»- 
eries, as it did that of the steamboat and the printings 

About a century later (1753), Sir James lowther communi- 
ed to Cbe Ruynl Society ti uuti<:e of a spontaneous evolutioni. 
gas at a colliery belonging to him near Whitehaven. White' 
a men were at work, they were Burprised by a, rush of mTj' 
hioh caught fire at the approach of a caudle, and burned ynw 
iflame two yards high aud one yard in diameter ; the; weiv 
frightened, but put the flame out by flapping it wiQJt 
hats, aud then all ran away. The steward of tba worbf 
ring this, went down himself, Ughted the air again, whictt 
I notv increased, and had soiac difficulty in extinguisl ' 
If was found to anuoy the workmen so much, that a t 
I made to carry it o£F. The tube projected four yards abo^ 
I pit, and at the extremity of it the gas rushed out wi< 
oh force. "The gas being firod," says the account, "it ' 
■r been burning two yeara aud nine months, without 
B of decrease." Large bladders were filled in a few sew 
m the end of the tube, and carried away by persons, wbff 
ed little pipes to them, aud burned the gas at their owu con 
lienoe. We do not learn what became of this copious su| 
■; it probably diminished as the coal-bed was exhausted. 
Soon after the middle of the last century, Sishop Watsolt 
de many experiments on coal-gas, which he details in hlk 
tmiad Eisays : he distilled the coal, passed the gas throu^ 
ter, conveyed it through pipes from one place to another^ 
1 did BO much, that we are only surprised he did not iutrodnO>> 
Into general use. 
Meanwhile, the use of Oas had long been known in a distant' 
rt of the world. "Whether, or to what extent," says Me, 
0. Taylor, on the coal-fields of China, " the Chinese arti' 
[ally produce illuminating gas from bitumen -coal, 
certain. But it is a fact, that spontaneous jets of gns, 
m boring into coal-beds, have fur centuries been l>umin|^ 
d turned to that and other economical purposes. If thw 
inese are not manufacturers, they are nevertheless gas con- 
xiers and employers on a large scale ; and have evident^, 
gn 80 ages before the knowledge of its application was ac 
dred by Europeans. Beds of coal are frequently pierced by 
e borers of salt water ; and tbe inflammable giis is forced up 
in jets twenty or thirty feet in height. From these fountains 
'flie Taponr baa been conveyed to the salt-works va ^-^o^^^m.^- 
■" used for the boiling and evaporalmg dI "liifc m^\ ~~' 

• Temp Cgdopadia: arl. '■ G»»-mit.tt08-' 

254 Early Gas-lighling Experimental^ 

other tubes convey the gas intended for lighting thfi 
and the krger apartmentB and kttchenG."* 

To return to England. Although the properties of soil- 
ta were known here bo long ngo, no one thought of applying 
it permanently to a useful object until the year 1792, vhm 
Mr. Murdoch, an engineer at Redruth in Cornwall, erected ■ 
little gasometer and uppiiratue, which produced gas enough la 
light hiB own house and offices. Murdoch appears to have W 
no imitators, hut he was not disoouraged ; and in 1797 iM . 
erected a similar apparatus iu Ayrshire, where he then regidej. ' 
In the following year he was eugaeed to put up a eas-work at 
the manuiactory of Boulton and Watt at Soho. This was lit 
£ist application of gas in a large way ; but, excepting in iaaim> 
&ctones, or among aoieutific men, it escited little attention 
until the year 1802, when the front of the great Soho muUp 
fectory was brilliantly illuminated with gas, on the occasion of 
the public rejoicings at the Peace. All Birmingham pound 
forth to view the spectaole, and strangers carried to every part 
of the countiy an account of what they had seen, ft m 
Q)reBd about every where by the newspapers ; easy modes ft I 
making gas were described; and coal was experimentajlj di^ 
tilled in. tobacuo-pipes at the fireside all over the kingdoffl. 
Soon after this, seveml manufaoturers adopted the use of au. 
a button manufactory at Birmingham used it largely for solder- 
ing; Mr. Samuel Clegg first began to construct gas apparatoSi 
aiut ahout ltJ06 exhibited gas-lights in the front of hie rnapn- 
&atoTj. Eali&x, Manchester, and other towns followed. 

A mngle cotton-mill at Manchester used above 900 bumen 
and had several miles of pipe laid down to supply them ; and 
Mr. Murdoch, who erected the apparatus used m this mill, snt 
a detailed account of his operations to the Royal Society in 
1808, for which he received their Gold Medal. The suoceu of 
Chxa-lighting in the cotton factory was striking : it was »orj 
soon adopted for the softness, clearness, and unvarying ilt 
tensity of the light ; and it was free from the incouvenieool 
and cUnger resulting from the sparks and frequent snuffing d 
oandlee, which tended Co dimini^ the hazard of fire, and leasa 
the high insurance premium on cotton-mills. 

Previous to the public display of Gas at Soho, it had, how- 
ever, been applied to similar purposes by a M. La Bon at Pads 
who, in 1801, lighted up his house and gardens with the gu 
obtained from wood and coai, and had it in contemplation ts 

■ Mr. Taylor nnllcDH tlis Hinnulir conn 
lupply, the BppliMlion toaniiie?uvBOW«<iinn.TOit»Bijrf.-E%iS\,,'iMii 

Wds to lliuinimtion. ara ramwHiUj »11— - -— '^ " 

tte UaiieA HMiea. 

lis emrloyineTit ofntnl J 

Gas-lighting London. 

|)lt np the oity of Paris ; but we find nothing farther recorded 1 
M. Le Bou'b results. 

Thus we see that, althoueh the Chinese have for ages e 
lyed uatuml coal-gas for hghting their streets and house^J 
fy within the present century has gaa superseded in LondrnT^ 
B dim oil-lights and crjstal-glass lamps of the precedii^ 
nturj. Dr. Johnson is said to have had a prevision of thj 
snge, when, one evening, from the window of his house h 
It-ooiirt, he observed the parish lamplighter ascend a laddi 
light one of the small oil-lamps. He had scarcely descends 
9 Adder half-way when the flame espired. Quickly rctumii 
lifted the cover of the lamp partially, and thrusting the a 
Jiia torch beneath it, the flame was instantly commu ' ' 
■tiie wick by the thick vapour which issued from it. 
bbiimed the Doctor, "one of these days the streets of Iicm 
D will be lifflUed hy srmke" {N<fts» and Qu^riet, No. 127). 
The use of gas, however, made but slow progress \i ' 
■tropolis : it was dirty aud disagreeable, and no meani 
t been found for puri^ing the gas, though lectures wei 
'bkA. and experinieDts made upon the subject by a German I 
med Frederick Albert Winsor. In 180:i and 1804, he lighted J 
B old Lyceum theatre. He took out a patent in 1804, aai 1 
oed a proapectufl of a National Light aud Heat Company, proy I 
nug Bubsciibers at HI. at least 67M. percent per annum, witJi \ 
prospect of ten times as much. A subscription was raised, it 1 
eud,of 50,000f., which was expended iu esperimeuts, without f 
iGt to the subscribers ; although Winsor gained eiperienoe, , 
d the important process of purifying gaa oy lime. In 1807, I 
I lighted one side of Pall Mall ; on the King's birthdaT, 
ine 4, he brilliantly illuminated the wall between Fall MaH 
d Bt. James's Park ; and on August 16 exhibited gas-light in 
olden-lane. In 1B09, the National Light aud Heat Companj I 
plied to Parliament for a charter; but they were opposed 1:^ J 
r. Murdoch, on the score of prior discovery, and the charter I 
I roftised. It was, however, subsequently granted, and IQ I 
was established the G!as-Light and Coke Company, i 
non-row, Westminster; removed to Peter-street, or Hors 
y-road, previously the site of a market-garden, poplars, ai 
ll-garden. Soon after an extensive espTosion took place c 
I premises, when a committee of the Royal Society was, &t j 
I request of the Government, appointed to investigate the J 
iter. They met several times at the gas-works to examina i 
I apparatus, and made a very elaborate report, in which i 
J stated as their opinion, that if Gas-ti^htmg was to be- 1 
se prevalent, the works ought to be placed at a cousiderabla ■ 
tanoe from all buildings ; aud that the TfcsetNQvca ■^wii.'^ 
all and numerous, and always separated icoiQ e:icla Ci'Cq«»3| 

25G Jfituor's Gat-Ughting. ^^^^^H 

motrnda of wrth, or strong p»rtf-wall9. This coimnitteeon^ 
•wted of Sir Jowph BMlk^ Sir C. Bbgilun, Cul. Congrere, Hr. 
Iawboo, Mr. Reiiiiie, and Dr. Youug. Id the companj's tf- 
plication t^ Parliamem, one of their witnesses, Mr. kwm, 
the ehemisC, wm bitterly ridiculed by Sir. Brougham, F-RSt 
mnd Sr Humphry Davy asked if it were intended to take 41 
dome of St. Paul's for a gasometer! In short, as Dr. Arm 
rcnuo^, " Dnvy, Wollaston, ai>d Watt at first gave an ojfflna 
tiMi cwl-g^ could never be safely Applied to the purpastof 

Btreet-Iightiiig. " However, the invention progressed, ■ 
182S St. James's Park was first lighted with gas. ' 
WMDot, however, yet esWidlished ; for in 1S25, on t 
Government, a cuminitlee of the most eminont f 
minatcly iniipeuted the gas-works, and reported that the M 
Bional supterin tun deuce of all the works was ueces^ary. 

Of thegeiiernlproceisof makingGas we need only state, tW I 
it is obtained from coal enclosed in red-hot cast-iron or dtf I 
cylinders, or retorts, when hydro-carbon gases are evolved, uw f 
coke left Ijehirid ; the gas, being carried away by wide tuliea, 6l k 
next cooled and washei with water, and then espcised to UiM I 
in close purifiers. It is then stored in sheet-iron gna-holdtt^ I 
miscalled giisuiiieters, some of which hold 7iH),(X>U cubic fMl j 
of gas; aiid the several Lotid«u companies have storage for Ml I 
miilion cubic Itfet oi ftaa. ^WtVLd&VLu Axvtvo. by the weight Df 1 

Gaa-lijhting. 257 

gas-liolders through cast-iron lUBiQa or pipes under the 
lets, atid fram them by wrought-irou acrvici:- pipes to the 
ipB and burjiars : of the gas-inaius there are 200G miles. 
The Londou Gas Cooipauy's works bX Vaushall are the most 
rerful snd complete iu tiie world : A^m this point their maina 
B across Vanxhall-bridge to western London, and by West- 
oater and Waterloo bridges to Hanipstead aud Highgate, 
«n miles distant, where they supply gas with the same pre- 
ion and abiindauce as at Vauxhall. Their pipes exiund 150 

Qas-lighting has been extended from London throughout 
eat BrituLU, so that there is uow scarcely a email town not 
hted by gas. The continental cities slowly followed our ex- 
ple ; anil it has reaulied our antipodes. 

' Qas has been made from oil and resin, but is too costly for 
eet-lighting. Wood and peat are also used. In Ireland a 
lags has been lighted wiui gas made from bog-turf. Gas- 
;hta are also used in coal-miaes, greatly facOitatiug the 
wratioiia of the colliera. The greater oheapiiess of cmI, in 
places where il can be procured, will probably always 
t above any other material that could be proposed for 
« manufacture of gas. 
The Lime-ball, the Bude, and the Electric Lights, are too 
jnsive for street -lighting. Some of the processes of arti- 
i illuminatiuQ have been costly failures : upon the Patent 
ir-Ught (from hydro-carbons mixed with atmospheric air), 
roposed in 1838, upwards of 30,0002. were expended uusuccesft- 
blly. The Atmospheric Bude Light is tbe result ofuumeroua 
iperimentB made by Mr. Goldsworthy Guraey of Bude iu Com- 
inul, and is now extensively employed iu lighting churches " ' 
ther large buildings. OKginally it was obtained from an 
mp, tbe flame from which was acted upon by a curren 
: subsequently oil-gas was substituted for the liqi 
DOW the gas which is made for lighting the streetVi 
' towns is employed to produce the flame, and the brillianqrj 
iucreased by a current of atmospheric air ingeniously iutwHI 
ioed. The Bude Light was first used fur lighting the BouM 
Commons in the year 1842 ; its cost is about oiie-third the 
' Mnse of common oil, and about one-ninth that ofcomposi- 
Q oandles. 



The Canal, an artificinl channel filled with water, is uK 
the tniDBit of (;oods, for irrigatiou, and for suppljing ' 
with water. The New River, by which iKjndon is in 
part provided with water from Hertfordshire, is a canal. 
canalB by which ancient Egypt waa intersected were used 
for navi^tion and irriEation. Canals are known to hn 
isted in China before the Christian era. The first canal 
in Europe, as fiir as we know, waa out by Xerxes across tf 
tsthmuB of Athos. Canals were made by the Romans in 
and in the Low Countries about the oudets of the Rhine 
we have reason to think that they also made canals ii 
But canal-making in modem Europe was first practised! 
iuhabitnjita of North Ibily and Holland. Works of this 
which are still admired by engineers, were executed in 
bordy between the eleveut h and thirteenth centuries: the 
from Milan to the Ticino waa made navigable iu 1271. 
formation of canals was begun in the Netherlands in ibet\ 
century, when Flanders became the ctimmercial eTOref 
Europe. Holland is intersected with canals, which hav( 
compared to the public roads in other countries. 

The origia of the present system of English Canals 
from the year 1755, when, an Act of Parliament was pasa 
oouBtructing one eleven miles long, from the mouth of S 
Brook, in the river Mersey, to Oenird's Bridge and St. S 
It should, however, be n^cntioned, that canals had beei 
viously known for centuries in this country. The Canal 
the Trent to the Witham, which is the oldest iu Engli 
said to have been dug in the year 1134. 

James Briudley, who rose from a childhood of poverl 
neglect to be a celebrated engineer, was born in DerbjsJ 
1716. Through hia father's dissipated habits, the boy wi 
ployed in fiirm labour, and allowed to grow up almost 1 
uneducated ; to the end of his life, he was barely able ti 
and write. He is supposed, however, to have shown bow 
towards mechanical invention; for at the age of seTenb 
bound himself apptcntii» ta imilLwright at Maccle^eld. 
iiems loft frequenti.'j\i7'tem»M.Vtit'vrD,<^'«ief^teffril 

■ James Brindley. 25! 

execute works oonoemiDg which his master haxl given him n 
previous itistruetion ; these he finished in his own way. On I 
one occasion his maBter was employed to construct the ma- I 
ohinery of a new kind of paper-mill ; and although he had I 
inspected a mill in which similar machinerj was in operation, f 
it was reported that he would be unable to finish his contract. I 
Brindley was informed of this rumour; and as soon as he had I 
finished his week's work, he set out for the mill, took a com- 
plete survey of the machinery, and after a walk of fifty milea, 
reached home in time to commence work on Monday morning. 
Having thus made himself perfectly master of the oonstruotion J 
yof the mill, he completed the machinery, with several improva- J 
laents of his own contrivance. I 

, Brindley, on the expiration of his apprenticeship, startedl 
^ buaineas on his own account, but did not confine himself to J 
the making of mill-machinery. In 1762, he contrived an inv\ 
proved engine for draiuing some coal-pits at Cliftou, Lanca^l 
jihire J it was set in motion by a wheel 30 feet beiow the BUi-P 
&ce, and the water for turning it was supplied from the IrweO; 
J^y a subterraneous tunnel 600 yards long. In 1755, he ex6-i 
sated a portion of the complex machinery for a silk-mill atfl 
-Oongleton ; and in the foEowiug year he erected a steam-en- j 
iite fit NewtRtstl^uiider-Lyne, which effected a Bating of oae- 1 
ilfiufuel. 1 

Srindley's genius was constantly displaying itself by the 
invention of the most beuutiful and economical simphfications. 
One of these was a method which he contrived for cutting all 
jhis tooth and pinion wheels by mncbiuery, instead of having 
Ihem done by hand as hitherto. This invention enabled him , 
D finish as much of that sort of work in one day as had for- J 
lerly been aooomplished in fourteen. 

But the character of Briudley's mind was comprehei 

H and grandeur of conception ; and there speedily arose au — 

equate field for the display of his vast ideas, and almost io-l 

^austible powers of execution. In 17S5 was begun the first! 

Bdern canal actually executed in England, — the Sankey Brookl 

■vigation, eleven miles long. In 1758, he commenced, for thai 

■ke of Bridgewater, the celebrated Bridgewater Canal, which-^ 

now completed, commences at Manchester and terminate) 

^oncom, and has a branch to Worsley and Leigh. One a 

I earliest great works was an aqueduct carrying the canalV 

rasa the Irwell ; so that from the aqueduct may often be seen 

^n or eight men slowly dragging a boat up the Irwell against 

B stream, while, about 40 feet immediately over the tiiw,3. 

Me or a couple of men are enabled to draw mfcuwi^ifjis^Kt. 

^ditySve or six baizes fcstened one to t\ift o\.\iftt. "^Jaa itassii. 

a Wotslej to Manchester, with the u.-tt4eiEto-wvii, c,o\w9R. ^»o- 

nite n 

The Bridgeicaler Cat 

i«ls, cort 168,0(¥tf., and is ^ghteen miles in length, 
thu Mception of the part betwceu Wurslej and Leigb, thb ■ 
WM executed bT Brindle; in five vesira. 

While the Bridgewat«r Ctuial was yet in progress, Brj 
flommeuced niiotber canal paa^af; tbruugh StaffordshiK 
uniting the Trent and tbe Mereey. This canul is iiiuety- 
tnilea in length, has nine^-six locks, and passes over i 
aqueducts: it has Sve tunnels, one of which, 2(i80 jari 
lengch, is cut through Harecastk Ilill, at more than 901 
below the BurEu^ of the earth. The canal was. not oomp 
■t Brindley's death ; but his brother-in-law, Mr. Hential 
cewfully fiuished it. BriDdley also designed a canal, furl 
miles long, called the Staffordshire and Worcesterahire C 
for the purpose ofconnecting the Grand Trunk with the S« 
He also planned the G-ventry Canal, and superiutendet 
execution of the Oiford Canal These undertakings opem 
internal water-communication between the Thames, the! 
ber, the Severn, and the Mersey, and united the great pa) 
London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Hull, by canals which n 
through tbe richest and most industrious diistricts of Bngfe 

Tbe canal from the Trent at Stockwith to ChLSterfield.J 
six miles long, was Brindley's last public undertaking. ! 
lips, in his J/iiCori/ of Inland Navigation, says that Brii 
pointed out tbe method of building walls against the seat 
out mortar j and that he invented a mode of drawing wsM 
of mines by a losing and gaining bucket. 

Brindley's designs were the resourcesof his ownmindft 
When he was beset with any difficulty, he secluded himself 
worked out unaided the means of accomplishing his wha 
Sometimes be lay in bed two or three days; but whenhetj 
he proceeded at once to carry hia plans into effect, nitbouj 
help of drawings or models. He knew something of figures 
did not much avail himeelf of their assistauce in his oali 
tioQS: his habit was, to work the question chiefly in hil li 
otdy setting down the reaults at particular stages ; yet hil 
elusions were generally correct. He died in 1772 in hisi 
sixth year. 

Brindley was an enthusiast in canal navigation. Tl 
giving his profesflional evidence before a committee (rf 
House of Commons, he expressed himself with so muoh 
tempt of rivers as means of internal navigation, that a met 
was tempted to ask him for what object rivers were ci(m 
when Brindley replied, " To feed navigable canals." Tti 
cbaracteristic, and probably, authentic ; but it was made p« 
by an anonymnus Correspondent to a journal, whose conan 
-"tions respecting BviuAWy ware stated by some of his fii 
contain many iiiaccaTawea, 


John Smeaton, the Civil EDgineer, it may well be aaid, I 
was one of the earliest of " a Buif-created set of men, w? 
FeBflion owes its origin, not to favour or influence, bul 

best of all protection, the enootiragemeiit of a great and 
mful nation," — in the construction of lighthouses and hax- 
otB, and the undertaking of other great public workB. 
Bmeaton was born in 1724, a.t Austhorpe near Leeds, in a 
iBe built by his grand^kthar. His father was an attorney^ 
1 brought him up with a view to the legal professioa 
9e exhibited at a very early age great strength of u 
jding Bud originality of genius. His playthings wen 

tOJB of children, but the tools with which men work ; 
uipeared to take greater plea^aure iu seeing the men i~ 
{hbonrhood work, and asking them questious, than ii 
Iff else. One day he viae seen, to the no small alarm of 1^ 
llyi on the top of his father's bam, fixing up something " 
ituing a windmill. On another occnsion, he watciicd 

I who were sinking a pump in a neighbouring Tillage, a 
Hriug theui cut off a piece of bored pipe, he procured it 

actually made with it a pump that raised water. All thi, 

done while he was in petticoata, and before he had reached 
sixth year. About hia fourteentli or fifteenth jesr, he bad 
ie himself an engine to turn rose-work ; he also made a 

t, by which ho turned a perpetual screw in brass, a raaohine 

iittle knowu at that time. In this manner he had, by tb~ ~ 

agth of his genius and inde&tigable industry, acquired a 

■go of eighteen an extensive set of tools, and the art it 
king at most of the mechanical trades without the ai ' ' 
I of a. master. 

n 1742, in pursuance of his fetther's design, young Smeato! 
9 to London, and attended the courts of law at vVeetmiD 

Etall; but finding the bent of his mind averKe to tbe ^yti. 
tRiher yielded to his wishes, and allowed him to devote hiS 
rgiee to more congenial pursuits, About the year I76U ha I 
I up the business ofa mathematical-iualiTuiuew^ \&»^.ke.^ 
jear he esperimeuted with, a machwift OiwS. "iviVi^^^^ 
■* ■ V a ship's way at eea", Kai ^ Vlfefi^ 

le of experimeatB *' 
rtJ iMwers of water and wind to turn milli 

» dependiug on circular motion." From then 

the moBi valuable improvements ia h/draulio madui 
creoBiug the power one- third. Fortheae experimeuts i 
received the Copley Gold Medal of the Royid Societj, i 
he liad become a Fellow. In 1754 he visited Holland 
Netherluuds; aiid the acquaintance he thus obtained 
construction of embaukmeutB, artiticiol uavigatious, an 
irorka, probably formed an important part of hia eiu 

In 175!}, Smeaton communicated to the Rojol Sc 
experimental tuvestigatioo, bj which he reduced tb 
dewgning windmilla to general principles. The detaili 
seen in Professor Bankiue's Manual of tlie ^eam-tiu 
other Prime Movtrt, 1869, 

In ITdU, Smeaton commenced the great work whii 
than any other, may be looked upon as a lasting moni 
his skill, — the erection of the Eddystone Lighthouse 
the Bddystone rock, abnut fourteen miles south ffS 
Two lighthouses had before been erected on the rod9 
was swept away by a storm ; and the second, whi^H 
of timber, was destroyed by fire in December ITsSH 
mediate reSrection of the beacon being highly itiniM 
plication wns made to the Earl of Macclesfield, then V 
of the Bojal Society, tor advice as to the person win 
be intrusted with the difficult task. The previous ligl 
had been designed by non-professional men ; and it 
now that to erect another, "would uot so much n 
person who had merely been bred, or had rendered 
eminent, in this or that profession, but ratlier one wh 
natural genius had a turn for contrivances in the me 
branches of science." Lord Macclesfield immediately p 
that Smeaton was the man required, and therefore 
mended him. He coiuiaenced (he work, in the spring 
by accurately measuring the very irregular surface of t! 
and making a model of it. The cutting of the rock fort 
dation was commenced on August 6th of the same *< 
first stone was landed on the rock June 20, 1757 ; the ' 
was finished October 9, 1759, and the lautem lighted 
first time on the IBth; the whole being completed in c 
T leas than four years, the time originally proposed . 
■ifrhich there were 421 days' work done upon the rook. 
The Eddystone Liglithouse is a circular tower i 
BCeeping up with a gentle curve from the base, and g 
" niniahing at tbe lop, wntiCTi^^ raamiMc to the bw( 
9 trunk ai & tiee -, t\ie "iie5«t eitogooSij \,^i!ai(,wi» 

Tlie Mddnstone Lighthotue. 

n and gallery. The materiala of the tower are 
poratone, & Lard granite, and Portland etone. The granite 
gib waa partially worked to form the fouadations; and as the 
Wk-joiut would be more Hubject to the action of the sea than 
faxg other, it wae fouod necessary, not only that the bed of 
crvery stone should have a level bearing, but that every outside 

e' ice should be grafted into the roek, ao as to be guarded by a 
rder thereof at leaat three inches in height above it, which 
would ill reality be equivaleut to the founding of the building- d 
in a socket three inches deep in the sballoweet part. On.- ■ 
Ane. 3, 1756, Smeaton fixed the centre point of the building I 
fisd traced out part of the plan on the rock ; and ou the 6^'« 
nearly the whole of the work was set out. On Sept. 4, tnO'l 
new steps at the bottom of the rock, and the dovetails, werojl 
toughed out, and some of the beds brought to a levd aniM 
finished, after very great labour. The stones for the several I 
flourses were rough-worked at the quarries according to thej 
engineer's draughts. 1 

A part of the upper surface of the rock having been takeu I 
carefully off, but without the use of gunpowder, lest it ahoutd « 
loosen the rock, six foundation-courEes, dovetailed togetjier,. J 
were raised on the lower part of the rock, which brought the \ 
whole to a solid level maas. These courses, with eight otheii^l 
xaised above them, are the solid bed of the work. The courses M 
ot masonry are skilfuUy dovetailed together; and each layerl 
«of masonry is very strongly cemented, and connected by oak I 
*renails or plugs; the whole beiog strongly cramped. The ge-vfl 
jOetal weight of the atones employed is a tou, and some few araf 
.two toua. In the solid work the oeutre stones were fixed firat, 1 
■fAnd all the courGes were fitted on a platform and accurately 
jP^ueted before they were removed to the rock. The base of 
fi^e tower is about 36 feet 9 inches in diameter, taken at the 
itajghestpart of the rock; the height of the solid masonry to the 
-top of the stone staircase, from the centre of the base, is 28 
feet 4 inches. The whole height of the tower and lantern ia 
BS feet 7 inches, or rather more than two-fifths the height of 
the London Monument. The upper part of the UghthouHe, ^^^J 
'.originally cunatructed of wood, was burnt in 1770, and renewed ^^^| 
ia 1774. The Eddystone Lighthouse was Smeaton's first work,.^^H 
.spd also his greatest ; probably, the time and all things coii<^^^| 
' ndered, it was the most arduous undertaking that baa &Ileft ^^^^ 
to any engineer; and none was ever more successfully cseouted. ^^H 
And now, having withstood the storms of a hundred years, ^^H 
the Eddystone remains, unmoved as the rock It is hu-ilt tivi.-, «. ^^H 

Siud monument to its great arcHtecl,, r^H 

Ifext to the .Eddystone Lighthouse, mhoq^ '^'^ "ai'»i-"i '*»^«™^ 
ta exeoated by Smeaton, ranka RamagB.te'^iia.tXnixis- '^'i ™* 

^ Gn 

264^ Smeaton't Independence. 

skill the prflservation of tbe old Loudon Bridge for manf jtm 
was attributiLble: in 1V61, one of the piers being underauned, 
the bridge was considered to be iu euch danger that no me 
would pass oyer it; the engineera were perplesed, when in 
express was sent to Yorkshire for SmeatoD, who tmmediitelT 
tank a great number of stonea about the endangered pier, and 
thereby preserved it. The great ainal from the Forth to "■"" 
Clfde, the Spurn Lighthouse, the Calder imvigAtion, and tt 
important bridges in Scotland, are also prominent among Sma- ; 
ton's works. On the 16th of September 1792, while waUilg 
in his garden at Austhurpe, Smeatou was attacked wilh pm- 
Ij^s ; and on October S8 he died, 

SmeatOTi left mauj valuable records of bis profesaioill 
career. In 1771, under his auspices, was estafali^hed "lie 
Smeatunian Society of Civil Engineers," who subseqiieitl^ 
published his reports on puhlio works. His deliberation ui 
caution were very great ; and so highly was hie judgment tf- 
predated, that be was called "the Standing Counsel" of B» 
profession, and he was constantly appealed to by Parliament 
on difficult engineering questions. He greatly improved tie 
atmoaplieric steani-engine of Mewcomen ; he introduced muf 
improvementB in mathematical apparatus; bis ardent lovew 
utrniioniy led him to build na ohgervatory at Austhorpe. 

Smeaton uniformly evinced a high feeling of independence 
in respect of pecuniary matters, and would never allow mo- 
tives of emolument to interfere with plans laid on other con- 
giderations. The Emprees Catherine of Russia was exceedinE^ 
anxious to have his services in some great engineering wmU 
in her dominions, and she commissioned the FrincesH Cas^ ' 
kaw to offer him his own tertns. But his plans and his heart 
were bent upon the exercise of his skill in his own c»iintry,alld 
be steadily refused all the offers made to him. It is reportCiJt 
that when the Princess found her attempts unavailing, she Mtd 
to him, " Sir. you are a great man, and I honour you. YflO 
may have an equal in abilities, perhaps, hut in character j« 
stand alone. The English minister, Sir Robert Walpole, «U 
mistaken ; and my sovereign, to her loss, finds in yuu a min \ 
who has no price." J 

After Smeaton had retired from his profession, he was often I 
pressed to superintend engineering works : when these en- I 
treaties were backed by personal offers of emolument, he ond * 
to send for an old woman who took care of his cbambets in j 
Gray's !iin. and say, " Her attendance suffices for all mj 1 
wants;" a reply which intimated that a man whose penoiul i 
wants were so shnplo, w».a ■qo\, \\\ie\'j Wi \iwiaiL iVi^mi^ »,(«». J 
wrauged liue of couductiot mate -eQu^i^MTw -"■"■" "'-— 

tfais ingenious mechanician ivas bnrn at Stainsborough 
[>rkBhire, in 1749, and was iutended for his Jather'a occupatioi 
% former; but he very early evinced a taste for ineohanical 
rsnitB, and at the age of sixteen was apprenticed to a joiner. 
9 subeequentlj removed to Iiondon, where he worked aB a. 
"meyman cabinet-maker, and next set up in the sama busi- 
s for himself. His adoption oF the profeEsiou of engineer or 
Ainiat appears to have arisen from his contriving improve- 
itB in water-oloseta. He next invented, and patented in 
PSi, the celebrated Bramah Lock ; when he pronounced it 
^Dot to be within the range of art to produce a kef, or otlier 
ment, by which a lock on this priuoiplu can be opened." 
amah is an earlj example of a niitn of genius devising 
d ouryiue out large and extensive schemes for the applioa- 
D of machinery to manuhotures. Thus, when he obtained 
9 pBt«ut for his admirable lock, he immediately set about 
tne constmation of a series of machine-tools for shaping with 
e required precision the barrels, keys, and other parts of the 
mtriTttnce^ which, indeed, would have utterly failed iinleeB 
Bwsy had been fonned with the accuracy which maohineiy alone 
tan give. In Bramah's workshop was educated the celebrated 
Bemy Maud slay, who worked with him from 178Et to 1796, 
'id was employed in making the principal tools for his lock. 
■ peculiarity consisted iu a novel application of tumblers, or 
povabie obstacles, and the abandonment of the use of wards. 
IB lock was greatly improved by Bramah's sons : its security 
n the doatrine of combinations, or the multiplication 
tfrnunbers into each other, which is known to increase iu the 
t rapid proportion, Bramah's look was, however, picked 
i 1817, when it was improved by the introduction of false 
[notches J it was again picted in 18S1 : nevertheless, it is still 
e of the most inviolable locks ever contrived. 

e numerous other inventions of Bramah, were im- 
:i water-cocks, pumps, and hre-engines ; but his 
^ satest work is the Hydraulic Press, a machine acting ou the 
BkSrinaiple of the philosophicul toy called the hydrostatic para- 
Koox, and of very great power ia oompressiug bodies or lifting 
Timights, in drawing up trees by the roots, or ^ilea (to\is.W:£!k 
LefHTSTH: woollen an J cotton goods are coia^tweai^'^^ Vi-" 
~ e moat portable dimessioos ; aud eveii.^ta.Y, Un \k^\ — 

266 Bramuh's Hydraulic Press. 

vice, is reduced tn such B state of coercion as to be easily piieked 
on board truiieportB. 

Pascal deiuuiistnited this priuriple and its advantages b; 
fixintt to the upper eud of a cask set upright a very long tai 
narrow cyliuder. In filling tbe barrel, and afterwuda tite 
ovliiidcr, the simple additioo of a pint or two of water, whick 
tne latter waa capable of contaioiug, produced the sime effect 
» if tbe caslc, preserving its diameter throughout, hud bad its 
height increased by the whole length of the cylinder. Thiii 
the increase of weight of a pint or two of water was auffidral 
to burst the bottom of the hogshead, by the immense aug- 
raentation of pressure it occa^oued. Now, if we suppose & 
water removed from the cylinder of murow dimensiooB, tti 
replaced by a solid of equi'valent weight, such as a piston, i( B 
evident that the pressure must remain every where the nun- 
Again, if we suppose the weight of the piston to be tnultipUeJ 
by the power of a lever acting an its shaft, the pressure will be 
proportionally augmented, bo as to produce on the bottom of 
the cask a pressure equivalent to an enormous weight with ^ 
exeniou of very little primitive force on the piston. 

In the Museum of the CommisaiouerH of Patents at South i 
Kensington is "the First Hydraulic Press ever made," inscribed 
"Bramah, luv'. et Fee'. 1796." 

Mr. Bramah next patented the elegant and convenient bee^ 
machine, for drawing liquors In a tavern-bar from barrels in 
the cellar liy means of a force-pump. He also improved atewo- 
engine boilers and paper-making roauhioery ; and invented s 
machine for raakiug pens by a mechanical process, by whiclL 
seveml nibs, resembling steel pens, are cut out of one quill, sud 
fixed in a holder. In ISUS he contrived a mode of printing, 
which, being applied to the numbering; of tiank-notea, durioE 
the issue of one-pound notes by the Bank of England saved 
the labour of 100 clerks out of 120. This machine conwBts of 
disks, or wheels, with the numbers from 1 to 9 and cut OD 
the periphery of each; tbe whole being mounted upononead^ 
but to be turning independently of each other. By the action 
of mechanism, which is incapable of error, the positiouof one 
wheel of the series is moved between each operation of print- 
ing; BO that when the machine is properly ai^ueted, it will 
print a aeries of numbers in regular progresaion, without rfis 
possibility of twice producing the same number. 

In 1812 Bramah patented a scheme for laying water-mme, 
with force-pumps to throw water for extingiiiHhiiig fires, andte 
supply a lifting power fur raisiiig great weights, ^is ingenious 
inventor died in consequence of cold, contracted while Huper* 
iutending the uprooting oi iieeaui Holt Forest by his Hyi' "" 
""■ ' hisBisty-eiR^l^i'jua.t, ui\av\. 


I the life of this eminent eugiocer "another striking inBtanoe 
^ Added to those on record of men wliu have, by the force of 
tatural talent, unaided save by upi'ightness and per^vering 
liduBtty, raised themselves from the lovv estate in which they 
^^ bom to tate their stand among the master spirits of the 
ue.'" Telford's father was a. shepherd iu tlie pastoral district 
gf Eakdaile in Dumfriesshire, where, in the pariah of Water- 
mick, Thomas, his only sou, was bom in 1757. He received the 
iudimeutfl of educatioa at the parish school; and while en- 
;ed during the summer season as a shepherd-boy in assisting 
uncle, he diligently made use of hie leisure in studying the 
XKiks lent to him by his village friends. At the age of fourteen, 
'lie was apprenticed to a stonemason at Langholm : he was for 
■everal years employed chiefly iuhis native district; and in the 
iipCHiBtruction of plain hiidgesand &rm-buildiugs, small village 
"'\urohe8 and manses, he passed a valuable training, such as is 
^gular advantage to the future architect or eugiiieer. In 
.780, being then about twenty-tliree, lie visited Edmbui^h for 
"iployment, and there, for about tvto years, he paid much 
«iition both to architecture and dniwing. He then removed 
London, and there worked upon the quadrangle of Somerset 
[ouae, under Sir William Chamtiers, the architect. Telford waa 
yBXt engaged in Portsmouth Dockyard, upon various buildings, 
!ov about three years, during which he became well acquainted 
nth the construction of graving-docks, wharf-walls, aud simi- 
lar engineering works. In 1767 he removed to Shrewsbury : 
fmbsequentty, in Shropahire, he built a stone bridge over the 
kryem; and nest the iron bridge at Buiidwas, consisting of 
g, very flat arch, 130 feet span ; these being followed hy forty 
other bridges iu the same count;. 

The £llesmere Canal, about 103 miles in length, was 

XeUbrd's first great work, and led him to direct bis attention 

''aaost solely to civil engineering. This catinl crosses the Dee 

an elevation of 70 feet, by aik aqueduct-bridge of 10 arohea, 

■ 40 feet span, the bed of the canal \)6iQ^Ql caat-wo-a.^iaiR- 


I £nutl>HI*. 

Sm The Menai Sutpension-Bridge/^^^^M 

inBletiA Cit puddled clay and masoniy. The PoDt-j-C7«7lte 
Mueduct-bridgi! ia Ftill more remarkable, and coUiiiHtB simf'^ ■ 
of a trough of uaBt-iruu plates, flauged t<^ether, aiid auppoiWd . 
on inuBonry piers I2U feet above low water. The Caleaoniu 
Camtl u auother of Telford's priuoipal works, commeooed in I 
i»n, and opeued iii 1632. Its eutire leiieth (between tbt 
Oermiui and Atlantic Oceans) is 2SU miles, of which 230 mila, 
friths and lakes, were already uaviguble ; the canal itBetf ii 
■bout 20 miles, and cost a million pgunds Bterling. We htm 
not BpAce to describe the other canals which Telford whoU)' « 
putinllr couBlructed. He executed many important drainage 
works, eepeeially of Bedford Level. On the Continent, he so- 
perintended the construction of the Qotha Cuual in Swedffi, 
B>r which he received a Swedish order of knighthood. 

The works executed by Telford under the Couimissionersd 
H^hland Roade nud Bridges are of the greatest iiiiportMioe; 
they intersect the whole of Scotland with 1<X)0 miles of new 
road, and i20» bridges, in a mountainons and stormy reeioo) 
Telford ttlso improved several harbours, and erected many nigtt- 
laud churches and mausi^s. 

Telford's most important barhour-work is the St. Katheriae'i i 
Docks, London, which were constructed wiih unexampled rspi- 
dity. He also built many bridges of considerable size and im- 
proved construction ; but the most perfect specimen of his ^iU 
M an engineer is the great road from London to Holyhead, and 
the works connected with it. The Menai Suspension -Bridge it ft 
uoble example of his huldiiess in designing, and practical akill 
in executing, a work of novel and difficult ohRracter. It crosMi 
the Menai t^trait, where it connects Carnarvonshire with the 
Isle of Auglesea. The opposite shores being bold and rod^, 
allowed the roadway of Uie bridge to be 100 feet above \dpr 
water mark. The main chains, 1() in number, are supported on 
' two stoQe pyramids above the roadway; the ends of the obaint 
being secured in a mass of masonry built over stone archt* ' 
between eacb of the pyramids, or piers, and t!>e adjoining 
shores. The first stone was laid by W, A. Provis, resident 
engineer, Aug. 16, 1819. In 1 824, the works were so far ad- ' 
vanced that the only remaining difficulty was, " How are the 
main chains to be put upl" for no precise details had up U 
that time been determined upon; wnich was so far an advan- 
tage, that the eugiueerhad the benefit uf full consideration and 
experience, and maoy misCukee were obviated that must ban 
happened had the details lieen all settled beforehand. In tiis 
BLh^nniug of May, the cast-iron segments and saddles were 
^Hiprried up to the pyramids; but it was not till April 2ti, 1825, 
^Bbat the first chain was c&mud suross. It was scarcely fixed, 
^BriieD one of the men got liaVtvie "■i\,,TO*i'CQeo.'H^i:itiiiiir 30 

The Metiai Siis^iension-Bridge, 

yards of the middle of the chain, only 9 inohes wide, ita 
leight betug 125 feet abuve the waterl After the second chain 
tad been put up, it was found Qecesaary to replace some of the 
jpra which had been damaged j sod owing to this, it was practi- 
^y aaaertaiued that if one of more links of a chain should at 
taj time be injured, thej could be taken out and replaced. 
, During the progress of the work, every piece of iron was 
^ItrefuUy tested; and to prevent any injury of the metal hy 
ixidation, each piece, after its sti'ength had been proved, was 
leaned, heat«d, and while hot immersed in linseed oil : after 
eiDBimug in the oil a few minutes, that the pores might be 
Died, the bar was taken out, and returned to the heating 
' "iva, in which the oil was dried by a moilerate huat: the oil 
. a tiiUB converted into a thin coat of hard varnish, affording 
(oomplete protection from the atmosphere. 

The massive iron coatings which are imbedded in the rock 
D fbnn an abutment for the chains, are placed upon layers of 
' use flannel saturated with white-lead and oil, which, with a 
^ f timber wedges, enables them to bear steadily against the 
nek. On the tops of thesuspeusion-towersare massive cast-iroii 
addles to receive the chains ; and between these and the cast- 
ion beds which sustain them are inserted rollers, which allow 
lite saddles tu move under their immense load when the chains 
ir uontract. The operation of raising the portious of 
LS between the suspension- to wtra occasioned much ans- 
ety, but was accomplished without great difficulty by joining 
pereral bars from the top of each tower by a hatsging scafFola, 
pud elevating the intervening portion of each chain from a raft 
400 feet long and 6 feet wide by means of a capstan ; and to 
.ebeck the vibration occasioned by high winds, the chains are 
^«d together by transverse braces. The several chains being 
'^^ "la suspended, the roadway of oak planking, with felt and tar 
' ' , was bolted to the und«meath ;* and on Jan. 30, 1826, 
la drove over it for the first time. In February following 
Cspeatsd gales did much damage to the irou-work. 

The aaia dimensions of tlie bridge at 

1 1716 feet ; lieight of roadway iroiD 

Buspemliiig pier from rood, 63- fuet ; 

*: width oftvfo oarrisKe wuja i.nd fngtiiatli in epntfe. Kifret. Tho 

^*t''*^*^" conniift s&oh of 5 barfl 10 feet ioog ; wiJtb, 3 feift by 1 iui;]j» 

--«eotioD of chain, 80. Total woi(;ht of tlie iron-worlc, l,373,iailbB. 

ihaSca will bear without any risk 124fi 5 tons, more than the strain 

iprodooed bj tho weight of tha bridge itaelf ; or 732) tons besidea ita 



270 Statue of Telford. 

The threi«l-lil:e appeartuice or the mupendiag-rode, vaSj 

shaken bj the wind or by the hand, the vast ttize and lightnenn 
the whole, give the idea of a fairy's power haying stretchod 1 
Bene* of chains from the woods on the one side to the btuKB 
rocks on the other; and its fiiiry lightiiess is heighteued \ijam- 
trast with the gigantic masBiveness of the Britannia Brii^ ti 
about a mile diataut. 

Telford left his autobiography, with an elaborate account li 
his labours of more than ha^ a century, and other valuaUe 
oontributiona to engineering literature. He taught himalJI 
Ltttiu, French, Itahun, and German, He died in lS."i4, at the 
ago of seventy-seven, and waa buried near the middle of the 
tMTe of Westminster Abbey. He was the first pregident of tht 
lOBtitution (if Civil Eogineers, to whom he beaaeathed hit 
Boientilic boots, prints, drawings, Ac, and 20(MM. to provid» 
annual premiums to be given by the Council, In their houM 
is a fine portrait of Telford. 

As we reflect upon the noble works which Telford left for 
posterity, we feel that the Eskdaile shepherd -boy has dolj 
earned every honour he has received. 

His services have been appreciated by the public, but by tlii 
public alone. He received the honour of knighthood fma tbe 
King of Sweden ; but no mark of distinction from the King <i 
England, — no memorial from a country whose scieutific emi- 
nence he illustrated, and whose commercial power he enlarged, 
By subscription of a few of his friends and admirers, now- 
ever, a marble statue of the great engineer has been placed iD 
the Islip Chapel at Westminster Abbey. It is from the chisd 
of Bnily, R.A., who received for it but lOOOJ., a third of the 
sum usually charged for such, a work. The Beau demanded 
300^. for permission to place the statue in the Abbey, but sub- 
sequently lowered it to SOW., which demand was acquiMOid 
in. But Telford's " various works are conspicuous oruameull 
to the country, and speak for themselve.s as the most durable 
monumentof a well-earned fame. In number, magwitude, ami 
usefulness, they are too intimately connected with the pro- 
sperity of the British people to be overlooked or furgott«n is 
future times; and the name of Telford must remain penu- 
uently associated with that remarkable progress of pubfia im- 
provement which has diEtinguisbed the age in which he lived."* 
• rmn(.i of (Ht j-aiiMiau (If a^-a e« 

outei This i>ori(. eJitw 


'kw of the great maaters in this mechanical age e: 
ench stately worta for posterity aa John Benuie, the design . 
bf three of the noblest bridgea in the world, in addition i 
neroua other monuments of engineering ekill. 
John Rennie was the son of a respectable Scottish iarmer, 
Bnd waa born on June 7, 1761, at Phautussie, in the ooiinty of 
^ittst Lothian. He was the youngest of nine childi'en, aitd re- 
oeived the first rudiments of education at the school of his 
liative parish: and to a trifling circumstance connected with 
luB daily journeys thither his friends ascribe hia acquisition of a 
taste for mechanics, which fiyed the conrae of the future man. 
The school was situated on the opposite side of a brook, the 
tiaual mode of crossing which was by stepping-stones; but when 
wut freshes were out, it was necessary to employ a. boat, which 
■was kept ttt the workshop of Mr. Andrew Meikle, a miUwrighl, 
well taiown in Scotland for his improvements in the threshing- 
niaahine. This led him to Mr, Meitle'a workshop, where he 
.kamed his first lessons in mechanics; and ere he had completed 
us eleventh year, he had constructed a windmill, a pile-engine, 
md a steam-engine. He subsequently received instruction in 
)lementary mathematics at Dunbar ; where, on the promotion 

of the master, he for a short time conducted the school. 
■cBd not pursue his studies far in pure mathematics, hut ap- 
plied himself chiefly to elementary mechanics, drawing mvr 
dtinery and architecture. He also attended the courses of 
botures on mechanical philosophy and chemistry which were 
fovea at Edinburgh by Drs. Rohison and Black, ftepared 
us with what books and professors could teach, he entered 
e pnicCicBl world. Meanwhile, he had been employed by 
r. Meikle as a workman, under whose superintendeuce he 
isiated in the erection of some mills in the neighbourhood; 
^^^id he is said to have rebuilt on his own account a mill near 
Dundee. It is probable that soon after this work was finished, 
itr about 1780, Rennie left Scotland for London ; on his way 
irigiting the great manufacturing towns in the nortk 4i?"?!siife- 
laud, and inapectiug their principal. woVka, 

8boD after be was established in. tbe metto^^Sift,"^'' - '^ '""■' 
IMS employed !n the ooustruction oS two b' ^'"' 

Rennie's Bridges. 

the machiner}' connected with thera, &t the Albion Vhnt- 
inilla, BlitckfriiiTB Bridge. Tliese engines were of the kind ciUcd , 
double, wliich Mr. Wutt had just then patented ; each of thsm. 
was uf fifty-liorse power, and the two could turn twenty isill^ ' 
Btunee. All the wheel-work waa made of caat-iron instead at I 
wood, wliioh hitd before been used in such machinery. Hr. 
Renaie'B skill was strikingly mauifeated in the methods wlndti 
be ftdupted to render the movements steady ; and by this gmt' ' 
work he at once established his character as a machinist. | 

Mr. Reniiie contiuued to tlie last to be employed in Ikk ' 
eonstraotiou uf steam- engines, or of the different kiiidi tC i 
maohinery to which, as a first mover, sieam is applied j u^ 
in its execution he may be said to have been the lint wlu ' 
made that skilful distribution of the pressures, and gavetlWM 
jUBt proportions to the several parts, which liave rendered tt| 
work of Englishmen superior to that of an; other peo[^ ' 
was likewise esteuaively engaged in designing or su| ' ' 
ing various important public works. Between 1799 
he Doiistruoted the stone bridge at Kelso, beloi 
the Tweed and TevioL This handEome stnu 
five elliptical Mches, carrying a level roadways 

ear are two small columns which support the 
r. Renuie also built stone bridges at >[iUBeIbai|^ 
pUces in Scotland; but his masterpiece of this <* 
Waterloo Bridge over the Thames, which has no 
Europe. This bridge was b^in in ISll, and fiu 
years : it is built of granite, " in a style of eoUdity- 
fioence hitherto unknown. There dliptical >--* 
vetted arches between them, to counteract tbe 
were carried to a greater extent than in 

taolated coffeivdams upon a great scale, 

etom-engines for pumping out the water, w«r^ it ii 
for the first time employed in this countrf : ■■ ~ 
roadwaj, which adds so much to the beuttj >■ 
MoTCDioice of the etnictore, was there adoAa^' 
fgnified this as " the noblest bridge in the watfe^~ mI 
** it alone was worth coming from Rome to low' 

Baion Dupia, in classic eulogy, styled it " a 
■Meat worthy of Sesouris and the Oesais.'^ Wc 
dry y fiW &41M Z»tf , obsoreB pf thB bri^^ 
of UuB immensity, preaentiBg a strait hiiiiiiiwi 
ins <tv«r nine huge arches, should not hai 
ft nw iuehei (nut five in anj one pait) busn 
ia an i'r(*n'"~ of rtiength and fa^wen «' 
■■4 aittoa i»a«>ufalc'' TVift>9ciaeK Saaaii 


Ew of the great masters in thia mechanical age have executed 
toh stately works for poateritj as John Bcnuie, the designer 
ef three of the uohlest bridges in the world, iu addition to 
■^ nerous other monuments of engineering skilt 

John Rennie was the son of s. respectahle Scottish farmer, 
L was horn on June 7, lifil, at Phantassie, in the county of 
jt Lothian. He was the youngeEt of nine children, and re- 
eeiyed the first rudiments uf education at the school of hia 
~ itive parish: and to a trifling circumstance connected with 
_ a daily journey B thither hia friends ascribe Iiis acquisition of a 
taste for mechanics, which fixed the course of the future man. 
9%e school was situated on the opposite side of a brook, the 
lal mode of crossing which was by stepping-stones; but when 
freahea were out, it was necMsary to employ a boat, which 
. kept at the workshop of Mr, Andrew Meikle, a millwright, 
•we\l known in Scotland for his improvements in the threshmg- 
j. This led him to Mr. Meikle's workshop, where he 
__ hia firat lessons in mechanics; and ere he had completed 

fcis deyenlh year, he had constructed a windmill, a pile-engine, 
'□da steam-engine. He subsequently received instruction in 
lementary mathematics at Dunbar ; where, on the promotion 
pf the master, he for a short time conducted the school. He 
■did not pursue his studies far in pure niathematics, but ap- 
plied himself chiefly to elementary mechanics, drawing ma- 
ciiinety and architecture. He also attended the courses of 
' "" :a on mechanical philosophy and chemistry which were 
at Edinbui^h hy Dra. Robison and Black, Prepared 
kUB with what hoots and professors could teach, he entered 
practical world. Meanwhile, he had been employed by 
Meikle as a workman, under whose superintendence he 
ted in the erection of some mills in the neighbourhood; 
imd he is said to have rebuilt on his own account a mill near 
9>iuidee. It is probable that soon a:^er this work was finished, 
*r about 1780, Rennie left Scotland for London ; on hia way 
vistting the great manufacturing towns in the north of Eng- 
land, and inspocting their principal works. 

Soon after he was established in ttemetTO^\\s,^i.'?*stffli 
amphyai in the conatruction ot two Bteam-gogoaat^ 


Btor; of the Steam-boat is one of the mimt interestiif 

' -a in the reeorda of human iuvention. The accounW m | 

propelled bjr inachiuery lead ua through a, retrospect d ' 

taaaj centurieB, and the oldest countries. The paddle-wheel | 

is S^ted to hsive been used hj the ancient £gyptiaus, tnt I 
not upon admissible authoritj. The wheel of a. chtuiot ia an 

Sgjptictn painting has often been mistaken for a paddle-wheel; I 

a predselj similar mistake haa Iteen made in describiog one 'i 
of the Gculptured slaha from Nineveh; and Sir H. EawiioBan 

and Mr. Lajard assured Mr. Macgregor that in tboir Assjriui 1 

tesearchea thej have not discovered an; iadication of the use^ / 

maohinerj in propelling vessels. I 

We find Borne hid^tinct records of vessels propelled Iff i 

wheeb. An old work on China contains a sketch of a vend I 

moved by four paddle-wheels, perhajia in the seventh ceaiitry; 1 

but the earliest distinct notice of tins means of propulsion sp- ] 

pears to be by Robertua Valterius, a.d. 1472, who gives seveai I 

woodcuts representing paddle-wheels. The account of Blaeoo | 

de Garay's experiment in 15-13 is now generally discredited ; 

(see page 193) ; hut boats propelled by paddle-wheels are men- \ 
tioned tjy many early writers, such as Julius Scaliger, in IMS; 
Bourne, in 1578 ; and Roger Bacon, 1597. Among the earliest 

pTDJectors we find David Ramsey, one of the pages to Siag J 

James I., who, with another, in 1618, obtained a patent to | 
" divers newe apt formes or kinds of engines for ploughing 
without horse or osen; aa also to raise water," and "to in^ 

boats for carriages runnin upon the water as swift in calmed, j 

and more safeiu storms, than boats full sayled in great windeB;" . 

and in 1631), "to raise water from lowe pitts by fire"(^ I 

steam-engine); "to make boats, ships, and barges to got I 

i^aiost the wind and tyde. " Passing over a few similar inven- ' 

tiooB, we come to the Marquis of Worcester's patent (in 1661) j 
of the application of a current to turn paddle-wheels on ■ 

vessel, winch was propelled by winding up a rope. Edwaid ' 

SuabneU, in 1678, descri\)B4 a moia oC Tawiiie ships by cob- ': 

~ " iting the oars on both evdea ■witti feft Vca-vm^ o\ ■a. tsra;«KK, I 
'" J 681, Papin, Vae im^to->iM olB>«3an-co^'saVm-^p; n>iia w, 


—Jonathan Hulls. 

proposed to the Rojal Society "a new-invented boat, ( 
rowed by oara moved with heat," which was reoommende 
Jjeibnitz. It iH clear also that Papin conceived steam migUj 
<be employed to propel ships by paddles ; for, a^ early as 1M~ 
Sn& paper publislied in the Jrtu iVitiitfunim, Papin Bays: '"" ■ 
{Hit doubt, oars fixed to an axis could be most conve 
:iiiade to revolve by our tubes. It would only be necessary U 
Ihmish the piston-rod with teeth, which might act ou a toothe4 
wheel, properly fitted to it, and which, being fitted o 
» which the oars were atUohed, would communicat 
"*"'"n to it." During Papin'a resideuoe iu England, he w 
^^ I an interesting experiment made on the I'liames, 
rtiiah a boat, coustruoted from a desigu of the Prince Palatine 
; was fitted with revolving oara, of paddles, attached to 
« tno ends of a long axle, going across the boat ; and which 
Beived their motion from a trundle, working a wheel turned, 
'horses. The velocity with which this horse-boat was pr oiB 
o great, that it left the king's barge, manned w" 
ars, far astern in the race of trial. 
In 1 682, a horse tow-vcsael was used at Ohatham : it had l| 
D each side, connected by an axle across the boat, t 
ddles being made to revolve by horses moving a wheel turnel 
I a trundle fixed on, the S)x|e> lo IQ!)^, Antbonj Bavivian 
tented "a very easy and not costly machine for making jj^ 
ip go against wind and tide." In 1696, Thomas 8aveij| 
tented his invention for moving a paddle-wheel on 
t the ship by men turning round the capstan. By s 
(iters it is stated that Savery proposed to drive a paddlM 

leeled vessel by his steam-engine, already described at 

6 J whereas, ho merely believed that it might be very u; 
fliiipB, but dare not meddle with that matter. ' ' It appears,^ 
fB Mr. Bennet Woodoroft, " to he a proof of Savery'a sounff 
ehanioal views, that he knew his engine, although douhtH 
I the most effective of its kind at that period, to be ii 
,fl of propelling a boat advantageously. " 
In 1724, John Dickens patented his contrivance by floatlj 
IT moving ships; and iu 1729, Dr. John Allen his engines " "' 
KVigating ships in a calm, by forcing water through the si 
■ the ship, at a convenient dostance under the sur&ce of th^ 
'Vter; as well as by firing gunpowder iu vacuo, and applyin| 
S whole force to move the engines. ^ 

Id 1738, Jonathan Hulls patented his machine. He place4^ 
fc^ddle-wheel ou beams projecting over the stem, and it wa«-l 
^med by an atmospheric engine acting, in coitjnnction with a f 
jnnterpoise weight, 'upon a Bystem cfi to'^Bi ■»&& " ' 

'". His mode of obtaining & rola-ry mcrtiwn ''(^ 
OB, aad woalA enable a BWa,ni-l:iQa.t \,o \ift ■oi.diai-'CQ-t^ 

^6 Watt't Steam-boat Ei 

water; but it was not prsctioall; useful. The crssks, at d»- 
ecribcd by Hulls, receive rotary motion from the axis on wMd 
i\i«y are placed, and do uot, aa often stated, itDpart that motidD 
to it ; lisid he disuovered this fippUcatiuu of the ciauk, " tiiert 
eau be little doubt," mjb Mr. Woodcroft, " that the sleai^ 
eogine would tbeu have been applied not only to propel boat^ 
I but to various other useful purpuseB." 

A prixe being offered by the Academy of Scieaces for tk 
best esaay on the manner of iDOpelliog vessela without wiudjil 
was obtained in 1752 by Daniel Beruouilli, who proposed W 
oUned planes moved circularly like the sails of a wiudmill, E*( 
at each side of the vessel, aud two more behind, to be moved 
bj men aboard, by steam-engines, or on rivera liy horses placed 
to the barges. In 1760, J. JT- Qeuevoia, a clergyman of BerMj 
published his "Great Principle," to concentrate power bTi 
series of springs to work oars fur propelling vessels. He sJbD 
proposed an atmospheric steam-enEina to bond the springt, 
and the expansive force of guupuwder, for the same piirpMa 
He states tnat, since his arrival in England, he had le^Md 
that thirty years before a Scotchman had proposed to make! 
ship Biul with gunpowder; hut that thirty barrels of gunponds 
had Bcaroe forwaruod the ship ten miles. 

On January S, 1769, James Watt patented his impnw 
mentsin the steam-engiae.oue of which, uamelj the "fourth,'' 
was for oausiug the steam to act above the piston as well tl 
below it. This was the firat step by which the steam-eogiiit 
was successfully used to propel a vessel; and this great "im- 
provemeDt," says Mr. Woodcroft, " was applied to the fint 
practically -propelled steamboat, and is still need in the present 
system of steam navigation." 

In 1774, the Comte d'Auxiron and M. Perricr are staUd 
to have used a paddle-wheel steam-boat on the Soiiie, but wiii 
poor success. Deablanes, in 17S2, seat the model to the G<n- 
servatotre (still there) of a vessel in which an endless chun of 
floats is turned by a horizoutal steam-engine. 

In 1779, Matthew Wasboroiigh, an engineer of Bristol, ftddtd 
to Watt's improvement of the double-acting cjlinder-en^ae bf 
converting a rectilinear into a continuous circular motion; bnl 
it did not act well, and was superseded by the invention d 
James Pickard in 173U, which is ito other than the present coD- 
neoting-rod and crank, and a fly-wheel — being the second vi 
last great improvement in the steam-engine, which enabled il 
to be of service in propelling vessels. 

In the followiug year, 1781, James Watt patented lii* 
" aun-and-p!anet motion," or method of applying the vibratag i 
. or reciprocating motion of atoa-m-engines toprocureacoiitioueJ 
\ rotative or ciroulaT motioa T^nmi «.■& aaia •« tKoJait. In the | 

Symington sjirst Expsriment. 

me year, the Marquis de Jouffroj conBtructed a BteHin-bo3.t 
I Lyons, 140 feet in length, with which he is said to have 
:psriiiieDted Bucceeafiilly on the Saoue; but Mr. Macgregor 
t.teB that no deacriptioii of the macliiiiety of this vessel is 
ren before that published in 18 16 by the Marquis de Jouffroy, 
bo gives a sketch of the steam-boat, a, copy of which la in our 
reat-Seal Patent- Office Library. 

In 176fi, Joseph Bramah patented a mode of propelling 
naelB by an improved rotary engine, by means either of a 
i^dle-wheal, or what may be called a " Screw Propeller," or a, 
^eel with inclined fans or wings, like the fly of a smoke-jack 
' thfi vertical sails of a windmill, fixed on or beyond the stem, 
nut where the rudder is usually placed ; " its movement being 
Kouioned by means of a, horizontal spindle or axletree, con- 
ned to the engine through orabove the stem-end of the ship." 
Xfais," says Mr. Woodcroft, "was, without doubt, the best 
ode of steam-propelling that had beeu then suggested ; for 
the steam would so act as directly to produce a circular 
jn on the propeller-ahaft. There is, however, no account 
Bramah having tried this mode." 

On June S, 1785, William Symington, an engineer of Wan- 
jk-head lead-mines, patented a mode of obtaining rotary 
stioa from a steam-engine by chains, ratchet-wheels, and 
tehea; but it was inferior to the crankof Pickard, or the sun- 
d-pianet wheel of Watt. Experiments conducted about the 
me time at Dalswinton in Scotland resulted, in 1787, in the 
a use of a steam-engine by Miller, Taylor (tutor to Mil- 
r'B sons), and Symington, to propel a vessel by paddle-wheels, 
tiich worked one before the other in the centre of the boat. 

Tli9 first fliperiiDeiit waa porfonned on the lake at Dalawinton in 
Itsber 1TS8, when the engine, mounted in a frame, was placed npoa 
B dsck of a double plenaiire-boaL " We then pnxwodad'' (saya Tb;- 
;) " to notion ; auil a more complete, Buooeeaful, nnd beautiful oxpe- 
nentwsa never made by anv'n'uii &t aay time, either in art or science. 
to TesHel moved delightfully, and, notwithstanding tbe smallneas of 
B Oflindersflinchdia.], at the rate of five miloa an hour. Attic 
Itt^ig- themselves a few ia-ytf, the enipne was remoTod, and carried 
io the houjw, where it remajned as a pimo of ornamental fumituro for 

The boat waa twenty-five feet lone and Boven broad ; and was pco- 
Qed by two paddle-wheels, phiuad one forward and the other aft 
the engiDO, in the apace between tho two hulls of the double boat. 
'kS snrane, now become a ouriosity, was muet laborioualy sought for 
'Hr. Beimet Woodcroft. 

On the death of Mr. Miller, in l&lfi, the engine came into the po«- 
Irion of his eldest son, Mr. Patrick MUler; and in 182S it was sent 
him, packed In a largg deal case, to Messrs. Contts ai^d Co., bankers, 
Btrand, London. In this establishment the engine was ko^l. -m^ii. 
toiiBry 17, 1837, on wbioh day it was remDvea, to ftva R^n 
Hems. Tilbury and Co., iS Higb-atroGt, 'M&r3\(^xfDGi. 

278 Symington's Sfeam-boat Ent, 

moiaed till Uie Slat of Janaary 1816; aadthen'itwaHJbnmnlBd bi ._ 
Kei:ineth Mackenzie, of 63 Queen-street. Bdmbtugh, Beyond tU»tt 
could not be traced for a period of Bevenj years. ' 

Mr. Betinot Woodcroft did not, howBver, relax in liis floarcli ; and ^ 1 
IsDgth ascertajned that the engine was sold by Mr. Mackeiuiffa i£no- 
taon to Mr. Kirkwood, a plumber of Edinburgfl, who ramoTed it tita 
the tramine, and threw it into a corner for the purpose of meHaBg! 
this intention, howe^Br, was not auriod into effect, doubtlesf owi?I I 
to the death of Mr, Kirkwood, It was eubsocjiiently found in tiwpit- J 
laBBlon of Messrs. WilUam Kirkwood and Sons, from whom it was Bi;^ ] 
obassd, and despatehed to the Great-Seal Patent Office on the IWlof 
April 1353. Subseqnently it waa tnuiBnutted to Messrs. Penn, m- 
gineers, ofOreenwlcta, wbo prratuitously reinstated it in a franu, ull 

Sb it B^n in working order, as nn objeot of great public inttmtfc 
BTupne waa returned to Mr. Woodcraft aa good as new, Januvj 
4th, 186S ; and on the 2Sth of January 1S57, it was removed trom lii» 
Great-Sool Patent Office to the Patent M'Jseum at South Kenam^ton. 

Syniingtiin'a engine oomprises several features of reroarkabla intfawt 
toanrinoera. Tho upper part of eaoh cylinder ia enlarged, so aa tap* 
Tent tba oTSrflaw of the water used for keeping the piston steam-tigtit 
i^ion tha pUui used hy Newooroeo. The lower part of each ojlinipr 
is Watf a condenser aiid air-pump, not separated from the cyliiidar, 1* 
patented hy Watt, but attached to it. The valves ore opened ud 
dosed by an improved urrangement of Bdghton. 

For Mr. Taylor's efforts to introduce Steam Navigation, iat j 
'cridow received a pension from Ooveniment of 501. per anuBB) ] 
ffranted bj the then Lord Liverpool; and in 1837, each of Ut 
four daughters received a ^ft of 501. tlirougb Lord Melbounn. 
This is, however, hut a miserable reward for the valuable aa^ 
-rices rendered. Mr. Miller sought no pecuniary reward, lod 
fortunately he needed none : he had built eight vessels to im- 
prove naval architecture, but waa refused a license to mib 
experiments with one, it not being according to statute 1 ( 

We have been led by the above curious story of the BDoA 
for Symington's steam-eugine somewhat out of the order o( | 
time. To return: in 1787, Mr. Miller described to theBojJ } 
Society eiperiments made by him in the Firth of Forth, in i | 
double Teasel 60 feet long, put in motion hy his water-whM^ I 
wrought by a capstau witti ^ve bars and a toothed wheel wffit- | 
ing in a trundle fixed on the axis of the water-whed. QT» 
Bteam-boat was three-masted, and made sundry tacks in Hit 
Firth, with four men, at the rate of four miles an hour.* 

Meanwhile the subject was hotly iiursued in the Unitrf 
States, where, ini788, John Fitch and James Ramsej patentd 
improvements in a steam-boat whicli went eighty miles in ant 

' In 1787, Mr. Millfr published a pamphlet (nowBcaree) on Uib bhUbbIiI 

DropelUngboataby paddle-wheels tnraed by mail, with driwlngs by AI '- 

Nasmyth. In 1B3B, Mi. Mm^ra ean aVw -^vYWi^^e^ % ^Mavbli-t. In I 
oJafnis for his father the \n^enHDD aia«i»mUB.'> ■ 
Aihorlliad eiuendcfl in eiperMnsniB v^ik una t>( 
'fUi. Miller, uen., is TDpvViiifeil\iiM.T.\Joo4Bi 


^P The " Charlotte Dundai" Steam-boat. 

^ dav, worked by pnddlea perpendicularly. Fitch, however, w38 
" 4 Aoosequeiitlj reduced to poverty bjltia project, and terminaited 
"ips life by plunging into the Alleghany. Bimsey, being refused 
L patent in America, came to England, aud here patented 
eial improvementa : but just as he bad complett^d his steam- 
tt he died ; it was, however, floated in the Thames in 1793, 
t wind and tide, at four knots an hour. It appears that 
B two inventors had long conceived the project of pro- 
ng Yeaaels by steam-power before they experimented ; for, 
^1784, Ramsey mentioned to General Washington the project 
jf Steam Navigation, and Fitoh showed the general a model of 
— "" ised boat, 

e year 1801, Thomaa Lord Dundaa, of Kerse, who was 

|l|nainted with Mr. Miller's labours, aud who waj an ex- 

ler of property in the Forth and Clyde Canal, em- 

_., dMr. Symington to make esperiments on steam-boata, to 

B sabatitiited for the horses then employed to draw the vessels 

"a the canal. These experiments in two years cost 70002. ; 

d the result was the production of the first practical Steam- 

at, named the CkaruiUe Bwitdas, in honour of his lordship's 

bughter, the lamented I^y Milton. " This vessel," saye Mr. 

Woodcroft, " might, from the simplicity of its machinety, have 

u at work to this day, with such ordinary repairs as are now 

ioaally required to all steam-boats." In the steamer there 

n engine with the steam acting on each side of the piston 

i'a patented invention), working a connecting -rod and 

l (Pickard's patent), aud the union of the crank to the 

B of Miller's improved paddle-wheel (Symington's patent). 

Nujs had Symington the undoubted merit of having combined 

Igetherfor the first time those improvements which couatitute 

le pretent lyatem of Sleam Nuvitiation. 

Although the experiments with this boat were highly succesa- 
1^ the proprietors of the Forth and Clyde Canal declined to adopt 
, from an opinion that the waves it created would damage 
le banks. Lord Dundas, however, entertained a more fiivour' 
a opinion on the subject, and recommended to the Duke of 
Bridgewater the adoption of Symington's eteam-boat. Hia 
[r&oe at first doubted the utility of the invcution; but aftra 
laving seen a. model, and received explanations from Mr. Sy- 
~"iffton, he gave Mm an oi'der to build eight boats similar to 
Charlotte Dundas, to ply on hia canal. Symington returned 
D Bootland in high hope, hut was doomed to disappointment; 
on the same day that the committee of the Forth and Clyde 
nal refused to allow his boats to be employed, lie received 
_j intelligence of the death of the Duke of Bridgowater. 
Unable longer to struggle against tia miB^ovtoMea, i 
Kvsources being' exhausted, SymiugWu 'hii M.'g \ia Nitsis. 


) Symingtong Fatt. 

creek oftbe oaaii], where it renuiined a number of 71 
pOBcd to public view. lie next absiDdoned his own old 
and otiUiiied a pat«nt for applying a Double-aotion II 
mtiiijc Kngine to a boat, »nd for placing his crank d 
axis of the paddle-wheel, which, was a very importaat i 
and improvi^ment. Froro the establishment of this 
lion of mauhinei^ to a boat, no improvement on hi 
' IS been effected either in this or any olher country. 

In the foUowinj! year, 1789, Miller and his fellow-e;^ 
menters constructed an engine of about twelve-horae powerjo 
twelve times the power of the first) at the Carron Works. The ^ 
was mounted in the large double lx«t which had formerly nm 
l^inst the Cuatom-house boat at Leith. Except in size, tin 
nuiehine resembled the former model. This boat was trial 

the Forth and Clyde CaDS.1, performed verr sucoessfnllA ' 
and attained a speed of nearly seven miles an hour ; but Ac { 
hull being much too slight for permanent use as a Steuit- 
boat, or for talchig out to sea, it was soon after the trial dit- 

Satie&ctory a^ was the result of these experiments, tb^ 
did not immediately lead to the introduction of Steam navigi- 
tion, and several unsuccessful Bchemes were tried in this coun- 1 
try and North America before this was effected. One of thsia, | 
mtmsey's on the Thames, has been already mentioned. About 
this time. Dr. Cartwright contrived a steam-barge, and bi- 
plained it to Pulton, as some say, in 1793, when be wag study- 
ing painting under Went ; but others date it a few years later, 
when he was introduced to Dr. Cartwright during his journey 
to Paris iu l"i>6. However this might be, it is evident that , 
Fulton's attention was directed to the subject about this tine. 
Golden, his biographer, states that he made drawings of sn 
apparatus for steam navigation in ITO.'i; he submitted tbemlo 
Lord Stanhope, who, in 1795, made experiments in a stesm- 
boat propelled by dock-feet paddles, with which, however, bs 
could not obtain a greater speed than three miles an hour. 

About the year 182G Mr. Symington memorialised the Lordi 
of the Treasury, in consequence of which the sum of lOOi. vna 
awarded from his Miyesty's privy purse ; and a year or two 
afterwards, a further sum of 501. He had cherished the hope 
that an annual allowance might be procured ; but in this be 
was disappointed. He received a smull sum from the London ' 

I steam-boat proprietors, through the influence of Hfr. Jomea 
Walker: and in the decline of life, several kind relatives nod 
Mends contributed to Symington's support; among thennm- 
ber was Lord Dundas. Such was the fete of ihe inventor of 
"the first practical steam-boat." 
Although SyininRtorfa ei^erimfi.-Q\ft (i\4.-i»A.\R»ito the 

Napoleon I. and Fulton. 

nediate adoption of Steam-yeESelB for comtnercinl purpoees, 
hey probably tended in no unimportant degree to their sub- 
equent profitable eatabiisbment in America and Great Britain ; 
c among the nnmeroua individuals who inspected Sy tniiigton'a 
isel with interest were Fulton and Sell. After Fitch and 
msej. Chancellor Livingstone attempted to build a steamer 
a the Hndson ; and in 1797 he appUed to the legislature of 
ff York for excluaive privileges to navigate boats by a steam- 
.-ine. Though his project eioited much ridicule, the privi- 
es waa granted, on condition that he should within twelve 
mths produce a steam-vessel which should attain a mean 
» of four miles an hour. This he failed to accomplish, 
kougb aasisted by an Englishman named Nesbit, and by Brunei 
" TirardH Sir Mark Isarabard) ; consequently his grant or 
' became void. Shortly afterwards, being at Paris,* as 
r from the United States, Livingstone conversed with 
on the subject of steam-hoats; and they subsequently 
imjointly completed a boat of ooneiderable size. 

Meanwhile, in 1804, John Stevens of Hoboken, near New 
brk, tried a small boat SS feet long, which attained, for short 
ata&oea, seven or eight miles an hour. 

Mr. 8ime, M.A., has thus vi\idly narrated Fulton's import- 
it share in the success of Steam Navigation : 

TBr to witneai, an eDtarprisa the himour of which properly bo- 
Scotland. Bohart Fulton visited Europe towards the close 
Isab century, and made several atlemptB, both in Britain and 
Kaoe, to propol veaaels by steam. Watt and Boull^c slipplioi] him 
111 machinery 1 an>l many of his ideas nore borrowed fram MUler 
' Dalswinton, and Symington, whose steam-lwal he inspected when 
.Sootland.-t' FruDi the first Fultoci regarded the steame as a meana 

ass Fulton and Steam Navigation, 

ol itBTslapiiif tba Twt rcMOTOCB of tlie wBBteni Btatsi of the Oram, 
'0.000 mile* I'f riiBT naviEatioo, throagh & ricli and fertili 
iDvilAd CBilrftiil, SQtenirice, niid pupulation. Pouneen jnn 
before succeai cruwned bia taboun ; mnuy difficulties nod Sf 
■(molatmenti were eDcoontsreil ; and oDCe, when & Tessel nhicli ie 
toA biult wu ready for an eiperimeDtal trip on tha Seine Bt Parii, Qm 
' lat broke in two, and the nutchioery oarried the fragmeDU Co tbt 
.jtHini of the river.* In 1807 he binnched Lis firft steam-Tend <B 
ttie ijudnoa. and inaijg;unLted a new era in river nnd ooean narlgatim. 
The I'rejudioeg, which rendered the laulCitude biith of the wise and Iht 
ignoTAnt aceptical before Pulton's ideas hod been fully realised, ind 
Whiob drow them to the wator-^de to ecoff at an expected habna, 
re deatruyed in a few miimtea by the slsady motiaD of tte cesaoL Ha 
II trip H>ai made on the Hudniu , between Mew York luid AJbiuiT, * 
tance of 160 loiies. When we look back on tbat Toyage, &ac^ 
with unspeakable benefits to ntanldud, how amusing is almost envT 
tbiag connected with it ! The velocity of tha steamer was only Kbnn 
ftra milea an hour ; yet so rapid did this nte seem to those t>n bai>4 

^t..^ .1 . . T__ ^.. ^ moving with themselves, appeafod u its! 

used u fuel sent forth a oolumo of igniMi 
. above the flue ; and so appoiled were Ihe crews ofllie 
■hips on the Hudson, as they saw this fiery inonstor movine tomi'h 
'ji the darkness against both wind and tide, tbat some ahandonri 
ihips, and others thought their laat hour was oorae. Bstvosi 
iS07 and 1S12, the year in whiuh the Comet, the first British stesiMr, 
began lo ply on the Clyde, steam-boala were introduced on almoat all 
the larger nveni of the Onited States.— B<iinf.urD4 Etmyi, 1856. 

During the war between Great Britain and the United States, ill 
1811, Pnlton proposed to defend the harbour o( New York from attnl 
^ ~ meaaa of steam-friii^tei. That whiuh he ootually built, altjiau^ It 
II not required, was pierced for thirty guns, and reiiBmbied the doatli 
liOBiti, or liciia, constructed by HiUer of DnlawiDton, She was sin 
fitted with machinery calculated to discharge an immeniie quanH^i' 
g hot water through the port-holes of an enemy's ship, by which the sil- 
munition would be rendered nselesa, and tie crew scalded to destlt 
Cutlasses without number were Baid to bo moved by raaohinery ] pik* 
darted forth and withdrawn eyery quarter of a minute, wuiild ifweuitlu 
dooks of our mea-of-nar ; in short, the iron fingers of a modem Sej^ 
wonld kill the sailors at their post. Little did cither nation imagtus, 
that before tbo lapse of forty years, Great Britain would depend DDtU 
very application of stoatn to maintaiu tbat wipremacy at sea of whiih 
many supposed it )mii deprived her. 

Fulton aleo formed two projeots for suiimarine navigation; j 

one. a carcass or box filled with corabustibles, which was to be i 

propelled under water, and made to esplode beneath the bottom I 

of a vessel ; the other, a. Eubmariiie boat, to be used for a eimilu j 

destructive purpose : but for practical use both were failures. Bt j 

. appears, however, to have clung to the scheme with great pe^ 1 

^ BeveraucB, and not long before his death exhibited its power 1? | 


mericsn itenin-hDiHii-^lhB ulroriL- snd light frsiatDB.UynMlfc J i 
«y»™ eaiWed to bear tha weiBht ma » ti»[n of Uielr l>r(M mJ 
TotemeiyVlis cft-.^iiUBo «\mai\,reiaHi»trnctcdlit< i*»li ' 

■irBrfuI enginui. . . 

'lisn her psatterei iiuU wu launa. 

Bell's " Com-el" Steamer. 

blowing up an old vesBel in tlie neighljouriiood of New Yorlt. 
Fulton's chest, which he nani^ed a Torpedo, or Nautilus, was, 
11 bis own words, "to blow a whole snip's compaii; into the 
ir:" it was nothiug mote thaa a uhest containing giuipowder, 
rhicb, by meane of clock machiueiy, might be ignited at a 
iven time under water, and being placed under a ship's bottom, 
CBtroy her by the explosion. This application of gunpowder 
ad before been made by fiushnell: it hafi been hiunorously 
Ifflcribed as " something like the scheme of children to catch 
by applying salt to tlieir taila." Fulton offered Mb 
ttvention to Bonaparte, wheu First Consul ; and he was sent to 
^«st, under the promise of destroying the English blockading 
[Uadron; but he did nothing. He then offered his scheme 
I the British ministry, aud by way of esperiment, blew to 
«ceB in two days an old ]>anish brig in Walmer Roads ; but 
ifl grand invention was the Catamaran expedition, as the trial 
t fais machines against the Boulogne dotilk was tailed. 

Pulton died in 1815; and so highly were his services appre- 
iated in the United States, that, besides other testimonials of 
vpect, the members of both houses of the legislature wore 
uniming on the occasion of his death. 

The practical application of Steam Navigation in Scotland 
id not take place until a few years after Fulton's sncceas iu 
Lmerica; when Henry Bell of Helensbnrg, on the Clyde, a, 
OUfie-carpenter, had buUt the Comet, 40 feet keel, 25 tons 
Urden, and three-horse power : her boiler is in the possession 
f Mr. Scott Bussell. Mr. Bennet Woodcroft, in comparing these 
wta with their predecessors, emphatically says : Symiug- 
jd.'b boat, the C/mHolte Dietidas, was altogether superior in its 
leohanical arrangements to either Fulton's Clermont or Bell's 
bmet, as luay be readily seen by inspection of the drawings. 
Text year, 1(413, appeared the second steamer on the Clyde, — the 
%ixMah; and in 1814 was built the Induxlry, by Mr. Fyfe of 
Urlie : she is of wood, and her first engine was put on board 
<f Bnnoan M'Arthur, of Glasgow. This vessel is now a luggage- 
'icsmer of the Clyde Shipping Company, aud ia stated to bethe 
ia( steamer ajlaat. 

In Ireland, a person named Dawson states that he had built 
Bteom-boat of 50 tons burden, worked by a high-pressure 
eam-engine, as early as 18U, which he also named the Comet, 
ter the great phenomenon of tliat year. In 1813, Dawson 
jtablished a steam-hoat on the Thames, to ply between Graves- 
kdand London, "wliicb was the first that did so for public 
oonunodation ; although Mr. Lawrence, of Bristol, who intro- 
leed a stenm-bont on the Severn, soon after the &uAt«^^v^ _ 
entions on the Clyde, had her carried to "Waino. VOsct 
B oaaais) to pij on tlie Thames ; but, feoia t^ift « ' """ 

Early Steam Vogagea. 

tho wntermeii to the innovation, he was ia the end obliged to 
Uke her t'> her tirat Htatimi." Mr. Cruilen, in hia History^ 
Uraveimd, however, etales the first Qi-aveseiid steam-boat to i 
have been the Marijery, built upon the Clyde, in 1813, bj the 1 
builders of the Coiiut: she started fur Oraveseud in 1S15. In 1 
the previous year,' 1814, a Bteamer began to ply between Loa- ; 
■doQ and Riclimoad. I 

Oeot)^ Dodd, whose history ia a melancholy instance of the 1 
poverty which often attends the most ingenious in yen tots, wu, I 
It appears, the firxt to undertake a considerable voyage by Kt ' 
iu a steam-vesBe!, built on the Clyde in 1813. She waa74orT$ | 
boDB burden, U or 16 horse-power, with paddle-wheels 9 feet ' 
in diameter. Dodd brought her roimd to tliG Thames, by steun 
and sails, through rough weather, especially in the Irish Sea. 

The first ocean steam-voyage of great len^h was made b} 
the SrnHiiiiui/i, of 350 tons, which arrived at Liverpool, July 1^ ' 
1619, haviug made the voyage from New York in S6 dajd ' 
She then went to St. Petersburg, touching at Oopenbagen, uil 
■ubsequently recrossed the Atlantic. Steam waa, however, em- | 
ployed only during a part of these voyages. 

The first steam voyage to India was made in the Enttrprvitt , 
which sailed from Falmouth, Aug. 16, 1S25 : for this feat tba i 
captain of the vessel received 10,00l)j. 

In 1838, the Sirius, of London, and the 0-reat ll^n-n effected 
their first voyage to New York, almost simultaneously, froD , 
Bristol; andfcom the same port the Great Britain, propeUedby 
a serew, made her first voyitge out in July 1845; thus establidi- j 
tug the usefulnusB of each mode of propulsion for tho uavigation | 
of the ocean. Captain Ericsson appears to have aocompliahed . 
' r the screw-propeller in America aad England what Fulton 1 

d for the paddle-wheel in the former, and Bell in the latta 
country, uamely, its practical introduction. To Francis Fettit 
Smith, the patentee of the Archimedean Screw- Propeller, fi)f i 
the bringing into general use this system of propul^on, s 
magnificent plate testimonial and subscriptions, in the whole 
amouuting to 2676^ , were presented at a festival in the summet ' 
of 1658, Mr. Robert Stephenson, M.P., presiding. The screw ii < 
Bpecially adapted for war-steamera : it leaves a clear broadside | 
for the guns, does not prevent the use of sails, and allows tlu I 
machinery to bo placed sis or eight feet below the water-line, ] 
^'" a leaving the upper decks free for working the guns. TIw i 

iw was first tried in the Arehimfda; and in 1639, the fifst ] 
war-ship, the Rattler, waa fitted with it. | 

The substitution of iron for wood in the building of Bteam- i 
vessels insures their superior lightness and buoyancy, and lul ] 
3ed to water-tig\it compartmiwitB and a multitude of o'""" 
JQportant changes. 


lamo of Brunei haa now for two generationa, i 
nnmeticentent of this century to tbe present time, be 
^^*"d with the progresa and the apphcation of mechanical ai 

The elder Brunei, Ibahbard Mark, who displayed 6i 

IWrrity of genius for the minute and the vast, was bom e 

onen, in 1769 ; and from his earUest boyhood showed □ 

Mniml tastes. When sent to the seminary of St. Nicaise 

onen,hepreferred the study of the exact sciences, mathematics 

ehanics, and navigation, to the classics, and loved to pra 

holidays in a joiner's shop. At the age of twelve years lu 

I profident in turuing, and in the construction of models <d 

3, machines, and musical instruments ; he also made a 

■ guided by the one belonging to his tutor and by a trar 

H on navigation; and at the age of fifteen he took b"~ 

iterest in astronomy as to observe the stars, greatly U 

ttonishment of the villagers. In 1.TS6 he enlisted as a ei 

Dm which date up to 1793 he made several voyages to t! 

'est Indies, iu which he nsed inatruments of his own i" 

motion : he also made a pianoforte while the ship once h 


Bruuel's first engineering work was a survey for the c 
hich now connects Lake Champlain with the river Ilndeon as 
Ibaof. He afterwards acted as an architect, and buiit o 
t the theatres at New York, lie was employed o 
voted for the defence of that cEty, and in the establishment M 
I arsenal and foundry ; he also devised ingenious ci 
r boring cannon and moving large masses of metal with fao 
ij. He next visited England, where his first work was a 
itographic machine for copying maps, drawings, and writtenV 
Muments. I 

Brunei's next work was his i-nvention and construotion oi i 
of machines in Portsmouth Dockyard for the 
mnation of Blocks employed in raising burdens, and par- 
Bolarlj in the important service of moving the rig^ug of 
i^B. There are aisteen different madimes, lOi iviN^m.'Vi *oa 
me Btwa-eagine : eevea cut or Bba>p« \o^ oi ^ni est «i 

286 BruncVa Block Machinery. 

the shells of Hocks, while nine foshion stems of lip 
into piillevs or sheaves, and form the iron pin, whi 
inserted, the block is complete. Four men with this 
turn out ae xaa.ny blocks as fouTBoore did furmerlj, ai 
cost ; and the aupply has never failed, even though 15< 
Siu required in the rigging of a ship of the line. B; 
ments, hiocks can be manufactured of one hundred 
sixes : thirtj men can muke one hundred per hour; 
tnaohinery, by Maudalaj, in twenty -five years require 
p«un. It cost 4<!,000I. ; and the eaviog per annum, ii 
yna, has been 25,000^. A second set of machinery 
onted for the dockyard itt Chatham. This aseemblag 
chines contains so many ingenious processes for gaii 
proposed ends nith the utmost accuracy and at the be 
with the least poasihlo labour, as to justify the opinio' 
constitutes one of the noblest triumphs of mechanii 
There ia a let of mapiificeut models of this vnvantio 
possession of the Navy Board : the machines work ii 
sion, so as to he^in and finish off a two-sbeaved bl( 
inches in length, in the most perfect manner. A det 
count of the entire machiuery is given in the Penny Offi 
Sapplement 1. 

Mr. Brunei next built in Chatham Dockyard the 8tc 
mill, in which he introduced Circular Saws, subsequc 
proved for cutting veneers. He also invented a — 
making seamless shoes ; for nail-making ; for twisi 
ing, and forming sewing'Ootton into hanks; for t 
a contrivance for cutting and shuffling cards withoatt 
fingers, produced in reply to a playfufrequest of La^] 
A hydraulic packing-press ; new methods and comlHa 
■mpension -bridges ; and s process for building nidi 
uches without centerings- He was employed in tha 
tion of the first Ram^^te steamer ; he was the first^ 
die advantage of steam-tugs to the Admiralty j i 
fears he carried on experiments in constructing a, 
ttsing carbonic-acid gas aa a motive power. 

A popular writer of forty jeoTB aincfl has left thifl gmp 
his visit to Brunei's workahopa at Bnttonwa : " Id & graa 
ths left, I was aLtmcted by the Milemn notion of u ata 
■Utean-hoTBo oroig-hty-inan pflwar ; and wag luhsred into _ 
it turned, by moons of bands, fuiir wheels fringed with fine 
eigbteen feet in diameter, and two of nine feet. Tbdn 
were used for tbe pm-poae of Beparatine' veneers, and a 
opsniCion was neior performed. 1 beheld plonks of m 
roiewDod sawed into veneers the dxtoantii of an inoh l._ 

^ p retasioD and grandeur of action whioh really was mibUmei 

^■Knnr St anoe turned these tremendous saws and drew thai 
^^Hni, A large Bhoc^nfiececi.'miiacHteaEBet tons bytW 
^^^B^us separated ia e:bo<i\, tes.Tiuiud«\ vi «a&, «^m^ 

TJie Tliames Tunnel. 287 1 

it fqipeared more liko a. pertecb n'ork of Ncture than one of human oit. 
The foroo of fhoso sftws may ha oonooived, when it ia known that the 
hxge ones revolve Biity-fiTe times in a minute; lieuco I3>!3'U=66-6 
J«66 gives 3672 feet, or two-thirds of s. mile, in a. minute ; whereni, if a 
1 gives thirty strokes of three faat in a minute, it ia bat 
Drouly the fortieth port of the steady forco of Mr. Brunei's 

"In anotbor building I was shown his manufactory of shoes, Bhidh, 

ce the other, is full of ingenuity, and, ic regard to aubdivision of Inbour, 

^inga tltla febrio on «. level with the oft-admired manufactory of pina. 

rery step in it is effected by the moat elegant and preciio machinery ; 

■rMIe, as eaoh operation ia performed by one hand, so eaeb shoe paaBBs 

ugh twentj-fivo hands, who complete from the hide, as auppiied by 

nmier, a hundred pairs of strong and well-fiuished shoes per day. 

11 the details are performed by the ingenloua application of the me. 

aaa powers; and all the parta are characterised by precision, uni- 

idly, and accurEWy. As each man performs but one step in tha 

'—a, which implies no fenowladgo of what ia done by those who go 

ir follow him, ao the persons omployad are not shoemakers, but 

d soldiora, who are able tu lesm their respBCtire duties in a few 

. The contratt at which these shoes are delivered to Govemment 

Bia 8). Od. per iinir, being at least 2i. lesa tlian what was paid pravioualy 

V^or nn unequal and cohblod ta1ialB.'-—SiTRi<!)iaTdPMUipii itoming'i 

\ Wali/rom London U, Eew. 

Brunei is most popularly known by his great work of en- 

I pneering oonstniction,— the Thames Tunuel, conaistiiig of a 

J taick-arohed double roadway UDder the river, between Wap- 

■ pjng mtd Rotherhitbe. 

, In X799, an attempt was made to cotistruot an archway under 

^e Thamea, from Qravesend to Tilbury, by Ralph Dodd, en- 

jjineer; and in 1804 the " Thamea Archway Company'' oom- 

r Benoed a similar work from Rotherhitbe to Limehouse, under 

f the direction of Vasey and Trevetbick, two Cornish miners ! 

the horizontal excavation had reached 1040 feet, when the 

L pound broke in under the preSKure of high tides, and the 

rork was abandoned ; fifty-four engineers declaring it to be 

pipmcticable to make a tunnel under the Thames of any useful 

'le itst commercial progression. 

In 1814, when the Allied Sovereigns visited London, Brunei 
Fiubmitted to the Emperor of Buesia a plan for a Tunnel under 
tiie Neva, by which the terrors of the breaking up of the ice of 
that river in the spring would have been obviated. The scheme, 
vrfiich he was not permitted to carry out at Bt. Petersburg, he 
was destined to execute in London. 

It was planned in 1S23. Among the earliest subacriberB to 

the scheme were the late Duke of Wellington and Dr. Wollas- 

ton; and in 1824 the " Tliames-Tunnel Company" was formed 

to execute the work. A brickwork. cjVmAeTjto^j iee'i^TO. Sibt 

, meter, forty-two feet high, and three feet W\'ii,'«vtf.^'!^ "sia-^ 

Upeuced by Mr. iJruael, at 1 01 ' feet £iom tfna '^Ji'Cae^^Q.'Cft'i •ii'^'a *> 

8 The Thames Tunm 

I river; a^nd on March 2, 1825, a stone with a brass ic 
D'pliite woB kid in the brickwork. Upon this cylind 
computed to weigh 1000 tons, was set a. powerful steam-engiiw, 
bj which the earth was raised, and the water was drained fnna i 
within it ; the shaft was then sunk into the ground en, ^"f^ I 
and completed to the depth of 65 feet ; and at the depth oi 
63 feet the horizontal roadway was commenced, with an ei- [ 
oavation larger than the interior of the old House of Commoini | 
The plan of operation had been BUggeated to Brunei in 18U,b7 
the bore of the sea- worm Teredo navnlia in the keel of a ^jp; 
showing how, when the perforation was made by the worm, tie 
ndes were secured, and rendered impervious to water, liy the 
insect lining the passage with acalcareouB secretion. Wiuitbe 
augur-tbnaed head of the worm in view, Brunei employed % 
OBst-iron " Shield," containing thirty-six frames or cells, in 
each of which was a miner, who cut down the earth ; andabriet- 
layer simultaneously built up from the back of the cell the brick 
arch, which was pressed forward by strong screws. Thus wert 
completed, from Jan. 1, 1826, to April 27, 1827, 5-K) feet 0* I 
the TunneL Ou May 18th the river burst into the woAs; 
but the opening was soon filled up with bags of clay, the water i 
pumped out of the Tunnel, and the work resumed. At tlis | 
length of 6W feet, thti rjver again broke in, and sis men were 

The Tunnel was again emptied; but the work was discon- 
tinued for want of funds for seven years. Scores of plaas 
were now proposed for its completion, and above 50002. were I 
raised by public subscription. By aid of a loan sanctioned I 
by Parliament (mainly through the inQueuce of the Bnke of ' 
Wellington), the work was resumed, and a new shield CM- j 
structed, March 1836, in. which year were completed IIT feet; 
in 1837, only 29 feet ; in 1838, 80 feet ; in 1839, 194 feet ; io 
1840 (two months), 76 feet ; and by November 1841 the r«- . 
maining 60 fuet, reaching to the shaft which had been sunk it | 
Wapping. On March 24 Brunei was knighted by the Queen; 
on August 12 he passed through the Tunnel from shore to | 
shore ; and March 35, 1843, it was opened as a public tho- , 
roughfare. It is lighted with gas, and is open to passengen | 
day and night, at one penny toll. 

The Tunnel has cost about 454,00M. ; to complete the aa- 
riage-desoents would require 180,000/. : total, 634,O0M. Tlw . 
dangers of the work were many : sometimes portions of ^ I 
Bhield broke with the noise of a cannon-shot ; then alun-- I 
hig- cries told of some irruption of earth or water : but the er- 1 
oavators were mucti mwe mcon-iBiviawMi. \vi &<« than water; j 

Strangely mingling wit\i t'iie-«aX.w,«-^i^«^«^«^t**'^"*«^ 

The ThameS'Tunnel Shield. 

idble. Yet, with all these perils, but seven lives w 

iiiHtmctiDg the Tbatnes Tunnel ; whereas nearlj forty men 
killed during the building of new London Bridge 

i, Mr. Brunei submitted to William IV., at St. Ja 

Au Exposition of the Fauts and CHrcumstaucea re- 1 
ng to the Tunnel." Brunei has also left a minute record (rf I 

great work : it is well described and illustrated in Weale's J 
^rterli/ Papers on Engiveering. A line medal was stmcl at \ 
: completiou of the work : obir. head of Brunei ; rev. interior | 
1 longitudinal section of the TunuoL 
Vhe width of the Tunnel is 35 feet ; height, 20 feet ; auA. I 
hwa; and footpath, clear width, about 14 feet; thicknesB 1 
earth between the crown of the arch and the bed of tbs { 

about 15 feet. At full 
Ib the floor of the Tunnel is 
feet below the surface of 

Sir Isambard Brunei d 

Itu house in Duke-stre 

[1849, aged 

ft an only son, whose 

id labours will be found 

a future sketch. 



B section of the 

The Polling boards m iront 
le Shield. 
The Jack Svrews. 
The Top Staves, seounngtha 

he Bubstilutioa of the bnck 
c: the udes of each diriaioa 
he Shield were Bimilnrly de 

The Legi, being Jack Gcrewa, 

1 by tnll-jniDta to the Shoss, 

'"-■^ Ibe whole diMBion 

^ The Show. 

^7 and 8. Tbs Sockets, where the 
h and bottom horizontal Borewa 
B fixed to foreo the dniaii 
d a» the work adTanoed. 


If this practical age of phjeical comfort, it is scarcely poafdblc 
to over-eBtimate the vaJue and importance of the railway, and 
" I Bervices of its far-seeing originator, Geqhob Stephebbob. 
t is not too much to say, that the inventor (to all practical 
purpoBes) of the locomotive steam -engine,* and the founder of 
the railway system of the entire world, has done as much U 
promote human comfort and advantage as any single man thai 
ever breathed. And more particularly, we believe that there is J 
hardly a man, woman, or child in Britain, nho is not reaping I 
personal profit from the labours of this great and sterling | 
Englishman; from the results of his wonderful ingenuity lo k 
devise, and his unparalleled perseverance in ui^itjg on his gigan- 
tic invention, at a time when great engineers, eminent lawyen, ' 
tsA leading membera of Parliament, ware not mhinned to de- ' 
nounce him as an idiot, and to advise his consignment to ' 
Bedlam. '"+ In every word of this honest tribute we heurtiij I 

At a few miles west of Newcastle, in the aolliery villafre of . 
Wylam, on the north bank of the Tyne, araidat slag and cindetfi, \ 
there still stands a red-tiled ordinary cottage, of two stories, 
divided into four dwellings. In one of these rooms, which hu 
uiplastered walls, bare nkitera, and floor of clay, George Stephen- J 
ion was born, on the 9th of June 1781. At a few yards from | 
tiie door is the line of rails which runs from the colliery to- 
wards Newcafitle, and has been put in place of the old (ram- 
ita.y,X along which the coal-wagons were formerly drawn by j 

1 SutardauKwvw.'iiB.^. 

t Called IrumrooclB trombi 

— le, omitaos the firat vgWuM 

Birthplace of George Stephenson, 291 1 

AcroBB the river the soenerj is Tery heautiful, aud 
. colliery appears in the distance; and at the back of 
1 bouae, the rich land, partly clothed witli wood, : 

Boyhood of George Stephenson. ^* 

m&king day enginei, along with a ccrtiim Thomaa Tholom^ 
the boys found the clay in the odjoiniDg bog, and the hemllx 
which grew about supplied them with imaginary steam-pipB 
and the villagers to this day point out, "just aboon the m 
end," where the future engineer made his first models. 

lu due oourse, George had his wages doubled for hoot 
turnips. He was nest employed aa "picker" or sorterofti 
Goala. Ic was a protid day when he was advanced to be ddti 
of the giu-horee at Sd. ; "and there are those who atiil f 
ineniher him in that capacity, as a ' grit bare-legged liddti 
whom they describe a full of tricks and fun." Oeoi^ was {IS 
moted to the post of assistant fireman when only fourtet 

Eaars of age, at Is. a day. At the oolUery at Throcfcley Bridg 
e was advanced to 1S«. a week, and at seventeen he betan 
an engineman or plugman, while hia fathitr continued to stol 
the fire; and ou receiving his first week's wagee, he said e: 
tiltingly to a com^ianion, " 1 am now a made man for life." i 
this tinie, he wak a big raw-boned man, fond of displaying h 
strength and Bctiwty at the village feasts, but remaikable fi 
his temperance, sobriety, tndiiBtry, and good temper. Ue m( 
studied and mastered the workiti^ of his engine, which becw 
a sort of pet with him. He delighted to find some one wl 
could read to him by the engine^ffrb out of any book dr stfl 
newspaper ; and having heard that the Egyptians hatched Inri 
eggs by artificial heat, he endeavoured to do the same ink 
engiue-house. He learned also that the wonderful engiMBi 
Watt and Boulton were to. he found described in books, whiil 
induced liim to attend a night-school at Sd. a week, to \tat 
bis letters and practise "pot-hooks;" so that at eighteen ll 
had learned to read, and at nineteen he was proud to be nbl 
to write his own name. He next went to the night-sohool ^ 
a Scotch dominie, a skilled arithmetician, and there lean 
" figuring" much bster than his schoolfellows : he worked W 
his sums by the engine-fire, and solved the arithmetical qo^ 
tious set htm upon his sliLte by bis master, so that he ip' 
became well advanced in arithmetic. In 1801, he b' 
brakesman at the colliery ; and he began to increa 
come by mending the workmen's shoes. He went o 
writing lessons; and by the next year, 18U2, when he n 
a respectable young woman, Fanny Heudetsou, he si ~ 
name in a good legible round-hand. ' . 

Ue now took up his abode in a humble cottage i^ 1 
lington Quay, near Newcastle. He occupied his lef' 
constructing little machines, and attempting to disc. 
perpetual motion. He soon advanced from mending 
making them ; and m\ tcciiisoi. "oa.-jvn^ obliged hiir.' 
his own clock, te^ecime&e ^liMeii^tiViiJtdisaijara- ' 

The first Rails. 


i; ihe neighbourhood; thus improving hie own mechanical 
'U whilsC adding to his income. At WiUiugtoti, he made the 
h self-acting incline need in that district, by which the de- 
mdiug kdeu wagoua on the tnun-road were made to draw 
^ the empty wagons. Here, -on the Ifitli of December 1803, 
3 bom his only sou, Uobert, ~who became second only tu his 
her OS a railway engineer. Qeorge Stepheuaou now became 
mething more than a mere workman, by studying the prin- 
jues of mechanism and the laws by which his engine worked. 
y steady conduct and saving habits, he procured the coveted 
iB of educating his son ; who, in after years* when he had 
to the highest scientiBc emiueuce, declared, with touch- 
I gratitude, " however exteusive Jiis own connection with 
nlways, all he bad known, and all he had himself done, was 
U tu the parent whose memory he cherished and revered." 

In 1804, George Stephenson removed to KiUingworth Col- 

" y, seven miles north of Newcastle ; while there, his poor 

., ^ died. Re spent the nest year at a colliery near Montrose, 

d Scotland ; and ou his return, he found bis aged father had 

een accidentally scalded and blinded by a discharge of steam, 

jt in upon bim while repairing au engine. He at once devoted 

[{.his savings to relieve the old man's distress, and place him 

~ ooiupai'ative comfort. So disheartened waa Stephenson 

mt this period, that he thought of emigrating to Canada. 

\at his prospects brightened, through his perseverance in the 

"' jf work, and by mending clocks and shoes, and even out- 

nt the clothes of the workmen. He also signalised bim- 

f by curing a wheezy engine, at which all the engineers of 

« neighbourhood had failed : he got IQl. for this job; fron^ 

ti day bis services as an engineer came into request ; and a 

y occurring, he was appointed the engine-wright to the 

,, /, with a hundred pounds o-year. He now began to 

. n his thoughts to the locomotive steam -engine. 

Bailways, consisting of wooden beams, tmm, or wagon 

(yg, were introduced as early as 1602 in the coilitries iu the 

itb of England, to reduce the labour of drawing coals from 

le pits to the place of shipment. Lord-Keeper North, in 1676, 

loibes such rails of timber from the collieTy to the river, 

(ctly straight and parallel, vith the rollers of bulky carts 

^8 to fit the rails. This "oaken way" first consisted of 

IS of iA)od simply imbedded in the ordinaiy road. A cen- 

7 and a half elapsed before the rails were laid upon cross- 

ices, or sleepers, to which they were fastened by pegs. In 

^6, thin plates of malleable iron wei'e nailed upon^rti'oji* of 

Ip^t wooden rails. Next followed cast-iron mils. A waadoiv 

("as used at the CoalbrooVdBliiltow«o'cVa^Iwi'i''.VlW\, 

e price of iron becoming verj Vqv(,'v*i waa itAtfrai»s\eKi.> 

in order to keep the furnaces at work, to cast bars, -wliidi 
migljt be laid dowu upon the wooden railB, to save their ireif; > 
but which it wns proposed to take up, and sell &e pigs of iron, 
in cbse of n «uddvn rise. This Is coofirmed bj an eiitty ia the 
Compaiij's books of between five and bIx tons of cast-iron niH 
but " only as an experiment, on the suggestion of one of the 

C.nera. A few years after, cast-iron rails, with an upriAt 
ge, were first used at the coUiery of the Duke of Hotfflk, 
near Sheffield, in 1776. Here we must leave the Bailwsf for 
the Locomotive. 

Tarioua kiuds of propelling power had been proposed foruK 
on these plaU-ways, as they were still called. Sails had flwr 
advocate. The application of the steam-engine to locomotioa ' 
on land was, according to Watt, suggested by Robison in 1^9. 
In 1784, Watt patented a locomotive engine, which, iiotrevm, 
he never executed; and shout the same time, Murdoch, atoA- 
ant to Watt, made a ve^ efficient model. In 1802, Trevethick , 
and Vivian patented a locomotive engine, which, in 18W or j 
1805, travelled at about five miles an hour, with a net loadtf 1 
ten tons. The use of fixed engines, to drag trrdns on ndimji I 
ty ropea, was introduced by Cook in lfl08. Some years aftffj ( 
Mr. Blac^ett constructed an engine for the Wylam Colliery ; but I 
as it would only travel one mile an hour, it was soon laid amdt j 

Several other "travelling engines" were made by other at ) 
gineers, with partial success ; but it was left to Stephenson IP < 
render the locomotive practically useful. He pressed the mtt I 
ter on the leasees of the KLllingworth colliery, and be nadt I 
for them a locomotive, which was first ti-ied on their laHinj I 
July 25, 1814 : it was very clumsy and ugly, but it drew thirij * 
tons at four miles an hour. Some improvements were aam 
in this engine, and next year Stephenson built a looomotin 
which contained the germ of all that has since been eSectoJ; 
"there being no material difference between the cnmhMBI 
maoblnes that screamed and jolted along the coal tramroadiB 
1815, and the elegant and noiseless locomotive which Mf 
takes out the express train, gliding smoothly and swiftly Ml 
bird through the air." 

The engines which Stephenson constructed in 1815 wubl' 
away at Killin^worth, but attracted little notice : their auSCT 
always maiiitamed that son:ie day suck mifines and raSv^' 
•would be aeU hiovm. all over Britain ; but he was i?garded<i 
Bn innocent enthusiast. 

Meanwhile, a striking suggestion of uniting railway Ctt- 
mnnication into a lyalem, as connecting lines are now i "^ 
'~~as made by an unprofessional writer ; the first author' 
ibject to notice vi'huAi.ii^a ■^i,%oiiE&,m tiia admiral 
' George Stephemon. 

W ine Jtauaay ay stem mggenea, S^V^^H 

k This suggestion occutb in Sir lUctard Pliillips's Moming'i Wait ^^| 
KwK London to Kea, and waa writtaa in 1813. On roacbing the Suirey ^^H 
ftaa Bail«a.y, at Waudavrurth, nliere it train of curiugea was dmwn t^ ^^H 
pDe horse, Sir Itiutiard says, " 1 thouglit of the millions wbioh faara < ^^M 
oeea apent at MaltA, four or Gre af which might have been the means ^^M 
of extending UauUt tiKis e/ iron raiiwai/ fi-om London to Ediat irgh, ^^H 
Qlasgow, Holyhead, Milfbrd, Fahnonth, Yarmouth, Dovev, and Porta- ^^M 
mouth. A renard of a single thousand would have supplied coacheHj^^^H 
Vid other vuhidei, of various degrees of spnod, with the best tackle for ^^H 
readily turning out ; and we nii);ht era tiijs have witnessed our mail- ^^H 
Ooaches running at the rate of ten miles an hour, drawn by a Bin^o ^^^| 
horse, ar impelled fifUen miles an Aour by Blenkintop'a ileam-engini^'' .^^H 
The writer of these saj^acious remarlu lived until ISf D ; so that he had ^H 
witnessed a triumph greater than his long-eherished hope. ^^H 

ItL the iuterval, i.e. in 1825, Sir Richard Phillips pubLisfaed ^^M 
the Rtat TreatUe on BaUieays, \ty Nicholas Wood, of KiUing- ^^| 
worth, wherein be deprecates any attempt at a greater speed ^^| 
than fourteen miles an hour upon railwikys, Yet this BhOTt-'^^| 
BightednesB was exceeded bj a writer in the QwirtfHy Jtevvvi .- ^^M 

What [said the reviewer) can be more palpably ridiouloiu than tb* ^H 
prospeet held out of locomotiyea trnveUing twice ns fast as stags^i^^H 
cooahea ! We should as soon oipect the people of Woolwich ta suSiBt^^^H 
themHolvea to be flred-off upon one of Congreve's ricochet roeketo, BVi'^^H 
trust themselves to the mercy of such a machine going at snoh a rate. ^^| 
Wa will back old Father Thames against the Woolwich Kallwaf for anv^H 
sum. We trust that Parliament will, in all railways it may sansljon, ^H 
limit the speed to eight or nine miles an hour, which we entirely ogreB^^^H 
with Mr, Bylveater is as great as can be ventured on with safety. ^^H 

In 1819, Stephenson turned, for the owners of Hetton Col-^^H 
liery, their tram-road into a railway ; and taking advant^e (^ ^^^ 
the hilly country, formed self-acting inclines, the locomotive ^^M 
working on the level part : this line was opened in 1822. ^^M 

In 1819, also, Mr. Edward Pease, supported by a number (tf,^^| 
Quaker friends, obtained, after much opposition, an Act of ^^H 
Parliament for the cunetmction of ii colliery railway from ^^M 
Stockton to Darlington. In 1821, George Stephenson applied 
to Mr. Pease to lay out the line. The wealthy Quaker was 

Erepoesesaed in fovour of Stephenson : " there was such an 
onest, sensible look about him, and he seemed bo modest 
and unpretending." Mr. Pease had contemplated the uae of 
horse-power upon his railway ; but Stephenson assured him 
that the engine which had worked for years at Kiilingworth 
iraa worth ^ty horses. He went and saw the engine, aud 
George StepheiiBOii was appointed engineer to the Stockton 
and Darhngton Railway, with a salary of 3002. a-year ; and be | 
removed to Darlington with his family (he had married a second I 
time in 1819) in the year 1823. He kid out evet^ f'^Q*- t>t*.'™i " 
Uae; Slid be built, in a fiiotory at SewcaflAe, 'Civcwi en^iQisH.VM. 
asa upon ii, with iOOOl. given him by pufeMo av&w!cv^'\«»^'^ 
lis iureatiou of a safetj-lamp for use ia coal.-u'^'i. "S^ft-wi-""*''* 

ma opened September 1826, when the first train, 38 oarriige^ I i 
with sort pftMetigere, wafl drawn by a tingle eugine, at fwB ' ' 
four to twelve miles an hour ; the first paesenger-carriagelKiag 
Ml old at^e-coach placed upon a wooden frame. The engiDM ' 
did their daily work admirably'; and the little factory at Ke»- 
caatle, founded mainly to bring together more skiiful workmra 
than the coantry hladtsmitha who had made the first lotinnio- 
tivee, gradually grew into a gigantic estahhshmeut, which for 

J years supplied engines, drivers, and auperiiitendeiiU (ot 
e railways of Europe. I 

The No, 1 engine made by Stephenson for the above railinj, 
and which was the first machioe ever run on a parliatnentuy 
line, has been preserved, and was, in 1859, erected upon a ' 
pedestal at Darlington, as a public memorial of the commenw- 
meut of the railway system ; and it is a far more intereating 
oliject than the groups of moaumeatal flattery which we an 
accustomed to see in public places. 

The grand railway experiment of a line between Liverpool 
and Mauclieater was now commenced. It met with great oppo- 
aitioD, especially from the authorities of the Bridgewater CsnaL 
ITevertUeleBS a company was formed, and all the shares in it i 
were immediately taken up. A hue of railway was surveyed ' 
and mapped out, in spite of the furious resiBtance of hUti- 
owners; personal violeuce was threatened to the engincera em- 
ployed, and the most absurd stories were circulated ns to the 
dangerous nui^ncis to be apprehended from the passing ea- j 
giues. The best friends of the locomotive engine lamented 
tii&t Stephenson should venture to predict that railway-trains , 
would some day run at twelve and sisteen miles an hour; md ' 
members of ihe Parliamentary Committee whispered doubts of 
the engineer's sanity. The Bill was thrown out by a majorit? 
of one ; but early iu the nest Session, 1826, au Act was possei^ I 
authorising the construction of the railway, and Mr. Stephen- i 
-"-. was appointed engineer, with a salary of lOOW. a year. He 
to work at once ; and in June 1826, began to make the 
road across Chat Moss, the great morasa of four miles. Wedt \ 
after week, thousands of cubic yards were engulfed, without i 
the least apparent progress. At length the Directors proposed I 
t« abandon it ; but Stephenson persevered, and the four milea 
through Chat Moss now form the soundest part of the line. The j 
lenee was about S8,0CHI^, whereas an engineer had declared 
ore Parliament that the cost must be at least 27(1,0001. 
Stephenson organised all the works himaelf, there being tbeB j 
nejtber contracture nm iia.v4\«3-. he sent for bis son Robert ', 
who bad been some jea.T» in k^nrawa.! fet ^ca iiiA. TaA cciuna^ [ 
'n the great wort. ,,,,j ^ ^ 

t l*e Eailway bad a.taioat^eTY cOTn^Vwa.^KA'^fiiift-ojs*™*. 

The " Rockee' Priae Engine. 2S7 

^wer to be employed on it wt^s decided on. Stephenson stood 
aloiie iu urging the Directors to employ tlie locomotive ; but 
^tlier engineers who were consulted, without exception, reconi- 
lended stationary engines, which should draw the trains bj 
)e help of ropea. Stepheneon expostulated and entreated; 
id at length worried the Directors into giving the locomotive 
&ir trial. A simple remark, made by him about this time, 
K>WB with what vivid reality the future passage-railway was 
KBeut to his mind : " I said to my friends, that there was no 
mit to the speed of such an engine, provided the teorks evatd 
t-wade to gland." He had aJready, by his invention of the 
ibular boiler (in conjunction with his son), raised the speed 
I the engine from seven to thirty miles au hour. 

A large hentiug- aarfiice is indlBpeiisable to gooerato the Htcam re- 

e whulo ongiiie on the ciirriagB 

, was enercised in proiidiiig lie 

aer without un'^ulj increHalDg the tatt«r. The flame and heated air 

■o the fira-boi at a very high t«Tni>eriituro, and much beat would be 

ted if theywerealiqwedto eacapo iaimedintely into the fltmcsph ere ; 

8tS[ihoDWiD bni] alreHdy giipplemented the ordiDary openllJOD of 

ninioce by tliiB heated air. Aa high-pi'essuro eiiginss are used, the 

L|ios from the cylinder, a.fler having done its work, at a high 

to: and boinir made i« pass into the smoke^box, and then 

as a powertul blaet upon the Sre. Instead of 

8 the ohirnney ; and more ai ■■" -' 

fire if the Bhimney be cleared mora quiokly. 
in'a groat improvement, and it eiiabled hi 
another. Putting the chinmey at one end of the tnllsr, and tbe 
o-boi at the other, be coiineoted the two by B- number of metal tubes 
pimmng froin the back of the furnace to the smoke-bojc Hot air esCQp- 
$a(; through tiieae tubes beats the water by nhich they are surrounded. 

i«eventy miles an hour,— /ame 

Stephenson prepared an engine (the Model), constructed on 
is principle, to contend for tTie prize of 600^ which the Rail- 
ray Directors offered for thu best engine, to be produced oa a 
ertain day, to draw a weight of twenty tons at ten miles aa 
lOur. The trial took place on Oototier 6, 1829, at RainhilL 
!here were four engines, hut StupbeuBon's Itociit won the prize : 
t drew thirteen tons at a maximum speed of twenty-uiue iaile« 
a hour, and thus decided for ever the use of locomotive en- 
ines on railways. 

The opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway took 
Jweon the 15th of September 1830. The Duke of Weiling- 
Itoii, then Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, and other distiu- 
|[iuahed persons, were present; but the sad death of Mr. Hus- 
Einoa, who tell beneath the train in«motion, threw a doom. 
Upon the day. Little pnBEenger-traf&.c Wd \ieB\\ \tiiX^ Vat \. 
but, froru the opening', the r^way catriei aXiovA ViWi ^saasMe^ 

gen d«ilT ; and in five years afterwards it carried lialf a miUinn 
jearlj. St -pheiisoii's predicted ten miles rose to thirty miin 
BU hour ; and the net profit of the compaiij exceeded 6O,0U0l. 
a yeir. The Rixirl often attained a. speed of aiity mi]«« an 
huur i it weighed four and a quarter tutis : the locomotife of 
the present daj rauges from five to fifty tons weight, and iU 
lead fr om fifty to five hundred tons. ' 

What haa hecome of the Eoclxl engine 1 The Frenok J . 
serve with the greatest care the locomotive constructea % 
Cagnot, which ia to this day to be seen in the Conaerviitoire 
des Arts at Puris. The Rocket haa scarcely been so honoured. 

"Changing hnnds." snys Profoaqor O. Wilaon, "more than onoa, 
and at length dlscnrded, like an old horse OB soon an itisanfit forwtnic, I 
It WHS finally pumhosed by tha ioTentor'a son, and is now- preserred tn 1 
the engine-vforkH W Nowcastle-on-Tyne. It cannot always contkue I 
under filial gunrilianship; yet, when we coDuder that a aeiitury henoe | 
bnndreda of cunoua piigrimB will gladly travel &om dielant landa Co 1 
Btod; the famous Socket engine, if It be in eiiateDoe to l>e studied, w« 
cannot hut hajis that a.t least it will not be wilfully destroyed. W> | 
may have a thousand better engines, but we can never have the Jtodut i 
H|;ain. As the first of its race, the most infantile and the most veaep- , 
able of engines, it haa merits which no later engine can posaibty po» 

From IR30, railways began to overspread England. In con- 
junction with hia son, Ste^henBon waa appointed the euginew - 
otthe liondon MidBiniAift^am, Ml\6»inifii5>niCT:\o^i,'0os.WA- 
Jaad aud tbe Nort^ maiaai, a-ii4 o'^'^'^'', \vwj<^jvao.\.\TO». "^ 
' }, he settled at TiLptonIlc«ae,^«« Cto^S-^^t^'^NS^ -a=*-sp>?i» 

^k June 

■ oftli 

■ land 

" Honours to George Stephenson. 299 

became emiceiit engineerB, among whom were Locke and Qooch, 
Swanwick and Sirki>DBhaw. To his honour be it said, that 
Stephenson held aloof from all the Echeines of the railwaj 
maoisi of 1S45-6 ; and he alcouglj coudemned the reckless spirit 
in which Parliament authorised lines which could not poBsibly 
remunerate the shareholders. In 1845 he visited Spain, to 
survey a proposed line of railway ; having previously laid out 
the Government system of railways in Belgium, for which hfl 
reoeived a knighthood from King Leopold. He also c 
Htructed lines in Holland, France, Germany, and Italy, I 

CLBon's declining years were spent at Tapton, where he M 
me au eutlmsiastic horticulturist, and began working the** 
Claycrgss Collieries, He took great interest ia the Mechanics' ■ 
Institute iu his neighbourhood ; and he was the founder and I 
president of the lostitntion of Mechanical Engineers of Bit- I 
miugham. His early fondness for all kinds of animals re- 1 
yived. He had many attached pets among his dogs, horses, " 
and birds ; and he was fond of rambling about the neighbour- 
ing country, bird-nesting or nutting. Unfortunately he spent I 
too much time iu the unwholesome air of his forcing-houses sib, I 
Tapton ; and he contracted an intermittent fever, which car- f 
lied iiim oS after a few days' illness, on the ISth of August I 
1648, in the »!ity-Beventh year of his age. The shops of Che»- I 
terfield were closed, and all business was suspended, on the 1 
day of his fuueral A plain monument in Chesterfield Church 1 
marks his resting-place. 

In 1B44, a iine statue ofStephenson was erected in 
George's Hall, Liverpool; and iu 1854 there was set up ir 
Brest hall of the terminus of the North- Western Railway, Lou- l 
don, Baily's colossal marble statue of Stephenson, purchased bfM 
the subscriptions of 3160 working men and ITS private friends,:! 

rated by a ohBracteristio group pf seulpture, to he erected &t SeV'M 
oastle-Dn-Tyne. It is to consist of a, coIosbbI statue of Steuhenson upM^,l 
an embellisbed pede»tal. The mtklel was completed by Mr. Lougb, tha V 
■oulplor, in the autumn of 1859. The height of the figure i» seven feat f 

I^B fl^re is U|>rigbt, and attired in laodem costume, with a pl^ 
untsaing the cheat from the left shoulder; the right hand, [ioIduig» 

ahie of Tory early form. The likeness is good ; and the hend is pro- ■ 
fondly thoughtful. The pedestal intended for the support of thisil 

engineering- norks ; these ore occordiogly a navvy, a blookBDiith, a pit- 
man, and on engineer. 

There ore oountriea where auoh a man would have been ennobled, 
and covered with ribbons and orders; here he died as lie had lived, 

EGeorga Stephenson. But ho hiui a most itibto vcawicmsiii xa '^l(^( 
Bystein of iron roads which converge Iu Bc\Wi.ELa i^csX e^w^iiWi^H 
miflsd away to her quietest oomrt^ iuwk&. ^^H 


Thh distiuguiahed aon of a. dutinguished father, Geor)^ 8 
pheDBoo, was buru at WiUiiigtou Quay ou the T)'ue, aboutal 
milM below Newcastle, oa Puc. 16, 18U3. Here, in his hiunUs 
home, he was (aniiliarised from his earliest years witk the 
steady iudustry of his parents; for wheu hia father was not 
busy iu shoemakiiig, or outtiiig-out ahoe-lasCs, or cleaniiq 
(docks, or Qiakiug clothes for the pitmen, he was occupied wiu 
aome drawiag or model, with whioli he sought to improve him- 
self. Robert's motber very soon died ; and his father, whose 
heart was bound up in the boy, had to take the sale charge af 
tuDi. George StepneiiBon felt deeply bis owu want of eduo- 
tion ; and iu order that his son night not suffer from the suae 
oause, aent him titat to a school at Long BeutoQ, and after^ 
wards to the school of a Mr. Bruce, iu Newcastle, one of the 
beat seminaries of the district. There young Robert remained 
for three years ; and his father not only encouraged him to 
study for himself, but also made him in a measure the instrn- 
ment of his own better education, by getting the lad to read 
for him at the hbrary in Newcastle, and bring home the results 
of hia weekly acquirements, as well as frequently a scientific 
book, which fatlier and sou studied together. They jointly 
produced a anudial, which waa placed in the wall over the 
door of their cottage at Eilllngworth, and of which the fatlier 
waa always proud. Ou leaving school, at the age of fifteen, 
Eobert Stephenson was apprenticed to Mr. Nicholas Wood, at 
Kiliingwortb, to learn the bustuusa of the colliery, where he 
aerved for three yeara, and became familiar with all the depart- 
ments of underground work. Uis father was engaged at the 
same colliery, and the evenings of both were usually devoted 
to their mutual improvement. Mr. Snailes describes the aoi- 
mated discuasious which in this way took place iu their humble 
cotta^; these discussions frequently turning on the then com- 
paratively unknown powers of the locomotive engine d^y at 
work on the WHgon-way. The son was even more euthusinalic 
'" the father on tUe sn\)jftiA. t\. -naa ^tubably out of these 
Ions that tbete atote \n.Q*anj,6Wj(:^i«iraiji4' ■ ■ "-- 

cottage ; 
1^^ parativel 
^^■b^ the 


The "Planet" Engine. 


desire to give Robert a. Btill better education. He sent him in 

the year 1820 to tlie Edinburgh University, where Dr. Hope 

wag lecturing on chemistry. Sir John Leslie on natural philo- 

'Bophy, and ProfesBor Janjeaotk on natural hiatory. Though 

Voung Stephenson remaiued in Edinburgh but six months, it 

u supposed that he did as much work in that time as most 

students do in a three years' course. It cost his father some 

80^. ; but the money wa« not grudged when the son returned to 

EiUingworth, in the eummer of 1821, bringing with him the 

prize for mathematics, which he had gained at the Uuiveratty. 

In 1S23 Robert Stephenson was ai>prenticed to his jiither, 

who had by this time established his locomotive manufactory at 

Keweastle; hut hia health giving way, after a couple of years' 

exertion, he accepted a commission to examine the gold and 

Bilver mines of South America. The ohauge of air and scene 

ontributed to the restoration of his health ; and, after having 

KUided the Silver Mining Company of Columbia, he returned 

a England in Dectmber 16^7, m time to assist his fiither in 

tie arrangements of the Liverpool ajid Manchester Railway by 

dwang himself at the head of the factory at Newcastle. About 

bis time, indeed, he seems to bave almost exclusively devoted 

lis attention to the study of the locomotive engine, the work- 

r^ of which he esplaiued, jointly with Mr. Locke, in a report 

flying to that of Messrs. Walker and Rastrick, who advocated 

tationary engines. How well he succeeded in carrying out the 

leas of his father was afterwards seen, when he obtained the 

^^riee of 500?. offered by the dire<!tor8 of the Liverpool and Man- 

itdiester Railway for the best looomorive. He himself gave the 

Mtire credit of the invention to his father and Mr. Rooth, al- 

ttoogh it is believed that the Rocket, which was the desig- 

UtJon of the prize-winning engine, was entered in the name of 

Lobert Stephenson. Eveu this locomotive, however, was far 

im perfect ; and was not destined to be the future model. 

^e young engineer saw where the machine was defective ; and 

^ned the Planet, which, with its multitubular boiler, with 

ylinders in the smoke-box, with its cranked axletree, and 

irith its external framework, forms, in spite of some modifico- 

itions, the type of the locomotive engines employed up to the 

.^«Bent day. About the saiue time Jie designed for the United 

Btates an engine specially adapted to the curves of American 

L-nilnays, and named it the Bogu, after a kind of low wagon 

Uflsed on the quay at Newcastle. To Robert Stephenson we are 

Efcecordingly indebted for the type of the locomotive eugines 

" led in toth hemispheres. 

The next great work upon which Mr. Stephenson was en- 
j iged was the survey and construction oi t\\<i 'Loni'jcv. ■wA'^a- 
ninghaai RaiJivay, which he undertook in \&?.'i,\is.-*"mt-'' 


803 Robert Slephenson't 

been employed in the execution of a, braach from the Live 
and Manchester lUulway, and in the construction of the Leioe»- 
ter and Swannington line. The Londou uud Birmingham line 
IS completed iu four year?, and on the Idth of September 1838 ^ 
■a opeued. The difficulties of thia vast undertaking v/erevtrj [ 
fonnidable. In foruiiDg the Kilsby Tunuel, it was ascerC^nei 
that about 2(KJ yards from the south end there existed, overlaid 
by a bed of day forty feet thick, a hidden quicksand. 'Ihewn- | 
ttactor for the works is said to have died of fright in cooee- ' 
oaence of this discovery; and the dariger was so imminent, that ', 
Uke tunnel would have beeu abandoned altogether but for thi 
Undholders in the vicinity of the line. Under these circum- 
stances, Robert Stephenson accepted the responsibility of pio- j 
oeeding ; and in the end conquered every difficulty. He woited 
with amaiing energy, walking the whole distance between 
London aud Birmingham more than twenty times in the oourw 
of his superiuteudence. Meanwhile, be had not erased to de- [ 
vote hia attention to the manufactory in Newcastle, convineei ' 
that good locomotives are the first step to rapid trausit. Sis i 
evidence before parliamentary committees was grasped at ; and I 
it may be said that, iu one way or another, be became engaged ) 
on all the railways in England; while, in conjunction inth 
his father, he directed the execution of more than u tlurdof 
the Tarious lines in the country. Father aud son were con- 
sulted as to the Belgian system of railways, and obtained from 
King Leopold the Cross of the Order of Leopold in 1844. Fol '| 
similar services performed in Norway, which he visited in 1646, t 
Bohert Stephenson received the Qraud Cross of St. Olof. 8o 
also he assisted cither in actually making or in laying out the I 
systems of lines in Switzerland, in Oermuny, in Deuinark, ia ^ 
Tuscany, in Canada, io Egypt, and in India. As the champion 
of locomotive in opposition to stationary engines, he resistedto 
the utmost the atmospheric railway system, which was backed J 
with the authority of Bruuel, but ia now nearly forgotten. In I 
like manner, he bad to fight with Mr. Brunei the battle of the I 
gauges, the narrow gainst the broad gauge ; and he was sat- I 
ceeafiil also here. ' 

It is, however, in the Bridges which Robert Stephensofr | 
erected for railway purposes that his genius as an engineer i I 
most strikingly displayecT; and by these he will he beat remem- 
bered. Of Ms bridges, we refer to the high-ievei one at New- I 
oaatle, constructed of wood and irou ; to the Ylctoria Bridge at , 
k Berwick, built of stouo and brick ; to the bridge iu wrou^t 
— ^ - * * n across the Nile ; to the Conway aud the BritSO- 
over the MeoaiSitayA-, Mid to the Victoria Bridfi 
foyer the°St. Lavrrence. 'E\\e "a\?^-\*NA.^<\&.^fc,\a-«- • ' ^ 
a and or^nat3¥rLn.c\^\eao'ii>-'ivi>i'i'iV\aL-)0 

f Railway Tubular Bridges. 303 

billed in one structure, serves a twofold object,— a bridge to 
accommodate Newcastle and Gateshead at the same time that 
it carries the railway-liues above. 

Tha idea of tbe Tiibuliu- Bridge wiis an utter novelty, and bh carried \ 
but waa n grand acUBvement. When, in 1844, Mr. Kobart atepbsnsott ■ 
nndertook to conBtruct a railway between Cheater and Holjhead, it WMrfl 
OBOesaary to cross the Monal Straits Irom the mainland to Uolvhead at A 
■DoK a jieight as to allow ifteaX ehipa to jjseb beneath it. Iha Com-'l 
miaaionera of the Admiralty would not consent to cast-iron arches^ aad' M 
tihe principle o£ a suspension-bridgo wbj inadmissible. Mr. ^tephenooii'l 
t(ien proposed to span the strait hy a tunnel of wrought-iron, atretcbingj 
jtoia Mde to side, and allowing; a paaBag:e for trains through its interior" 
The questiooB then Hrose,— should the tubular bridge be supported (n 
duumi, or left to itself ? what should b» the fortti of the tube- elliptiCBl,fl 
(aroular, or reotangiilarf where was the moat strength required ! whtUi 

l^Hstf and how could the greatoat stren^h be secured with the Iww 

axpenditure of DiateHals? These points were determined by carefol'B 
miporiments by Mr. Stephenson, assisted by Mr. Fairbium, the eminB^fl 
. angineer ; and the result was, it was soriouslv proposed to build on inrnW 
box, 160 teat long, 30 feet high, and I* feet broad, on the banks of tliV-B 
'Henaj Straila; to float this mass of J 450 tone at high-water to opaiv' 
' 3np in piers prepared for its reception ; to lift it upwards of 100 feal^ 

' aod biiild solid masonry underneath for its support; to re* 

OtmoBt height on oast-iron rollers, which would allow it to B 
oontract as the sun rose and set, or aa summer advanced and waned; 

a hundred tons. Experiments made Mr. Fnirbaim confident 

. .......,..._ ._.^ . -sown weight: 

e truth ofl 
opinion. Lihains were ax unneoeasary to aupiwrt this bridgi .. . 

mediate piers, even if the latter eould have beeu built. Its strength lit J 
doriTed from a different source from eithar. ITie roof consists of ii " 
platfomis, 1 foot 9 inuhes apart, and 14 feet broad ; this space " . _^ 

nrto eight equal parts by parlitiona running from end to end of tb^l 
bridge ; and the cells thus formed keep the tube from giving waytffm. 
oainpression in the top, where the material is most liable to be injured^fl 
Two of these stujindous bridges were constructed for the ChestorS 
«nd Holyhead line. The first was built on the banks of the Conway rivUfM 
in 1848, and non spans that stream not for from the suspeniioQ-oridgftW 
areoted by Telford on the Holy head-road about twenty years ea " 
, Two tubes of 400 feet span were required, one for each lino of 
A train of wagons, weighing altogether 301 tons, was placed iL . 
middle of one of them; and the defleotion in the centra amounted 
11 inches- The roUers on which the bridge rests allow th< 
UpaJid or contract with l^e over-varying temperature of the day 

The Britannia Bridge over the Menai Struts (at about a mile dlai 
from Telford's suspension-bridge) was finished a year after, ar"" " "" 
T^sJ^led as the greatesL triumph of engineering skill that 1 

172 feet in length, stretch f^om it to smaller towers on the banks. 
Other four tubes, of 200 feet each, carry the railway to the hieb grounds 
Oil the east and west sides of the Strails. This mognificea^W^^oiiut 
Bfce culminating point of nulway entorprisB and ea^^i.iiea'nu^ -, t>ud.\i£4l 

iridge giving way under its 

304 The Britannia Bridge, 

II OOTitorv msy eUpsB bafbre neoewity protliiooe ita : 
M.A.; 'EdiiiiHrgi JC'Higi, 1856. 

The coastruction of this bridge was a vast Iftbour. 
raidw&y support was limited to a. small artia of the central twki | 
Bcaffcilding Wow was impracticable, and the navigation oil 
under no circumstances to be interfered with. To meet theu 
requirements, the tubes were constructed upon the bcacb, ud ' 
floated upou rapid tides; and although weighing nearlj VXt) 
tons each, were ultimately lifted by Tast hydraulic presses into 
their plaoe, to bear Mr. Stepheuson'a uaine with bouour Id 
posterity. Each of the tubes has been compared to a row of 
chimneylesj houses, aud, allowing it to bave skylights in thi 
roof, it would resemble the BurliugtoD Arcade la Piccadilly; 
and the labour of placing each tube upon the piers has b««ii 
likened to that of raising Surlington Arcade to the summit of 
the spire of St. James's Church, if surrounded with water. Ons 
of the tubes, ifpbcedon its end in St. Paul's C!iuri;hyard,woiiU 
reach 107 feet higher than the cross of the cathedral. Tbe i 
masonry is cyclopean. Mr. Stephenson tells its that no less UiU , 
a million and a half of cubic feet, of which the piers and abot' 
ments are composed, were construoted within three years ; anl I 
three cubic feet were accomplished per miaute from the com- 
menceuent. ' 

IokbJ lioQB couchant oa psdeatals, dealgnsd by Mr. John T 
each oorapoSBd of aleveQ pieces of limeatoae : thay are BBch 
foot long, twelve foot high, i\nd weigh about thirty tonH ; 
theae lions was bntiigbt from a irorluhnp at tba baas of tlie -^ 
ralaeit 100 feet, aud put together complete on the pedeatol. io 

The Britannia Tower is 221 feet 3 inches bigb ; it contaiue 1Eil.lR 
oublo feat of Andeaea Umestana, 127,0U1 ciibia feet of Buncum md- 
stone, null 6S,411 cubic feet of brickwork. In all weighing; S^.TOOtaM 
Includio; the bod-pUtes, it cnntnina also 479 tons of caaL-iron, and At 
wsight from tha two tubas in *0O0 touB. The total weight at (be roM- 
datfona is thus 29,600 tons, or 16 tone per auperfiaial fopl ofsectioBil 
area ; whereas the weight required to oruah the lower couraea would la 
about 600 lona par superflolal foot. 

The security which Mr. Stephenson deemed it necessairtc 
ensure for the public in this wonderful structure may be ifliU- 
tmted by the following very estroordinary fact. It had ben 
mathematioally demonstrated as well ns practically proved bj 
Mr. Pairbairu, tliat the strain which would be inflicted on tin 
iron work of the longest of Mr. Stephenson's aerial galleries, to 
I a monster railway-train sufficient to cover it from end to eud, 
would amount to aix. Itroa ■?ct w\MB.tft 'va<ii,ii(\vcb 
equal to the coaataut aUesBU'goo.lSift iiQ3iB*«ft'"-'- 

■itvvcb ia euflif I 

^^F Victoria Bridge, Canada. £ 

idge when it has nothing to mipport hut its ovra a,ppa,rei 
inder weight. 

The two tul)ular hridgea constructed hy Mr. Stepheusoa 
e Bgyptian railway are — one over the Bamietta brauch of ,^ 
le, and the other over the large canal near Beaket-al-Sab»H 
aj have this peculiarity, that the trains run, not, aa at t1 
Biiai StraitB, within the tube, but at the outside, upon the ' 
Althoui;h the Britaania Bridge represented the most ac 
to distribution of material which could be devised at 
te of its cooBtruction, it has since been improved upon 
t same engineer m the Victoria Bridge now in the coursi 
ion acroBB the river St. Lawrence, near Montreal. '. 
ia Bridge is, without exception, for gigantic proporti 
VMt length and atrength, the greateat work of the kind 
ieut or modem times. The eutire bridge, with its a^ 
lohes, is only siiity yards short of two miles ; it is fim 
efl longer than the Britannia Bridge, and has twenty-four 
BB of S4'2 feet each, and one great centra! span— itself an 
uense bridge — of 330 feet. The road ia carried within iron 
W, sixty feet above the level of the St. I^wrence, which 
6 beneath at a speed of about ten miles an hour, and in 
iter brings dowu the ioe of2(HX) miles of lakes and upper 
i^m- The weight of iroo in the tubes will be upwaroe of 
,000 tons, supported on massive stone piers. This gigantio 
irk ia upon the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, winch wilLi 
upwards of 1100 miles in length. 
Mr. Stephenson's labours were not confined to the consti 

and survey of railways. He made elaborate reports 

1 London and Liverpool system of Waterworks; he oon^ 
nbly aided with his oounsel and experience his friend Sir 
wp^ Paston in his design for the Great Exhibition Building 

Hyde Park; and he was a member of the Royal Commis- 
n. In 1847, Mr. Stephenson was returned to Parliament for 
\\i^, in the Conservative interest, which he contioued to 
ireeent until his death. His opinion upon scientific sub- 
ts waa often sought by the House ; this he gave impartially 
d with the modesty of true genius, and lits information 
B exact. He took great interest in all scieutiHa iuvestiga- 
DB. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and of other 
Bntific institutions. 

In 1856, when Mr. Piazzi Smyth was sent ont, with veiy 
dted means, on an astronomical expedition to Teneriffe, Mr. 
iphenson, with a liberality and zeal for research worthy of 
I name he bore, placed at Mr. Smyth's disposal, for as long a 
le BB the object he had in view rni^Vvt, twpac, 'va?, -j-s^*. 
I, a fiaeiy-moulded vessel ot the aew ii?rqq\, iA\^^'' '^»''i: 
and jjiaoued with a picked ciev) oiaxteeavif^.a'i^s'** 


The CivU Eftgineer. 

■ obserrcr went out uid returned in thia vessel, Mr. 8ifr | 

ptiGii>!on must hare abandoned its use for the whole »i 
nnd uutuiun ; or rather, asw« have no doubt, be felt glad U ik 
find thkt an oppurtunit]' hnd occurred for enabling him U \ .^ 
employ it bo well.* I j. 

In the same spirit, in 1855, he paid off a large debt whid I ,- 
the Newcagtlt Literarj and PhiloBopnical Society had incnrredi 1 g 
his motive being, to use hia own phroHe, gratitude for the bene- t 
fits which he biaiGelf had received ^m it iu early life, and i i, 
hope that other young men might find it equally useful And L 
in 18S6, he had taken down the cottage in which be wuboai L 
at Wiltiugtou, and erected upon ita site a group of Bchoolsiof L 
girls, boys, and lufiitttB, a mechanica' institute, &c., at thsNd L 
of two thousand pounds. [ ^ 

Ab b. member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Mr. file- 
pheusou'e tervicea were of the liigheat value ; never had tb* ^ 
council a more efficient con/rirt. As President in 1855-6, bi { ^ 
pre«?ntcd an address, in which he applied himaelf with sttik-. ^ ^ 
ing ability to the great queation of British railwiiys. The datt >;, 
of this address are very important. H 

" Purliamentary legislatinii for milwaya." said tbo Prcaidanl, "H | (s 
full uf inooDgruitieB and HbeurditisB, Tlie Acta of pAriinmant wbidi 'i), 
rwiwnvB have besn forced to obtain oost the ooimtry 14,OOO,0O0t ilo- I r, 
line, tie oxolueive funds of Parliacoant, and of the Byateni it enfonJel I " 
Tho legialation of Parliament tna niadB railways pay 70,000,000/. rf ]* 
moDay to landownem (or land and property; ^t almost every ntalt Ju 
travenod by a railway ha* greatly improrad in value." )\ 

Befarring; to the benefits derived iTom the Inatitution, Mr.St^Wi- U 
BOD obaerved, that " It ia the arena wherein have been oihilHUd liMt | , 
int«lligoDCe and familiar knowledge of abetruot and prnctical edeiuiL | ., 
oha™«ori«ing the MperB and diacuasioEB. In oquspquenoe oftheoM- •' 
atant interoonrae within ita waUa, profesaional rivalry and oompBtMa 
are now condaoted witb feelings of mutual forbearance and moimiaSoB^ 
and the cSbrlB of theincmberaare oil directed in Uie path ofentopiiM 
and towardii the fair reward of Huccessful akilL Tbo buainese oftl* 
ciril engineer, t^m a craft, has beoomc a profeaBion ; and, by umca 
and prafeaBional iiprightaefiB, a great Geld la opODsd to energy aid 

In conclu^OD, Mr. Stephenson urged the duty devolvingott 
dvil engineers of improvmg and perfecting the vast roilwa}- 
system, with which his tiune, in consequence of bis lath^l 
worka, had been largely afaociated. 

In the autumn of IS.'i9, two months before he bad reached 
his fifty-sixth year, Mr. Stephenson was atruck down by deathi 
in the maturity uf his intellectual powers. His health is stated' 
Lto have been impaired by the fetigues of hia great work, ths 
■**ritannia Kridge. He complained of fiiilinr strength just btfiH* 
'"'' — ' Tournej to Norway. In Norway he bee -^ "" 

Death of Robert Stephenson. 307 

; his Htct was bo much affected that he hurried home ; and 
n he arrived at Lowestoft, he was so weak that he had to be 
tied from Iiis ynclit to the railway, and thence to his real- 
X in London, where his maladj increased so rapidlj as to 

3 from the first but feint hopes of hia recovery. He had 

IKit strength enough to resist the disease, and he gradually sank 
nntil at length he expired, on October 12. He was interred in 
Westminster Abbey, on Ootoher 21, in the nave, nest to Tel- 
ford, the celebrated engineer of hie day. Men of kindred ge- 
nius and engaged in kindred enterprises, they lie at last side | 
"by side. Stephenson was wont to say that, had Telford been i 
Ituried in some quiet country churchyard, he should have I 
-wished his remains to be interred along with him there ; 1 ' 
Btuce he lay in Westminster Abbey, that was an idle wish. 

Mr. Stephenson's remaiua were followed to the grave by hia 
fanmediate relatives and friends ; but the presence also of 
Bearlj two thousand persons at the interment gave the cere- 
mony more of the character of a public than a private funeral. 
Among the spectators was a working man from the South- 
BBStemRnilway, who many yearsago drove the firat locomotive 1 
engine, called "the Harvey Combe," that ran from Londoa i 
to Birmingham, Robert Stephenson standing at hia elbow all 
the way. Westminster Abbey, as a place of sepulture, is com- 
monly thought to have been reserved for sovereigns, warriorg, 
)uid statesmen ; but it must be remembered that here also rest 
many of our poets and men of art and letters. The profession 
of an engineer almost belongs to our age ; and Robert Stephen- 
eon, though neither warrior nor statesman, was not the less, 
if indeed not the more, a pubhc bonefiictor in his many gigantio 
works. He was as good as he was great, and the man was 
even more to be admired than the engineer. His benevolence 
vae unbounded, and every year he expended thousands in doing 
food unseen. Hie chief care in this way was for the chUdren 
of old friends who had been kind to bim iu early life, sending 
them to (he best schools, and providing for them with charao- ' 
teristio generosity. His own pupils r^arded him with a sort 
of worship; andthe number of men belonging to the Stephenson 
school who have taken very high rank in their peouUar walk 
diows how successful he was in bis system of training, and how 
■trong was the force of his example. Mr. Stephenson be- 
queathed by his will a large sum to various public institutions, 
located chiefly in NewcasUe-upon-Tyne, in the vicinity of which 
ke was boru, and with which his life was so closely identified. 
To conclude. Neither the originator of the Railway System, 
-SOT bis sou and coadjutor, were. In their day, honoured with 
l^lj national distinction iu their o"wn coimtrj ■, \yi\. ^^lea tsir.- 
^Eary will livu furages iu the heaita oS a gnvtc^xii. ^y^ft. I 


IbakbaboKirqikiii Bkqkel, the only erm of Sir Isambtird Muk 

BruDel (of whom set sketch, pp. 285-289), was Viom at Poi*- I 

month in It^m. He was eduiMted at the College Hecri QuM | 

nt Citen. Ae Nunnatidy wnx the birthplace of both his parsnip ) t 

hia mother being a Mibb Kingdom of Rouen, this choice of » if 

bohool is eaaily explained. He was, as it were, boro nn engioMr, • 

about the time his fatber had completed the Block Machiaa^tt 1 1 

Portsmouth. Those who recollect him an n boy, remember tdi ' i 

well how rapidly, almoBt intuitively, indeed, he entered intoaod li 

idtmtilied hiniself with all his Other's plans and pursuits. Ba i 

was very early distinguished for his powers of mental talouh- ,' \i 

tioti, and for his rapidity and accuracy as a draughtsman. Hii | it 

power ill this respect was not cotifiued to profeasioual or me- ] u 
chanical drawings only ; he displayed an artist-like feeling fit 

and a love of art, which in later days never deserted him. I r 

The bent of hie mind when young was clearly seen by Mi I n 

fiither and by all who knew him. His education was tb<v«folC I 

directed to qualify him for that profession in which he aftW- lo 

wards distinguished himself. When he was about fourteen, hs . k 

was sent to Paris; where hewsisplaced under the care of M.Hi*' U 

sou, previous to entering the college of Henri Quatre at Cuk) [ t 

where he remained two years. He then returned to KnglanA, ( 

and commenced his professioiial career as his father's assisttft I li 

in the Thames-Tunnel works. There are many of his fellow- | k 

labourers now living who well remember the energy and abiliff I ' 

he displayed in that great scientilic stnaggle ng&inst phyiilW ) I 

difficulties and ubEtncles of no ordinarymagnitude; anditnv A 

be said, that at this time the anxiety and fatigue he uiidenNM, I ) 

and an accident he met witb, laid the foundation of futvn r < 

weakness and illness. In one of the irruptions, the rush of tht I • 

water carried him up the shaft.* j t 

Upon this and a similarly trying occasion, he showed tW i 

his profession which characteriflcd him to his djis i 

'-■-'■ ■ ' »wS 1 

Being an expert swimmer, he is known to have 
of several of the worlcmen at the risk of his 

-Twiiiel tam5<to™, \» wHiwA ix.-s»«4^. 

Ins-Bell. < 

■ Brunei's Railway Works. 309 

«ye-witne88 describes, while the laara ran down his cbeefcd, 
how the joung man, still suffering from exposure and fatigue, 
paid a visit to the works during the mou's dinner-hour. As 
eoon as he appeared, they welcuraed him with a hearty and 
respectful cheer. They crowded round him, steru, rugged 
Hien weeping like children, as they affectionately grasped his 
haud. While the wives of the men he had saved fell on their 
knees before him, imploring blessings upon him ; others cut 
little pieces from his coat, which they long treasured aa relics.'* 

Brunei diBolayed very early the resources, not only of a 
trained and educated mind, but great, original, and inveutive 
power. He possessed the advantage of being able to express or 
draw clearly and accurately whatever he had matured in hie 
own mind. But not only that; he could work out with hia 
own hands, if he pleased, the models of his own dea^na, 
whether in wood or iron. As & mere workmau he would have 
excelled. Even at this early period, Steam Navigation may be 
aid to have occupied his muid; for he made the model of ft 
boat, and worked it with locomotive contrimnces of bis own. 
Bveiy thing he did, he did with all bis might and strength, and 
he did it well : the same enetigy, thoughlfuhiess, and aoouraoj', 
die same thorough couception and mastery of whatever he 
undertook, distinguished him in all miuor things. 

Upon the stoppage of the Thames-Tunnel works by the 
iiTuption of the river, Mr. Brunei became employed on hb 
own accouut upon various works. Docks at Sunderland and 
Briatol were constructed by him; and when it was proposed 
to throw a suspension-bridge across the Avon at Clifton, hia 
design and plan was approved by Mr. Telford. This work was 
never completed: he thus became known, however, in Briatol; 
md when a railway was in contemplation between London 
and Bristol, and a company formed, Brunei was appointed 
their engineer. His earliest works were on the Bristol and 
Qloucestershire and the Merthyt- and Cardiff tramways, in 
which works his miud was first turned to the construction of 
ailways; and when he became engineer of the Great Western 
ftailway Company, he recommended and introduced what ia 
popularly called the Broad Gauge. Considering this line as an 
engineering work alone, it may challenge oomparison with any 
other railway in the world for the speed and ease of travelling 
Upon it ; although the Narrow Gauge is more economical in 
working. Among the Great Western structures are the via- 
dact at EanwelT; the Maidenhead Bridge, which has the 
flattest arch of such large dimensions ever attempted in briok- 
jwork : the Bos Tunnel, whiah, at the date of its construction, 
■ 'j-the world; and tixe bnigsa mA Vassofiia 
•.i[kuJuiituti.l,lBa9. J 


310 Iron Shipbuildiag, 

betweeu Bath aud Bristol, — all raore or less remarknble . 
original works. To these may be added the eea-ivall of thi 
South Devon Railway; and, above all, the tubular ' " 
over the Tamar, together urith the similar bridge o' 
Wye at Chepstow.* On the South Devon Railway, 
adopted the plan which had been previously tried 
London and Croydou line, viz. of propelling the carriages tff 
atmospheric pressure. The plan &iled; hut he eut«rt^iiH 
a strong opinion that this power would be found hereafltt 
capable of adoption for locomotive purposes. It was in eoD- 
nection with the intereats of the Great Western Railway that be 
fitst conceived the idea of building a steamship to run betwMi 
Englaud and America. The Great Weeterji was built accord- 
ingly. The power and tonnage of this vessel was about dooUt 
thut of the largest ship afloat at the time of her construdJDiL 
Subsequently, the Oreat Britain was designed and built oodN 
JSi. Brunei's superintendenoe. Thia ship, the result, as rqjitdi 
magnitude, of a few years' experience in iron shipbuilding, m 
not only mora than double the tonnage of the OreitC Wtktni, 
and by far the largest ship in existence, but she was more thu 
twice as large as the Greal Morlhera, the largest iron sh^ 
which at that time had been attempted. While others hesitated 
abgut estendiug the use of iron in the conati-uctigo of ^pi, 
Mr. Brunei saw that it was the only material in which a Yoy 
great increase of dimensionB could safely be attempted. The 
very accident which befel the Ortat Britnin. upon tlie rooks in 
Bundrum Bay, showed conclusively the skill he h»d then at- 
tained in the adaptation of iron to the purposes of shipbuilding, 
The means taken, under his immediate direction, to protect the 
vessel from the injury of winds and waves, attracted at the 
time much attention ; and they proved successful, forthevesad 
was again floated, and is still afloat. 

While noticing these great efforts to improve the M* of 
shipbuilding at this date, it must not be forgotten that Mr^ 
Brunei was the first man of eminence in his profession who 
perceived the capabilities of the screw as a propeller. From fall 
experiments on a small aoale in t^ie Arehimedei, he sawliiswM 
clearly to the introduction of that method of propuls'on wluts 
he afterwards adoptedinthe brtat BnUtTi. He next subouttsd 

• Tbese bridgea are npoB ngmDnnRiedtsarH Bnme n bo dn asuidiUO. 

The " Great Eastern." ^^^^^ 

;'to the Admiraltj ; ajid Buoceedcd in persuading the Board to 
ve it a trial in lier Majesty's niiTj, under liia direction. In 
) progress of this trial Brunei was much thwarted ; but the 
Uler, the ship which was at length placed at his disposal, 
1 fitted witli engines and screw by Messrs. Maiidslay and 
ield, gave results which justified his eKpectations under aoine- 
hat adverse circumstances. She was the first screw ship which 
e British navy possessed ; and her satisfactorj performanceB 
I to numerous others being added. 

The Bute Docks at Cardiff, and the North Dock at Sunder- 
hd, were Brunei's work; as was also the elegant Hungerford 
ispension-hridge across the Thames. To his care, in 1S50, was 
itnuted the Tuscan portion of the Sardinian railway. During 
U Russian war he was called upon to fit up the Renikoi hoB- 
LtcJs on the Dardaueliea : he laid ou a speoial supply of water 
bm the adjaeent hills, and constructed short lines of railway 
bh easy carriages, to iacilitate the removal of the wounded 
'' ' nding-pjace to the different wards. 

' approach Mr. Brunei's most stupendous work ; and 
tai:jh, without querulous remark, must be considered to have 
Ktitenad his valuable life. Prepared by experience and much 
MdosI devotion to the subject of Steam Navigation by means 
Xlism ships, he, in the latter part of 1831, began to work out 
Widea he had long entertained — that to make long voya^B 
KHiomioally and speedily by steam, required that the veaaete 
lundd be large enough to carry the coal for the entire voyage 
^^twards, and, unless the facilities for obtaining coal were 
py great at the outport, for the return voyage also ; and that 
«el3 much larger than any then built could be navigated 
Kth great advantagea from the mere effects of size. Hence 
triginated the Great Ea^em. 

1 ship of a mpHoity sis or eicht times tbat of any 
hing- afloat, had doubtless oocurrecl to maJiy an ecthusiaaUo Bchemer, 

faanutec iiu^itanatian is aa oieoieat. But Mr. Brunei gave shape ta his 
Jea by propariiijj pluns and otherwise oonvinoinghiinaelf of iUpraoH- 

' ionably iha work of Mr. Scott Rnssell, every way ns much to OB 
-"- " • "■ ■ ■ " ■"■■■■■ orfcsofMi "-■' 

. . the Cheat Weilern and Orial Britain the worfcs of . . . 
BrirtwL Yat Mr. BruQel's servioes were of hardly lana importanoa , 
j1 every one at all canvereant with the organisatJoD of an oHtabliBh- 
BDt devotad to the construction of Bteam-Tesaels, ia anare that the 
B ot the naval architaat and builder, and those of the onginaer, are 
nlearly defined and in no way confUcting. Oartain it is littt, 
" " ■ " ■ ioBBafnl or otherwiae, Mr. Brunera J 

li her history at long as that shaB ^ 
■Jin.— The Enpinenr, No. 195. ^ 

Tfie success o/ this great work, in a praiAKisi'^'vtt^ 'i^'*^'^'''' 
admictod, as n-ell as the streugtli aii4 a'uOoVii.l-^ ollk*: -ys^- 


mSr Death of I. K. Brunei. 

stniction ot the vesgel The diffimiltieB attendant 
lauiicliiug otlhe ship, in 1858, at oue tiine Beemed iaeurmoont- 
nlile. To a frieod, who deapondinglj espresBcd his feare tbal 
the bilge ship would never reach the water, Brunei qoietlj 
replied : " Oh, she shall move — ahe must I" He never for i 
moment despaired nf euccess. Hb health, however, had beta 
uudertiiiued bj these great exertions ; and his death vm 
haatenod hy the fatigue and mental Etrain caused by hia effoiv 
to Kuperiuteud the completion of the great ship. We mnH 
not forbear to mentioD that for several years past Mr. Bnud 
had been suffering from ill-health, brought an by over-exfl- 
tion- Neverthele^, he allowed himself no relaxation from Ui 
professionnl Inbours; and it waa during; the period of bod^ 
pMU and weakness that bis greatest difficulties were suraaounsl 
and some of bis greatest works achieved. 

By liis de&th, one more name has been added to the Usrf 
those who have been atrii^en down when their hopes wM 
highest and victory within thnr giasp. By a coinadeuo^ 
il would appear, Mr. Bnmel went on tnard the gnu dii^b 
the laA lime on the first day wboi it could be aid she ■■ 
rtaAy far sea. If not so in croj detail, dM «»&, aa k wUH 
essmtUlly completed, altboa^ etiU mrtricd. Os tfa»t te 
te dth of September, Mr. finrad sifind >■ attack of puiy- 
ri^ frCHD which b« never reeoMnd. He i^A wndl tbe e«V 
" lalfllh 


3 were needed to show by what elow and gradiuil I 
19 the Rerms of great discoTeries have been reared throngh ' 
^g lapse of years iuto full development, it might be fouttd 
"w progress of Photography; since it hag been the work o( ( 
a oenturj of Freoah, English, and Oerman researches, to 
__ jst, apply, and finally develop the existence of the photo- I 
Iraphic element. The whole art, in all its varieties, rests upon J 
he fact of the blackening effects of light upon certain Hub> j 
tanoes, and ohiefl; upon silver, on which it acts with a de- 
oniponng power. The silver being dissolved iu a strong acid, 
ur£kces steeped in the solution become encrusted with minute I 
articles of the metal, which in this state are darkened with f 
□creased rapidity. These &Gta were first ascertained and r 
orded, as rugards silver combined with chlorine, in 1777, by I 
loheele, a native of Pomerania; arid in 1801, iu couuectioii I 
rith nitrate of silver, by Rilter of Jena, Here, therefore, were I 
he raw materials for the unknown art, A very short time j 
iter Hitter's results, Dr. WoUastou made the same esperi* 
lenta, without having been informed what had been done on 
he Continent. This coincidence was, however, succeeded bj 
he contemporary labours of three eminent experimenters. la 
onjuDCtion with Mr. Thomas Wedgwood (the brother of Jo- 
l«h). Sir Humphry Davy, before June 1M112, succeeded by means 
f a camera obscura in obtaining images upon paper, or white 
Hither, prepared with nitrate of silver, by placing it behind a 
ainting ou glass exposed to the solar light ; when the rays 
nuismitted through the differently paint^ surfaces produced 
iatiuct tints of brown and black, diSeritiu; in intensity ao- 
ordiug to the shades of the picture; and where the light waa 
naitered, the colour became deepest. Thus was the first stain 
esignedly traced upon the prepared substance. Mr. Wedg- 
'ood, by this method, took prohles or shadows of figures, and 
elineated the woody fibres of leaves, the delicate patterns of 
Lce, and the beautiful winp of insects. But the charm, once 
)t going, refused to stop ; the eJiglilwt ex^iwsn* Xji \i^^*. 
Hitinued the notion, and the imAga ma \i%\> ui. 'i^ ^ax!&.- 


3 not I ■ 

314j Photographj : Niepce'n Experimenlt, 

ening of the whole paper. In ahoi't, there was wanted the 
secret of Jijiing the images. The process BeeniB, therefore, ' 
excited very "little notice, and the experiment was lefl 
taken up by others; Sir Humphry Davy prophetically obsew- 
ing ! " Nothing but a method of preventing the unshaded pstt 
01 the delineation from being coloured by the exposure to till 
day ia wanted to render this process as useful sks it is elegsnt' 

The third worker, then in the field, was Dr. Thomas Yovb^ 
In 1803, when Mr. Wedgwood was " making profiles by tM 
agency of light," and Sir Humphry Davy was " copying n 
prepared paper the images of small objeota product by meau 
of the eola,r microscope," Dr. Young was taking photography 
Upon paper dipped in a soLutioa of nitrate of silver, of the ct- 
loured rings observed by Hewton ; and his experiment clea^ 
proved that the a^^nt was not the luminous rays iii the Eim> 
lighl, but the invisible or chemical rays beyond the videt 
This result is described in the Bakerian Lecture for 1803. I 

Meanwhile, in 1S03, Dr. Wollaston proved the audon of 
light upon gum giiiucum; and in due time another experimenMi 
entered the hold, who availed himself of this olass of materak 
M. Nicephorus Niepce, a French gentleman of private fortnnei 
who lived at Clialons-sur-Saone, and pursued chemistry for his 
pleasure, — probably unacquainted with the labours of Davy (od 
Wedgwood, — like them, made use of the camera to cast hii 
images; hut the substance on which he received them wu i 
polished plate of pewter, coated with a thin bituminous nit- 
mce. He gained the important step of rendering his imagtt 
permanent, which he was ten years in attaining, frora 1814 to 
1824. His pictures, on i-ssuing from the camem, were invisiUit , 
to the eye, and only disengaged by the application of a solvent, 
which removed those shaded parts uuhardened by the action a 
the light. Nor did they present the usual reversal of the posi- 
tion of hght and shade known as a lugalive appearance ; tnU, 
whether taken from nature or from an engraving, were ideo' 
tica] in efiect, or what is called positive. Nevertheless, Niepoc'l 
process was difficult, capricious, and tedious; and he nefa 
obtained an image from nature in less than from seven to i 
twelve horn's, so that the changes in lights and shadows necM- 1 
Barily rendered it imperfect. He therefore devoted his dil- ' 
eovery mostly to copying engravings ; and converted his pbtoi 
by means of an acid, into a surfece for ordinary printing, tt < 
impressions still show. 

Miepce seems to have obtained no definite results; butfOK- 
seeing the value of his art, he went to England in 1827, uid 
settled at Kew, Tie toei ire-w w-^^ioOTt ■TOs;tn'3™i,iNhtohIa 
forwarded, with BpecunenB,tQ tfte Vsq^!. ol-^f^ftX;^ 
at tie doae of the jeat Sift^w; 6u\,m-A\«^ '«' -.V^.-e^.^-^M 

1827, Uii j 
"Nhtohto. A 
■ ^-vStS 

The Daguerrtutype. 


[letal, of l^^l 
II g their ^^| 
et. M.. ^H 
illed br'-^H 

M. Da-^H 
lalogouH ^^\^ 


n hia esperimenta, with several eketches oa metal, of' 

nmuiiication the Society took no notice, it heiiig their 

B not to entertain a discover; which involved a secret. M-. 

ipce, therefore, returned to his own country, so chilled b^' 

_M Knglish indifiereuce, that, butfaran accidental circumatanoc^. 

hft would not have proceeded further. However, an opticiaa 

BkVing iudiecreetlj revealed to Kiepoe the secret that M. Da- 

* the dioramic artist, was pursuing reaearches analogous 

t Paris, they entered into a copartuership in 1829. 

E. Niepce died in 1833, witliout having coutributed any fur- 

sriiuproveraent to the now common stock ; and M. Daguerre, 

iug into partnership Niepce's son, Isidore, discovered an 

BHiallynew process, which was named after its inventor, tha_ 

mariotffpe. By discarding the use of the bituminous ta^' 

1, and substituting a highly-polished plate of silver, he fii 

jiled himself of that great agent in photographic sde 

B action of iodine, by means of which he so increased 

^itiTeniisB of his plate as to produce the image 

IjUteB than it liad previously taken hours. At the 

i, the invisible picture was brought to Ught by the i 

' rcury; after which a strong solution of common salt it^j 

1 those portions of the surface which would otherwiss: 

e continued to darken, and would have rendered the 

<n permanent. 

Bin 1839, the Daguerreotype came forth to the world. M^fl 
*A thought how many years of piatient research had been e»' 
ded in arriving at this result. Daguerre and Niepce th^ 
■lied to the French Chambers, stating that they possessed ■ 
ret, which, if protected by patent, would be comparativelj 
t to society A Commission was appointed by the Frenol 
nemment, and the secret itself vras intrusted M Arago, 

eded at once iii executing a beautiful specimen of the arttfl 

SIC The TtUhotype. 

Ue then :iil<lre»ed the Chtunben, urging the immenac adnii- 
tagw wliich iiiieht have been derived, " fur exnnipk, during tla 
Mfiediliou tu Kfrypt, liy means oE reproduction bo esaet and» 
ttpid ; to iM^'S the miUions &nd millions of hieroglyphics wluA 
cntirulj uover the greol monuments at Thebes, Memphis, Ou- 
DM, &c., wutitd require 9wre» of jeara, and legiouB of aiiiiU; 
irhereui, with the Diiguerrfiotj'pe, a single man could siiffioetg 
bring this vast labour to a happy conclusion." M. Biot at tiM 
' ttme liine compared Dikffuerre'e invention to tho retina on th 
, tjv, the cihjeot being represented on one and the other sur&cs 
with slmost equal aueuracy. The result was, that a pension it 
6000 francs (a.'tiW.) was awarded to M. DuKuerre ; and 4O0U 
fiwos (Miil^) to M. Niepce; and M. Arago deolared thd 
'* France hzid adopted the discovery, and that from the fiift 
noineiit ahe had cherished a pride in lil>erH.lly t>egtowii]g its 
gift U (Ac w/ioif world."* Nevertheless, the Dagnerrtotype WW 
pftt«uled in Kngland, which would have been thus resti^ncd 
for eight fesra from the use of this important prooees ; but tkt 
Bpccifiattioii was afterwards fuuud defective, and the patent If 
nlidated. All tliat has siuoe been done for the DaguerrSotflM 
has not been any essential deviation from its process. 

We now tuni to Euglnnd, where the undivided hononrof 
hanng flrat ^uefetiBfully worked out the secret of Photogrqdi; 
belongs to Mr. Fox Talbot, a private gentleman, who, in Ul 
delightful retreat at Lacook Abbey in Wiltshire, pursued die- 
mical researches for his own amusement. He took up Hw 
pwiiid to which Davy and Wudgwood hud made their w^ 
Paper was the medium, which, be made sensible to light jf 
nitrate of silver, aud then fixed the image by common Kit. OA ^ 
first called his process photofjenic drawinff; then ealoltfpe, whW 
his friends changed to Talboti/pe, in imitation of Daeuenvli 
example. Mr. Fox Talbot is stated in the Qaarlerlylievitit, 
No. 202, to have sent his method to the Royal Sodety in tbi 
same montii tliat Dagnerre's discovery was made known (Juk 
183D); hut Sir David Brewster dates Mr. Talbot's comuiuuia- 
tiou six months earlier. 

Aa n naw nrt, which ftsvo omploymont to thouBanda. Mr. TalW ' 
brought il to n high dsgree of porf«allaa. He sxpended large aonnilt 
mouey tti ubtaiiiinK for tho public the (uH beaeSt uf his icTeDtion; ud 

D of his patent he liberally surrendered u fI>o*>- 
nvphia amateun and others nil ihe rights which be poss^seiC mtfc 
the one eicepUoa of taking portrnitfi lor snlo, whioh he had ooiiTejtd 

I, and nhich he i 

them. Aa Mr. Talbot had derived no pecuniary benefit from his patao^ 
he had intended to npp^y for an extonaion of it to the Privj C<niac?l p 
but tho art had been su universally practised, thai uunierans psriM 
lni'pTe««il ndh Ui8 i«at Imporlnnw nf Pholojtraphjr in iDM 

roscrSoCvpa was 
iDavid Bre 

The earliest Daguerreotypes 


iluyfiii the canteat; 
j(ent member of tba 

it of Niepoe and 

; that Daffuerre a patent Ibr the sister art of tlie 
Iso nval Qflted ly au EoKliab jury ; " and," naya 

seoui-B, were wrested from their 
Engl ah juiy, prompted by the 

Next lu Apr 1 lUu J the Rev J B Reade delineated objeoiB, ^ 
t natural history by the ageiKT* of light, from their image* l 
dcea bj the eolar luicroBcope ' 1 

W Oneoftheair 

estattempta n Panswaa (hua desiribfd: "ApnUta 


Dagiierr^otypB was made by its in 
hallBofthehotfil oftheQiiaidO 

vBDtor on Saturday 
■my. M. DoKUerro 


de of uaiiig hia inatriunent to an a 
uty pctsotiB : and in the coiiree of 

ssemblv of about a 
an hour and a few 

a beautiful view of the river, th 

e terrace, and the 


eriea." In 1839. ho-wever, the pro 

ceaa at Faria oocn- 

roe to thirty niinutea, and Oagua 

the i>ublic streets irichout tieing i 

oticeii by the paa- 

disappointment in the early nl 
minded one of Uncle Toby> " be 

■o tn-day and gone 

ly a plate for whioh ten guineas 

were paid diaap- 

[londina number of daya. 

imecjt made in England with the 

DaRnarrfiotype ww 

Bgmtedby M. 

St. Croia, oa Friday, September 

3. 163S, at No. 7 

. .1 of the 

, pathway, sky, &d., resembliag an eiquisite moiraotint. M. St. 
E aubeequem I y removed to the Ai^ll roome, Re^nt-atreet, where 
: . -ggujtg baoame aaoientifio eihibitiou. The dutooveiy 

,expenniental reaulta baoame a ai 
I patented by Mr. Miles Berry, nhi 


-Id the first license to M, Claudet 

WW, a year ; and in twelve ranntba after diaposed of the 

_. to Mr. Board, who, however, did not take a Dnguen'fiotype por- 

ontil after Dr. Draper had sent from Mew York a portrait to ttie 

IT ^ the FhiliiiopAical Magannt, with a paper on the subjeot. 

The Talbotjpe praceaa underwent variouB improvements br ^H 
^Pterschel, Cuiiilell, Bingham, Channin);, Le Gray, MartiD, MOf- ^H 
Bfe tt Stewart, Huut, Fyfe, Purloiig, Blaoquart, Evemrd, Collen,, ^^| 
Jjy m, Woods, Home, Saguer, Flacheroii, and others \ buC ^b^^^| 
■Bbst important iiuprovementa were iua4e\jy ■^\."\\cVit"^'«m^^H 

318 Photographic Processes. ^^^P 

and Mr. Soott Archer, the former Bubstituting albumen, tall i 
the latter collocUon, for paper. The albumeu process can onl| J 
be employed for statues a.nA landscapes, and with ic have been i 
produced larger and more artistic pictures than by any other I 
meaaa. Mr. Archer generously threw bis marvellous improYV- I 
inent opeu to the public. Thu birth and parentage of culIodiaB | 
are both among the recenPwoudera of the age. Gun-cottoD H i 
but a child in the anuaU of chemical science; and coilodioii, 
which is a, solution of this compound in ether and alcohol, it I 
its ofiFspring : its Sist use was in surgery, its second in phoH- \ 
graphy. Collodion may also be prepared from paper, flax, Ifas 
pith of the elder, and many other vegetable substances. Hot 
only does it provide a film of perfect transparency, tenuity, 
and intense adbesivenesB ; not only is it easy of manipulation, 
portable, and preaervable; but it supplies that element ofia- 
pidity which, more than any thing else, baa given the mii*- 
oulous oliaracter to the art. 

The iTuCanlaneous procfis oi iakiiig a picture on collodion is 
half a second has enabled the artist to delintate " a thonnu^ 
fiu« in London with its noon-day crowd." Further than m 
the powers of Phott^raphy can never go : light is nmde H< 
porti'ay with a celerity only second to that with whioh it 
travels ! 

We have not space to do more than state, that Mr- NortouV 
important appUcation of biohromate of potash has led M. £. 
Becquerel to his photographic paper, with iodide of staroh; Vb. 
Hunt to his chromatype ; and the photographic property rf 
this salt is also the foundation of M. Pretsch's photo-galvan- 
ography, and of some attempts at photo-lithography, Mr. T»I- 
bot, in 1641, patented a more sensitive photographic method; 
and subsequently an instantaneous process, photographic en- 
gntvings, and the phoglyphic process. 

Meanwhile, Sir John Hersohel and Mr. Hunt found pre- 
parations of gold, platinum, mercury, iron, copper, tin, niw^ 
manganese, lead, potash, Ac, more or less sensitive, ano 
capable of producing pictures of beauty and distinctive chamo- 
ter ; and paper prepared with the juices of beautiful fioweff 
was put in requisition. 

Photography may he said to have depended for its perfeO- 
tion upon wonders only a little older than itself. Icidme, oB 
which all popular photography resta, was not discovered unii 
1811 ; and broiniue, the only otber equally sensitive substanae, 
not till 1826; andgun-cotton and chloroform only just preceded 
ooUodiou. To these may he added the optical improvemeal* 
purposely contrived, ot aia^^^ei Iot 'Obi sfcTmoe of the ph ' 
graph, besides inunmeniWe oftiwmeiiiMirai-iiAs,. "^Xa- 
of photography, ■w\iei\ ^ept ^■rfec&i S\«;tQsA.,*» — - ss 

AppUcatiom of Photography. 31S 

3 artist, is alao unqueationabty great, thougk Only begiimiiig 1 

be duJy and correctly appreciated,* 1 

Although M. Biot, in 1840, conaidered it as an illusion tol 

photographs to have (Ae colour of the objeata which th^!\ 

il, yet an important advance has been made to thu^ 

t by M. Claudet and Sir John Herschel in copying thfl 

>lonrs of nature. Mr. Hunt "proAioed coloured images, noftfl 

""ely impreBsiona of the raya of the apectrum, but copiee ir 

camera of coloured obiects." But tlie most striking «•! 

3 have been obtained by M- Edmund Becquerel and Mrl 

jice St. Victor: the latter is said to have secured "allthw 

bloura of a picture by preparing a bath composed of thtf/ 

Buto-ohloride of copper." ' 

!Fhe most important application of Photography has ceio4 
duly been to the Stereoscope, not only in reference to art, bnfca 
V the groat purpoaes of education, and to the illustration of- 1 
trke on every branch of knowledge. But perhaps one of th« 1 
wt onriouB applicationa of the art has been to MicroBcopio I 
rtraits, by Mr. Dancer of Mancbeeter. Some of these are m> I 
ftll that ten thoueand could be included in a square inch; aod' I 
i, when magnified, the pictures have all the smoothnesa ai ' 
pur of ordinary piiotographs. 

Xord Brousham otaertes; How vajst lui iraproTement of sooiiJ lift>,I 
howMilltableaD aiiditjoo to our iHrwer of executing; the law, hafibe«& ^ 
optioal discovery, by which wo have made the sun our fellow-woA- ' 
1 1 It would have been deemed a romBnoe had any one foretold, from 
IfTtng the efiect of light in difloolounng certain BubstancaH, Hoclx a 
nunmation aa obtaining the most accursto portraits in a second ; uid 
oonaequent power, not only of preserving- the fentures of those moat 

don of □nmberle^ f randa. and thedefeat of the injored in seeldiiK tJie 
very of their ri^bte. In the aciencOB of astronomy, loology, geolon, 
BMulogy, ethnology, eleotrioitv, and majjuetlHrn, Phot^raphy EaB 
1 advajitag^ously employed. The spots on the sun, the sin^Bdo of the 
.n, tbefurniH of the pWeta, and even gronps of Btars, hnve been dali- 
ited by thgir own light M. de la Eue has obtained pioturee of tha 
m analogous to binocular aiea, which, when aided by the atereoscope, 
ibitheraeiiBolid ^]oi}e. ThomBtAorologiHtregiateraphotoi^phic^y, 
lia Dbsonco, the imlicitiuns of the barometor. thermometer, and hy- 
meter; the vaiH,'!tiniis of the earth's niagnetiam are recorded every 

ere, brought dnWTi into the obeerVB.tary, is mado to eihibit on paper 
number »! its varintlone and the intenaity of its aotion. The ath- 
>^t has boE^n to collect accurate pictures of the difTereni mcaa of 
I. The zoologist baa obtained forma of animal life which the painter 
Eittempted in vain to preaervo. The geologist has obtajned delinea- 
6t pbeDoraena which de^ed the liigheHt efforts of the penciL And 
' ' ' ' I transferred to imporishable tablets those beautiful and 
ofTegetabic lite which wa seek in vnin in the rioheat 
leal oollections.— 5i> David BritosUr ; Sneytlaffodm. Brtjuun-^ta. 

• See /VisSiflj Popaltirfj/ KEplaiNKi, VV-^^*'^^^' ^| 

77t« Stereotcopm. 1 

Within » «CM« of rents from the firat experiioent e^dutwHil 
Vj tliu 8t«n«!ici)pt', it liH8 h««n advanced fniin a rude and in- 
perfect KppantuH tu " «De of the most popul&r imd iutetutiDg 
inatnimniiu wbich Hoioiioe bss pretented to the art«." It k 
employed for reprewiitiug solid figures, by combining in W 
image two plane representations of the object as seen lij'euhi^ 
sepanleW ; or, in other words, two pictures of any ubject, tikii 
(roin different points of view, are e«eu as a aingle picture of 
thai object, having the actual appearance of relief or Bolidi^i 
BenCG the Dane, from two Greek words, signifying .SUi'ij/Mfi 

That we see with two eyea, yet that only a single r«{n- 
■antatiou uf the object is presented to the mind, and thai tfc 
picture of bodies seen by both eyes is formed by th(> unioti «( 
aknniikr pictures fonned by each, must have been very eadj 
observed; and the cause was speculated on by tiie eariidt 
Greek philosophers. Euolid knew these palpable truths molc 
than two tliousand yean ago, sud showed by tnean^ of a sphM 
that each eye seiii a dissimilar representation of DU object. Fin 
oeuturiee later, Galen endeavoured to explain the tnatt^ I7 
Stating that the dissimilar pictures are not seen at the BUM 
instant, but successively; and tlutt these rapidly -succesdHf 
pictures produce on the mind tlie impression which is coiioiuw 
of the object. In looking at the diagram given by Gulen, « 
reoognise at once not only the principle but the coostniomn 
of the Stereoscope.* 

As the vision of the object was obtained by the imionlf 
these diiisimilar pictures, an instrument only was wanted V> 
take such pictures, and another to combine them. " The Bififr 
cular Photographic Camera," says Sir David Brewstor, "wt 
the one, and the Stereoecope the other." 

Baptista Forta repeats the proposition of Euclid on th* 
vision of n sphere with one aud both eyes ; Imt, believbig 
that wo only see with one eye at a timv, he denies the acciU«T 
of Euclid's theorems; and while he admits the correctness u 
Galen's views, he endeavours to explain them upon other piit' 
ciples. The Greek physician, therefore (Galen), and the flO" ■ 

Snlitan philosopher (Porta), who has employed a more distintt J 
iagrani, certainly kuew and adopted the fundamental prinaptl • 
of the Stereoscope ; and nothing (nore wus required for prodo^ 
ing pictures ill full relief than a simple instrument for luulilV 
the right niid left hand digsunilar pictures, 

We nest find, in the treatise on Painting which Leooaidt 

kda Vinci left behind him in manuscript, a distinct refennCI 
to the dissimilarity of the pictures seen by each eye as till 
reason why " a painting, though conducted with the greiW* 
artj and finished to the last porfeclion, with regard ' " ■" "^ 
lt«r. 1SB6. 

en eye as uii j 1 
h the greiWL^i 
ird to iU^kII 

Wkeatsione's Stereoscope. 321 

re, Hs lights, its shadows, and its colours, can sever show 
dievo eqiid to thnt of the natural objects, unless these be 
dred at a distance, and with a Binffle eye," which he pro- 
ds to demonstnite. Aguilonius, the learned Jesuit, who 
tlisbecl hia Optica in 1013, nest attempts to explain, bat 
faout success, whj the two disgimilar pictures of a solid 
B by eacli eye do not, when united, give a confused and 
lerfect yiew of it; but, down to our time, natural philoBO- 
n have been almost universaily content to adopt the opi- 
b that we see with only one eye at a time. 
Thus the matter rested until, in 1838, Mr. Whentstone re- 
led the questiou of vision by one or by two eyes by arguing 
the appearance of relief and solidity which we obtain in 
ing at objects in nature arises from there being a disaimilar 
nre of the object projected stmulcaneouely on the retina 
wh eye, the optic axes of which are not parallel, whereas 
ieving a pictorial representation two similar pictures are 
iected on the retinie, and hence the resultant flatness ; and 
Wheatstoite sought to tlluBtra,te this theory by the inge- 
IB instrument known aa the Stereoscope. Its principle has 
n thus simpliGed by Mr. R. Hunt, F.R.S. : 

When we \odk at aoy ronnd objeat, fimt with one sye, and tibaa 
b the cither, ne discovor that witli the right eye we see most of the 
' ' .huDd side of the object, and witli the left eye most of the left- 
aide. These two images are oombined, and we see an objeot 
t we know to be round. 
Thi» ia illuBtrated bj Ihe Slertoicopi, which oonaiBlB of two miiTort 
i each at an angle of 45 deg.. or of two aemi-lenses turned witi 

raa are Dbtaiued by the caniEm on photoj^phlc paper of any ob- 
n two positiunB, correspunding with the coudltJom of Tiowing it 
Qia two eye*. By the mirrors on the lenaea these diasimiiar pio- 
are oombined withia the eye, and thBTision of an aotnally solid 
i it produced from the pictures represented on a plane auiface. 
The Stereoscope excited considerable interest among soien' 
*V persons when first exhibited ; the pictures prepared for it 
re almost exclusively dissimilar outlines of various geometri' 
Idolids; but it has been almost superseded by the Refracting 
Eveosoope, in which the simple principle of the Stereoscope ^m 
'BOmbined with, or rather aided by, photcgraphy. This ^^M 
' oiple might have been discovered a ceotury ago, for the ^H 
_ (imng which led to it was independent of all the properties ^^B 
^tfKght ; but it could never have been illustrated, far less mul- ^^ 
tiplied as it now is, without photography. A few diagrams, 
ofotifficient identity and difference to prove the truth of the 
vmuiciple, might have been constructed by hand for the grati- 
S^tion of a few sages ; but no artist, it ib t« V* \iQ^wi, '^■^^;^^^ 
Hftve been found possessinf; tlie re<^uiB\l.Q s.ViM\rj wii^ «,\.-^^-v$£!t^^H 


322 BretcHer's Lenticular Slereosca 

to execute two portraiU, or two groiipa, or two tnteriore, 
two landscape*, identical in the most elaborate det^l, and jet 
differing in point of view by the inch between the two hmr' 
ejet, by which the principle ia brought to the level of any 
parity. Her^ tlieref«re, the accuracy and ioBensibility of 
machine could alone avail ; ajid if in the order of things the 
eheap popular toy which the Stereoscope now represents nta 
aecessary foe the use of man, the phidograph tms Jim 7i«* | 
mfyJor'tJte temice of the Stereotcapr.* i 

Sir David Brewster, in a scries of elaborate experiments la ' 
Gitablish his theory of binocular vision, as distinguished from ' 
that of ProfesBOr Wheatatone, invented the Lfiaicular Stertt- 
tnptf which he has fully illuetraled in his able volume on the , 
Stereoscope. It coDsista of a pyramidal box, blackened on ilie \ 
inmde, and havinp; a lid for tlio Rdmission of light when tht 
pictures are opaque. The bos ia open below, in order to Itt 
th« light pass through the pictures when they are transpareni | 
The top (rf' the box consiets of two portions, in one of which it i 
the right-eye tube, containing a aemi-lens ur quarter-lem I 
■ad in the other the left-eye tube, also cont^ning a semi-Ian J 
or quarter-lens. The two dissimilar pictures (or ^de) Dt I 
placed in a groove in the bottom of the box, when, on looUng 
through the eye-tubes, the pictures are seen united into oM 
single picture ; and the objeaC or objects, if a proper amouiltrf 
light is obtained, etand out with an almost magical appeanM 
of relief and solidity. Thus has the employment of photo- 
graphy for the stereographs wonderfully extended the tangs «• 
the instrument, and rendered it one of the most popular in«ui> 
of social amusement, and, rightly used, nn extremely valutbit 
meaos of instruction. We have said thiit each of the ef^ 
pieces contains a semi-lens: it is by means of these semi-lenis^ 
tmusferring the two dissimilar pictures or stereographs 1* * 
middle point, and their union thereon, that the slereoscopl 
effect is produced. 

A delrctive application, similar to that of photographic p* 
tnuts, has been devised for the Stereriscope. lit 1859, it Mt 
ascertained by experinMt that if two thoroughly idaitiJ • 
copies of ordinate print be pkiced side by side in the 9tett^ t 
scope, they will not offer any unusual appearance. But 8 } 
there be the slightest, although inappreciable, difference— 4 
for instance, in the interval sepaialing the Eaine words— U* ' , 
difference will be made evident in the Stereoscope by the sh- 1 i 
vation into relief (or the reverse) of the corresponding spu* 
above the adjoining parts. Professor Dove of Berlin prop** , ' 
the above as an infallible means of distinguishing a fp™^ ' ' 
'^-'■,-jlOte troms. ftemune owe, &,c. 

a fou^' 



B remarkable BubEtiuice known as Caoutchouc ia produced 
man]'' different plants ; aud its manifold appllcationa within 
ipsretivelj few years are certainty one of the marvels cf our 
mtifio age. " How curious, how wonderful," says an acute 
ter,*' " is it to find a milky juice which exudes from certain 
» on the hanks of the Amazon, or from viuea iu the junglea 
India, transformed by the ingenuity of mao, on the bankq 
the Thames or the Irwell, iuto such a vast variety of useful 
1 interesting objects I But it is still more curious and still 
re wonderful to reflect that this milky Juice, with the many 

_»to which it is put, forms a necessary part of the progress 

f nviliBation, and tends to unite all the human race iuto one 
mt and glorious family. " 
Caoutchouc was first introduced iuto Europe early ia the 
t oenturj' ; but its origin wae unknown till the visit of the 
inch Academicians to t^outh America in 171G. They asc»^ 
Bed that it was the inspissated juice of a Brazilian tree, 

^d by the nativea Hbvfi ; and an account of the discovery 
I sent to the Academy by M. de la Condamine in 1736. 

je-and-thirty years later, 1767, a specimen was first brought 
Sogland, and was sent to Mr. Canton by Sir Joseph Banks 
" two balls of the new Ekstick Substance." In 1772, Dr. 
lieitley thus speaks of the new substance in his Introduelutn, 
Perspective: "I have seen a substance excellently adapted 
ttie purpose of wiping from papeq^fce marks of a black-lead 

Kodl. It must therefore be of singular use to those who prao- 
e drawing. It is sold by Mr. Naime, mathematioal-instru- 
int maker, opposite the Royal Exchange. lie sells a cubioal 
)ce of about half an inch for three shillings ; and he saya it 
U last several years." 

[ Prom this first application arose the name of India- Rubber. 

ance ' engaged, as soon as it was known, the 

ittention of philosophers. They immersed it in all kinds of 

Vents, tried ita influence on sounds, foundi 


^n [II III II ■■mil I 
klMalcdge be kM 
to fittd o>t > MlreDt,h( I 
beettt CaoatcuNU 

rmlj atateal aire ia a spiral form — wen 
thib aabstuiix. This oa^ ih« oHfoial new apptici- 
1SS>, of Caciitchooc. Mr. Uaocock foUovej Up bil I 
" »■ alirijs at wotfc with his nibiier. He cut { 
he nail it iato pieMS ; he inreated tDacbiDM J 
Rid pwtfag it ints > mass ; be Hewed it b fi* I 
into solid blocks ; fae BpNl2 
■InoatM tfun u the finest textures of iheut I 
he bond ODeaoIrent for it, whidx had before been J 
tried, bnl M1I7 under the new mechautcal fons 
^ tie it did oil of tarpentine (camphine) auewet tlH I 
Otha'penoosfbond othersolvetit^. Proru ISSOlbe 
" ins of this corioag sabetaoce were uumeront ini ' 
tfther coautriea, eepedaUf in America, u wdl i 

Mr. Hancock has been tralj- called the " father of this im- { 
portant and wonderfdlir-increasng branch of the arts :" hot S t 
had manj nurses. In 1623, Mr. Macintosh applied the naphtb ■ 
obtained from coat-tar to dissolve robber, thus making a wsW- 
proof vamish ; he invented and brought Into use the ganuffltl 
and the cloth which bear his name. 

The manu&cture of Caoutchouc has three priitcipal brandMI 
~ e condensation of the crude lumps or shr4dg of Cbeot- | 
, as imported, into compact homogeneous blocks and . 
a cutting of flwBe Wotfia \W« ci^i£a «« i^eov^, fot iJm (tt- j 

■ 'nibber boltles, c- •^■' '■'^■'«->^ *"«*■ "^ 

^e o^x'di^ibX ^>:»^ ^-anvo^ins.^'atB 

I, tapes and threads, which, heing clothed with Bilk, cotton, linen, 
R Of woollen yarns, form tlie basis of elastic tisauea of every kind. 
I S. The conversion uf the refuse cuttings and coarser qualities 
I of Caoutchouc into aVisoid yaruish, which, being applied be- 
^ tween two surfaces of cloth, constitates the well-knowu double 
I fabrics, inipui'vlous to water aad air. 

I It is curious to read that tbia application of Gauntchouo to 
KUraterprooRjig was known in South America upwards of a oen- 
Vita^ since. In a work entitled La MonanJiia Indiaim, printed 
nt Madrid in 1723, we find dsEcribed " very profitable trees in 
KiSew Spain, from which there distil various liquorsaud resins." 
K&UOQg them is described a tree called idquaJivMl, whiah the 
WbatiTes cut with a hatchet, to obtain the while, thick, and 
BwhCMve milk. This, when congulated, they made into balls, 
HattOed vBi, which rebounded very high when struck to the 
■■Mniad, and were used in various games. The author cod- 
Bfemee ; " Our people (the Spaniards) make use of their vXli to 
^nmish their doakt, made of hempen cloth, for wet ineaiher ; 
BWiich are good to resist water, but not against the sun, bj 
BWtOBfl heat and rays the u/li is dissolved." India-Bubbcr is 
Hwt knowa in Mexico at the present day by auy other name 
Hbaii that of TtUi; aud the oiled-silk covering of liats very ge- 
■Hnlly worn throughout the country by travellers is always 
Euledi^^i, Shoes (worn in some countries as over-shoes) have 
Ulio long been made of Caoutchouc in its native country. This 
^W^done Dy dipping the wooden lasts in the Caoutchouc-milk, 
Ifel^ then drying them over the emoke of a fire made with palm- 
Umt. The coatings are repeated until the shoes are sufficiently 
Bniick, a greater number being given to the bottom or sole. 
^C^ The grand improvement in the texture and qualities of 
H^ substance, by which its applicnhiiity to different purposes 
HdtB been greatly enlarged, is called vutcanidTtg, and was not 
Bfeade till 1843, and. seems then to have been brought about 
■vr something like an aacident. In 1842, Mr. Hancock was 
Known small bits of Caoutchouc, which an American agent 
KUd would not ttiffeih by cold, and were not much affected by 
Boirents, heat, or oil. To give Caoutchouc the property of re- 

Sfie.Kible under all oircuTnstances and changes, was most 
). A[r. Hancock was again set wondering, or was sti- 
^Kolated by the assertion ; th« small bits of Caoutchouc so 
BjjKOged smelt of sulphur. He made all kinds of experiments 
■M the directiou thus indicated, aud at length ascertained that 
Bbe desired alteration was effected in the Caoutchouc by es- 
HlcwiDK it to the action of sulphur at a high temperature. 
^FBadl known," he says, after he had aaoertiuwftA \.Vft ^ssS., 
g*the simple mode by which this reevit o<nAi \i^ -^toiMa*^"^ ^ 
^b^^t bare made the discovery at oncQ.^' 

Caoutchouc, thus acted on by sulphur 
elasticity in all temperatures, and, vulcimiBed iiuder preaeun, 
can be made iu all forms hard and durable. It can os tamed 
in a lathe, and cut into Bcrews. It has^ieen made into flute^ 
which sound easily and sweetly, and are bo polished as to re- 
semble ebony. Of it are made walking-sticks aud picture- 
frames, and delicate mountings of all desoriptiotis. A coUeo- 
tioD of beautifully made articles of this class can be seen k 
"the Vulcanite Court," at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham. It 
is converted into whips, hard, like wood, at the handle, and 
flexible, like the finest kind of leather, at the thoiig. It lias 
some most remarkable properties. A ball wilt paEs through it; 
and the hole closee so completely, that persons who have tried 
the experiment would not believe the fact till it was demc 
strated by the ball striking objects beyond the rubber, 
piece two inches thick and a foot square was laid on an anvil 
under Mr. Nasmyth's steam-hammer; a siz-inch round shot 
was placed on the rubber ; the hammer was then made to bll 

uninjured as when it was placed on the anvil ; na^, more eitra- f 
ordinary still, the shot had come into contact with the anril | 
ftnd was flattened alightly, but the rubber had retained, wim- | 
mediately resumed, its original form and condition. I 

When Mr. Hancock showed the first piece of his "solid 
rubber" to an old gentleman, it was returned with tiie prescient 
remark, "the child is yet unborn who will see the end of | 
that,"* Ever since, the trade and the manu&cture have been i 
^ogresslve here and in every other part of the civilised norid. ' 
Within tliu memoiy of this generation — in lens than forty years j 
— an entirely new art has grown up from ludia-Rubber twttlMj \ 
and it is for ever iucreasiug. It is by no means the only ut ', 
which ha£ come into existence in the time, and attained Ui i 
aatonishing perfection. Moreover, all these new arts — tiiB j 
manufacture of rubber, photography, railways, telegraphs, &ft I 
— are already common to all the civilised world- 

The great consumption of Caoutchouc has naturally led to ■' 
its being sought iu other regions than tb.itiu Which it wufint ' 
found. It was at first principally imported from Pam; but I 
considerable quantities have since been brought from Jam, , 
Penang, Singapore, and Assam. In the latter country it liM I 
been ootaiued from trees in vast forests, 100 feet high and it 
feet in girth. 
• -ftrsOHOl Win 


(B wonderful Bubstance appears to hare been brought foi" t] 

t time into England in the daya of Tradescant, "King'6 
'Gftrdener" to Charles I. ; and it ia believed to have been shown 
:iii Tradescant'g Musenm, at South Lambeth, as a curiouH pro- 
, under the name of Mazer-wood, of which liowls and 

Kblets were formerly made. Subsequendj^ it was often brought 
im China and other parts of the Bast, in the form of elastic 
'jAips, sticka, Ac. The apeoimeus of two centuries sinoe pro- 
Ubi; la; in Tradescaut's Museum neglected, and the knowle<^e 
'ttf he importance and value ia the arts seeme to have been re- 
berved for the age of the Electric Telegmph ; sinoe the use of 
this aubstauee for cucloBiiig its metallic wires entitles it to a 
■hve in the success of the Submarine Telegraph, bj means of 
_VMch the great cities ufthe world are now brought within 
'^ few minutes of each other. 

The reappearance of Oiitta Percha in our time resembles 
B re-disooverj. It ia obtained from the Taouandra Gutta plant, 
' of the order Sapolucete, and was found by Mr. Thomas Lobb, 
>rllile on a botanical misaiou in Singapore and the Malay penin- 
Wla, where foreats of the Percha trees grow to an enormous size; 
feis discovery being made mora than three centuries after the 
oountry had been frequented by Europeans. Early in 1843, Dr. 
'IfFilliam Montgomerie, ia a letter to the Bengal Medical Board, 
commends Outta Percha as likely to prove useful for some Rurgical 
purposea; and in the same year he transmitted to the Society of 
Arts in London a specimen of the Gutta Percha, at one of their 
, evening meetings; the Society then simply acknowledged the 
' ncdpt of the gift, but subaequeutly presented to Br. Mont- 
' ~ 'e their gold medal. It was ascertained from Sir James 
I, the Eeaident at Sarawak, that the tree I 
' to that place, and ia known to the natives by the u 
Niftto; and the Doctor's curiosity was first aroused by noticing 
the handle of a chopper in the bands of a Malay woodman 
mftde of this novel material, which he fimnicwvVi'ufc-oissvi' 
' into any ^orm by immeraug it in feciiliu^ -waS«t -^si^ is 

3S8 GuHa Percha and /fie Submarine Telegrapki 

thoroughly heal«d, nhen it b«c»me plcistic as clay, and r^^nol 
whcu cold iW original hardness and rigidity. In its natife cona- 
try it is oomnionly used for whips, and it was by the introduc- 
tion of a horee-whip made of this Bubstaiice that its (ixistenoc 
•ma made kuown iu Europe. Specimens shown in the Gieai 
Exhibition of 1851 proved that the Malays knew also hovU 
appropriate Gutta Percha to the tuanufacture of vases, and thit 
Buropeai) iudustry bad little more to do than to imitate thw 
prooesseB. The first articles manufiictured of it in England, in 
1844, were a lathe-hand, a short let^b of pipe, and a. bottfe- 
OSM, which had been made hy hand, the aoncrete eubstanoB 
being reudercd sufficiently plastic by iinmerfdon in hot water) 
casts from medals were also early taken with it. Mr. FranUi 
Whiahow thus early discovered the valuable property wluch 
Outta Percha possesses for the conveyance of sound, and ao- 
cordingly made of it the Telakouphanov, or Speaking Trumpet, 
through which, by simply whispering, the voice could b; 
audibly conducted for a i^ta.nce of three-quarters of a mile, 
and a conversation by this means kept up. Another of its eMly 
applications was as the soles of sboeB. Iu ice pure state, Qutti 
Percha is indestructible by vrater, and is an exoelleut non- 
conductor of electricity : heuce it was used in making a tnb« 
for the conveyance of the wires of the submarine tdegraeh, 
and was Qrst so employed across the Hudson River, New Ymt 

Qutta Percha is, like Onoutchouc, a carburet of hydrogen, 
and isomeric with that substance ; and while it possesses a 
great number of the properties which characterise &ioutchoito, 
it also exhibits certain BpedaJ properties which admit of its 
being applied to particular uses to which Caoutchouc it ' 

In 1845, only 20,0001bs. of Gutta Percha were imporiM 
into England; now the cousuniption has increased to millioDl 
of pounds annually. Its manufacture into an endless variety of 
articles demauds new processes, uew machines, and new tooli, 
in which the steam-engine plays the most important part. Tbt 
rough blocks of gum are first cut into slices by a vertical wlieelj 
bced with knives or blades, and revolving 300 times a minDbe; 
the slices are then cleaned from stones and other impuritiel, 
and boiled in waste steam from the engine. The mass is neU ' 
put into an iron box, or teaser, in which an iron cylinder wiflii 
teeth rapidly revolves, and tears it into shreds, throwing it inU 
vats of cold water. There the Gutta Percha floats at thetm, 
and the impurities sink to the bottom. It is then tratisfecM - 
to taiiks of boiiiug water, and thence removed into boxes, aai ~ 
kneaded like dough ; and next rolled between he^ited it 
cylinders into sheets, whwti oic then cooled by passing betwa 
ateel rollers. The eheelB aw c-\w.Vj ii.^iii&i-^t^^sffijauiMij| 

■ Gulla Percha and Electricity. 329 

bandH ov strips. For mating tubes and pipes, the soft mafia 
of kneaded GiittH Percha is piissed througS heated iron cylin- 
ders, and is drawn by the drawing- mill into cylindrical oorda, 
md tubes of various diameters. This, however, is but a glimpee 
of the complicated machinery and processes by which Gutta 
Percha is fashioned into a legion of articles. Among the appU- 
oatioQi are breast-coating for water-wheels, galvanic batteries, 
riiuttle'beds for looms, packing for steam-engines and pumps, 
orioket-biiUe, noiseless curtain-rings, whips and sticks, polioi 
men's staves, plugs or solid masses used iu buildii^gs, buffe 
for railway-carriages, gunpowder canistei's, f^heet- covering for 
damp walls, hning for ladies' bonnets, jar-covers, bubbius for 
BDJiming machines, book-covers, moulds for stereotype and I 
Electrotype, coffin-linings, and stopping for hollow teeth. These I 
ara but a small number of the myriads of uses to which we J 
have extended the application of the vegetable product whioli 1 
was used by the Mahtys ages since for a few common purposes. 1 

It may be interesting to add, that both Gutta Percha and I 
Caoutchouc plants may be seen growing in the Royal Gardens 1 
of Kew ; and cases of articles made of the two substances are j 
shown there iu Che Museum of Ecoaomie Botany. 1 

In estimating the varions aids and appliances to the succeaa J 
of the Submarine Telegraph, it is scarcely possible to overrate j 
the properties of Guttapercha. It would seem as though oaa 
■were sent to perfect the other; forthe coaling of the telegraph- 
Wire with Gutta Percha, thereby insuring its entire inHulation, 
ja a most important provision. 

The employment of Gutta Percha in electrical esperi- 
ments was ¥its\. noticed by Faraday, in 18.16, who stated ita , 
use to depend upon the hi^h insulating power which it p 
sesaes under ordinary conditions, and the manner in which 
keeps this power in states of the atmosphere which make the | 
surfiice of ghiss a good conductor. The telegr^iph-wire is not 
only coated with Outta Percha, but is closed in tubing made of 
\jt. For this purpose the Gutta is dissolved in bisulphuret of 
oarbou; the wire is passed over pulleys through the solution, 
and then through a tube lined with brushes, which remove any 
tiling Buperliuous; andwhentho wire reaches the suuond pulley, 
the bisulphuret has evaporated, and left a thin coating of Gutta 
Percha. Where the wire is to be rouglily handlud, it is covered 
with cotton, and then passed through the solution; but the 
tubing is still more effective. Great feats of dtspatcb have 
been accomplished in this application. One day, In 1849, a 
soil of copper wire 12,200 feet long was coated at the Com- 
Mnj's works in the City-road with sulphuretted Outta Peraha^^, 
f^ shipped for the Russian govem^^rt^^^^^«' ' 
Hhc of its anival uC the works. 

Thx great eecret of iiutarUaneoiu transmisHon has long e 
cised the ingenuity of maukind in various romantic myths; 
the disoDver}' of cert&iu propertiee of the loadstone gave a new 
diredioa to those fancies, the majority of whioh can scared; 
be tmced, Manj of the ancieut stories of ubiquity which we 
find rekted as ^ts are doubtless of this fabulous origin ; and 
in the present instance, credulity being as it were backed 
by science, there was some method iu the papular belief. To 
each a source may be traced iu modem tinies the earliest ai' 
cipation of the Electric Telegraph, the marvel of the science of 
the present age ; the discoveries in which, and their application 
to useful ends almost as sooik as made, give thb scteuce a pcffli- 
liar interest. The anticipation to which we have just reteind 
occurs in the I'robitiona of the learned Italian Jesuit Stnda, 
in 1617, who supposes the existence of "a species of loadsli^ 
which possesses such virtue, that if two needles be toucfted 
with it, and then Imlanced an separate pivots, and the oneU 
tamed iu a particular direction, the other will sympathetioaQj 
move parallel to it." He then direots each of these needlea tA 
be poised aud mounted parallel on a dial having the lettsn of 
the alphabet arranged round it. Accordingly, if one penon 
has one of the dials aud atiother the other, by a little pre^ 
arrangement as to details, a correspondence can be mainCabuJ 
between them at any distance by simply poiuliug the needUi 
to the letters of the required words. Strada, in his poetiol 
reverie, dreamt that some such sympathy might one dsyl>t 
found to exist in the magnet: but his conceit does m . 
have caught Bitshop Wilkius, who, in his book on Cryptolugfi 
strangely fears lest his readers should mistake Strad^ &Bg 
for lact ; it beiug altogether imagiuary, having no foimdaUw 
in any real experiment. 

in the 24l9t No. of tba Spectatar, 1712, deacrilws %titUi 
oorreflpoDilfiucfl ;" jiud aclda that, "if ever thifi inTeatiOB 
Hhouldbe raviiod or put in practine," he " vould propuae that upcolht 
ioiei'a dinJ-pIntfi there ahould be writtsa not on); the Gmr and-tmaG 
laltors, but several ontite words which have always a plaoo in 
*~'-'1b9, aa flaroBS, Aorta, Sis, Xmhejio^e, wVatKwa, Civpid, boart < 
drown, and tiieVika. T!ius-wQAa.-i'Jin'i«a^iSioii,,ji'&ii!Bi 

Experiments in Electro-telegraphy. 339 

in thia way of writing a letter, as it would enable him to eipresa the 
moflt oaeful ami signiScant words with a Hingis i^nch of tlie noodle/' 

When eleotriciEins had beccinie acquainted with the new 
force by friction, then the only knovm mBthod of generating 
eleotrioitj, they renewed their esperimenta. In 1729, one 
Stephen Omy, a pensioner of the Charterhouse, made electrical 
fnjTTiala through a. wire 765 feet long ; jet, in those dull times, 
this BuccesB did not excite much attention. Next, Le Mounier'a 
■ecount of his feeling the electric ehock through an aJ^re of 
irater at Paris by means of an iron chain, led Dr. Watsou, and 
ithw Fellows of the Rojal Society, in 1745, to make a series 
f e^wrimenta to ascertain how iax electricity could be con- 
nejed by means of conductors. 

They caused the shock to posa across the Thames nt Westminatar 
hidge, \Jb& oirouit being completed by making use of the river for one 
art of the chain of communication. One end of the wire communicated 
with the EoRting of a chained iihial, the cither btinghiild by the observer ; 
irho In bis othi " '" " ' '" '"' " - - --' --■-■-■- ■ - -"- -' ■ -'- "- - -'--- 
On the oppoait 

'd an iroii rod, whicl 

he dipiied into the rirer. 
mm, Kho likewise dipped 

river Btood a gentl 

ith one hand, and in 

the other held a wire the 

t be brought into co 

tnctwith tbu wireofthe 


Upon making the discharge, the shock was felt Bimultaneoiisly 
by both the observers.— Priestley's Hiclary of EleciTicHj. 
^^^ In 1747, the same persons made eiperiments near Shooter's 
pill, when the wires formed a circuit of tour milee, and con- 
ley^ the shock with equal facility ; "a distance which without 
CuL" they observed, " was too ^eat to be oredited," These 
leeiuts established two great principles : 1, that the electrio 
Tent is transmissible along nearly two miles and a half of 
nwire; 2, tbat tha electric current may be completed by 
g the poles in the earth at the above distance. These 
nenments were performed at the expense of the Roya! Society, 
fta eost lOf. 5>. ZiL In the paper detaiUng them, printed in 
lie 45th volume of the PhUoiophiual TrangactinTis, occurs the 
igt mention of Dr. Franklin's name, and of his theory of posi- 
iira and negative electricity. 

la the following year, 1748, Benjamin Franklin performed 
^^gr^ celebrated esperiments on the banks of the Schuylkill, near 
Philadelphia; which bein^ interrupted by the hot weather, 
fthey were concluded by a piouic, when spirits were fired by an 
electrio spark sent through a vrire in the river, and a turkey 
-was killed by the electric shock, and roasted by the electric jack 
'before a fire kindled by the electrified bottle. In two years 
franklin made his more celebrated experiment to determine 
tbie identity of Lightning and Electricity, as described at pp. 
"3fl, 340. 

In the year 1753, there appentei to fee Soot^ Masoj^^^ 
HeBnite proposals for the constTUCtwiu oi mi A^iArw, v'^ 


332 Experiments in Electro-iele^rapht/. : 

requiring tie many conducting wires aa there are letters in tbe 1 
aJphuliet ; it was also propoaed to converse by chimes, by sub- I 
atitatiug belU for the balls. A similar system of cilegisph- ' 
ing wsA next invented hy Joseph BozuIue, a, Jesuit, at Houe; i 
ana mentioued by the great Italian etectriuiaa Tiberius C^valln^ 
in bis treatise on Electricity. { 

In 1787, Arthur Young, when travelling in France, saw \ I 
model working telegraph by M. Lomond : " You write two w 
three wurds on a paper," says Young j " he takes it with hio 
into a room, and turns a machine endosed in a cylindrical cue, 
at the top of which is an electrometer, a small Hqu pith-ball; 
a wire connects with a similar cylinder and electrometer ioi 
distant apartment ; and his wife, by remarking the corresiKiDdr 
ing motions of the ball, writiss down the words they indicate; 
from which it appears that he has formed an alphabet of mo- 
tions. As Che length of the wire makes no difference in t^ 
effect, a correspondence might be earned on at any distaDce." 

On January 31, 1TD3, Volta announced to the Royal Sociatj 
his discovery of the development of electricity in metallic bodica 
Oalvani had given the name of Animal Electricity to the pows 
which caused spontaneous convulsions in the limbs of bigl 
when the divided uervea were connected by a metallic wire. 
Yolta, however, saw the true cause of the pheuomeua deBcribed 
by Qalvani, whioh have passed under his name as Qalvanism bf 
an error similar to that which gave the name of Amerigo Ves- 
pucci, instead of Columbus, as the discoverer of the New World. 
Observing that the effects were far greater when the coDuootiDS 
medium consisted of two different kinds of metal, Volta in- 
ferred that the principle of excitatiou existed in the metolB, ' 
and not in the nerves of the animal ; and he assumed that the I 
exciting fluid was ordinary electricity, produced by the aoataet 
of the two metaia. The convnleiona of the frog cousequantly J 
arose from the electricity thus developed passing along IH i 
nerves and muscles. Hence the term Voltaic Electricity. 

The following year, according to Voigl's Magaziae, ReiHD | 
made use of the electric spark for the telegraph ■ aud in 1T98, 
Pr. Salva, of Madrid, conatruoted a similar telegraph, wMffl J 
the Friiice of Peace exhibited to the King of Spain with great \ 

In 1302, it was discovered that the earth might be substi- , 
tnted for the return wire of a voltaic circuit, i 

In 1800, Soemmering exhibited to the Academy of Scieunt I 
at Munich an electro- telegraphic apparatus, in which the mode 
1 of sigiiatiug consisted iu the development of gas-bubbles finun ' 
L the deconipiisition oS watei ^\a<ie4 in -a, amss, nl ^aa*. >^dm^ 
Keaoh of which denoteaa.\c"itCT ■A'Ctte bWob^**.. \n^5^\■},,■«s, 
iflill, of Alfretoa in liamv*a»i ^wrwftft. ». -aMwA •£*Kw«r>aft- 

■ Oersted's Electro-magnetis 

gmpli, which he exhibited to the Lords of the Admiralty, who I 
Bpoke approvingly of it, but declined to cany it into effect. 1 
And in the fullowing year Soemmering constructed a similar ■ 
telegraph, but with this inconTenienoe — that there were 9.^ 
many wires aa signs or letters of the alphabet. ,\ 

The nest invention is of much greater practical worthaJ 
Upon the suggestiou of Cavallo, Francis Ronalds oouatmctett^ 
a perfect eleotrio telegraph, employing frictional electricity, ' 
Blthough Voita's discoveries had been known in England for 
mxteen years. This telegraph was exhibited at Rammersmitli 
in 1816, the very year in which Andrew Crosse the electrician 
said: "I prophesy that by means of the electric agency we 
aha,ll be enabled to communicate our thoughts instantaneonBly 
with the uttermost parts of the earth." Ronalds's telegraph 
consisted of a single insulated wire, the indication being by 

Eith-bolls in front of a dial : when the wire was charged the 
alls were divergent, but collapsed when the wire was dis- 
charged ; at the Hime time were employed two clocks with let- \ 
tered disks for the signals. Ronalds's success was complete ; | 
nevertheless, the Government of the day refused to avail itself 
of his telegraph. 

In 1819, Professor Oersted of Copenhagen, who had for 
wme years asserted the identity of chemical and electrical 
forces, announced his great discovery of the intimate relation 
existing between magnetism and electricity, in consequence of 
his having, while lecturing to his class, observed that a mag- 
net, when placed near a wire conducting a voltaic current, was 
strangely deflected. And upon the Copley Medal being ai^U- 
dicated to Oersted for his discovery, he demonstrated that 
" there is always a magnetic circulation round the electric con- 
ductor ; and that the electric current, in accordance with a 
certain law, always exercises determined and similar impres- 
mona on the direotiou of the magnetic needle, even when it 
does not pass through the needle, out near it." Thus Oersted 
laid the foundations of the science of electro-magnetism, and 
led the way to its practical apphcation to the Electric Tele- 
graph ; although in the popular accounts of the invention we 
hear much more of the adapters of his researches than of Oer- 
sted himself, to whom the main merit is due. " Nothing," says 
Professor Owen, "might seem less promising of profit than 
Oersted's painful I j-punued experiments with his little magnets, 
voltaic pile, and bits of copper- wire. Yet out of these has 
Sprung the Electric Telegraph," 

Dr. Ilamel of St. Petersbure states that Boron Schillinj 
was the first to apply Oersteds disoovev^ lo Wie^ 
agfuallx prodadng an eleotro-mappetic teVegcs^'ft « 
fcitruption tbaa that which Arapfete tai™d.,^ 

3S4 Wheatttone and Cooke's Electric Telegraph. 

Sturgeon nert eoooeivedthe idea of involving soft ironwjtli 
copper- wire, and b/ circulating volt^c etecCricit; throogb these 
coDVolutioDi, of rendering it powerfully magnetic. The ei- 
periment proved the correctness of the thought, and electn>- 
nuwDets of enormoma power liave been tbe result. These btte 
enabled Faradaj to discover and enunciate the taws of voltsin 
and magneto-electric induction. Light and magnetism ar« 

Cred to be mjeleriouslj related, and all bodies in n&ture b&n 
n shown to exist in one of two conditiutis — they are either 
moffnetic, a« iron w, or they are //ia-moffrie/ie, like bismuth ind 

In 1835, Oauss and Weber eatabliflhed electro-telegrftpEuc 
oommuuication between the ObBervator; at 05ttiugen and tlia 
Cniversity. lu Professor Airy's eiperimentB with the Kledrie 
Telegraph, several years after, to determine the difference of 
longitude lietween Greenwich and BrusBels, the time spent by 
the electric current in passing from one observatory to the 
Other (2T0 miles) was found to be rather more than the nintt . 
part of a second; this determination resting on 26 IS obsem- I 
tiona. Such a speed would " girdle the globe'' in ten secnodB. 
During all this time the Volt^c Battery was gradually im- J 
proved, and its powers vastly augmeuted, by Daniell and Qran. i 

In 1836, Professor iluiicke of Heidelberg, who had ii»- 
spected 8chil1ini;'a telegraphic apparatus, explained the mu 
to William Pothergill Cooke, who iu the following yeur retumtd j 
to England, and subsequently, with Professor WbeatBtone, !»• | 
boured simultaueoUBly for the introduction of the Eleciro-nUf- 
ne tic Telegraph upon the English railways; the first patent be 
which wan taken out in the joint names of these two geiitlemsii j 

In 1844, Profeasoc Wheatstone, with one of his telegraphs, , 
formed a communication between King's College and the lof^ 
shot-tower on the opposite bank of the Thames : the wire wss j 
laid along the parapets of the terrace of Somerset House and ' 
Waterloo Bridge, and tbeoce to the top of the tower, about 150 j 
feet high, where a telegraph was placed; the wire then ds- I 
aoended, and a plate of zinc attached to its extremity vn , 
plunged into the mud of the river; whilst a similar plate it- j 
tiiched to the extremity at the north side was immersed in the I 
water. The circuit was thus completed by the entire bruidth 
of the Thames, and the telegrnph acted ns well as if the (urouH ' 
were entirely metallic. Shortly after this experiment, Prolo- ' 
sor Wheatstone and Mr. Cooke laid down the first wwkiiif I 
Electric Telegraph on the Great Western Railway, from Fti- | 
' "' ■ o Slough. 1 

I la 1815, by the ■E^ort^^e^lB\egtTO'n.,^imll^si^^QlIv■?■si^^^JJS^B^to I 
mihe Sloiiirh ataUon on feo GratA'^ea'umiSaSmii.i.S^ivTi'^w-^-**- 

The Submarine Electric Telegraph. 

n. L Tanell left Slough b; the railway on thnt sveniiig ; j 
ne instant, by Telegraph, hi» person wmi deaoribed, with in 
the police to watch hun en Ms ajrival at PaddiQgton^ Thus, whUe 
9 auBpBOtoil man was on his way to LondoD at a ha. rate, the Tols- 
roh, vitb still greater rapidity, nent along the wire which fkirt!< the 
■d ttia gtariling inatniotione for his CM>ture ; and in the metropolis ha 
M followed, apprehended, and Identified. This early emplcyment of 
a Tale^ph pniduccd in the pnbllo mind an intense conviction of the 
Bt utility of this novel applioation ut maji's philosophy to the proteo- 

Tba tint newspaper report by Electric Telegraph appeared in (he 
enswiff Clironide, May 8, 1845, detailing a railway meeting held at 
irtsmouth on the preoeding evening. On April 10, in the name year, 
gBIHB of ohees woa play^ by Electric Tsfegraph between Captain 
nmedy, at the South- Western Bailway terminus, and Mr. Staunton, 
'Gosport: the mode of playing waa by numbering the aquares of the 
Hoa-bOBTd and the men ; and in conTeying the moves, the electrieity 
orriied badcward and fiH'ward during the game upwiu^la of 10,000 

OnNoT. 13, lan, the aubmariaa Eleotrio Telegraph between Dorar 
|d Calais was first worlied for the pubhc ; and the opening and clueing 
iooB of the Paris Bourse were transmitted to the Stock Esobange, 

In America, the Submarine Electric Telegraph was invented 
r Profeagor Morse, who, in 1622, while on his paaaage from 
aTcipool to New York, mtuntained the passage of electricity 
Dough wire to be instantaneous to jtoj distance, and that it 
light be made the means of conveying and recording intelli- 
ence. For thirteen years lie pursued hia esperiments ; and 
1 1835 patented his " Recording Electric Telegraph," in the 
e jear that Wbeatstone in England, and Steinheil iu Ba- 
a, inveuted a Magnetic Telegraph of entirely different oon- 
ition. MorBe uses the steel point for indenting the paper, 
pd renders the instrument more powerful and certain by sub- 
titutisg electro -magneta for needles. Morse nest attempted 
labmatine Telegraphing between Qoveroor's lalaud and Ca£tle 
biden, New York; and in October 1842 interchanged mes- 
3, and laid the first cable of copper- wire, one-twelfth of an 
in diameter, insulated b^ hemp coated with tar, pitch, 
1 india-rubber. From this success Morse inferred that a 
slegiBphic communicatjon upon his plan might be estahliehed 
oroBB the Atlantic. In 1844, he completed the first Electric 
lelegraph in the United States; and in ISSC his claim to the 
farrentiun of the writing apparatus was accorded. 

Before the Atlantic Telegraph waa finally decided on here, 
SOOO miles of subterranean and submarine telegraph wires, ra- 
mifying through England and Ireland, under the Irish Sea, were 
eoimeciedi and through this distance of 2000 miles 260 distinct 
Bgnals were recorded and printed in onenxnuAe. \T\\'Mi\s'Ooft 
Atlantic Cable ivaa completed, the Wv^'W ol vcq\i. w^*^ >^^:^S!S9l[ 

33G The Atlantic Telegraph. 

wire span iiitA it being 332,S00 miJes, or sitlTident t< 
girJle tlie earlh thirti'en timee : the cable weighed about 
per luile, and was eucased in Gutta PerchA. A sulim 
cable, wheu in the water, b virtually a leDKihened-out LejdN 
jar; it transmita dgnals while being charged and diechain^ 
uwtwid of merely allowing a single stream to flow evenly il«ig 
it The plectro-maitnetio current possesaea treble the velodft 
of lirople voltaic electricity ; and with a single pair of sine m. 
HlTer ptate«<l-20th of a square inch large), charged byano^ 
drop of tiuuid, distinct Bignals have been effected through 1009 
miles of tne cable, and each signal was registered in lew thu 
three Beconde of time. The Perpetual Maintenance Battery, f« 
irorking tlie cable at the bottom of the aea, couaiated of lain 
platee of platinated tiilver and amaleamated zinc, mounted O 
ten oelLs of Outta Percha; each cell containing 20iX> sqoiit 
inches of acting surface, worked at the cost of one shilling p(t 
hour. This voltuo current was the primary power used to tall 
up a more speedy apparatus of •'Double Induction Coils," wluS 
a freah battery did the printing labour,* The attonipta to I^ 
this cable, in August 1S57, failed through stretching it ta 
tightly that it snapped and went to the bottom, ait a depth o( 
12,000 feet, forty times tlie height of St. Paul's. The causeof 
this failure was frankly confessed. " The best workmen," swd 
the engineers, " were worn out with fatigue ; the second-b(d 
took their places, and put on the breaks unskilfully ; the etSA 
enapped : and that is the long and fihort of the matter." 

This great work was resumed in August ISSS; and oallW 
9th the ^rst signab were received through twa thovmmd and 
fifti/ mila of the Atlantic Cable ; when the cQgineer-in-chief, 
Mr. Charles Bright, was knighted- And it is worthy of remirki 
that just HI years previously, on the 5th of August 17'" '^ 
Watson astonished the scientiSo world by practically _ 
that the eleotrio current could be traoamitted through 
liardlij two miUi and a lialflan^. I 

The HUccesB, however, lasted but for a few days, for on Sep- I 
tember I at the Cable ceased lo work ; and it has continued us*" ' 
less up to the present time. , 

A little unrthof tbe BCth panjlel nf latitnda, attlie battnmof till 
AtlanUo ocean, whoro the plaloau ib unbroken by any great. (JepMaSfflV 
and oa s, Bnft bd nf niTid, cnoaCadtl; thickening, and oomposed ulDlon 
eDtiroly of oarbutuita of iime, there lies now mme 1500 miles of difsMrf 
tfllegrnphio cable, (iopoalted in the aumnier of 1858, at a depth TBiyiog 
froNL Iil,0O0trilS,0l}0roet. Ths win was autficientl; thick m raaiit my 
-(r.Lin it ivaa tbouffbt likely to have to hoar. Whether, ho wevBT, itmff 
II' 1 . ■.vhure partially injured, haya beoomo melted by the intense im 
evi^i\^,l diuing* tbe poHsage of nm^netnc Htorms through the eartlij aafl_ 
'U of the Btronn toaguotio oiicrants employed ' - . ■ _ ict 

thy of remirki I 

pi*t 1747, Bf. I 

.ically proniV I 

hrough a viii \ 

Electricity applied to the Arts. 

I. IE B queation tliat has not yet been annwerad ; but, ttb 
LD the biybeflt degree probahla that in the cDurar ~^'-' — 
lid have become reduce«.l to the crystalline Btnt^, 
'. rednced bd aa to render it incHpsble of 

problem of telei 

a TBTj smnll strain. These and other difficulties mnj arise, and 
■ ■■ " e great problem of telegraphy 

a iruidsd the navigstor acrtHe the bi 

Sroviding means of oommnnieation through i 
spthHT and the girdle is being pnt round the 
, irhich will at no i^Btaiit lime unite EdI civilised oations !□!« ona 
brotherhood. — IVodninsfsr Hevitv, Octob 

!□ soundings taken along the t«legrfiph plateau, Bpecimens 
tbe animals and vegetablea found at the bottom of the 
l^tic have been broDght up, of which the eDgraviug upon I 
B next page repreeeiita a highly- niagnified group. It iiioludes ] 
ramiiiifera, beings which secrete many-chumhered calcareous 1 
ilia, each the habitation of a group of individuals bo mimit* I 
to require the highest powers of the best inioroBcope to per- 
ve them. With these are intermixed ilialomacfiB, the sim- 
st tribes of the simplest plants, whose remains forma sensible ' 

ortion of the ailiceous part of the oaze on which the tele- 

h (table rests. 

'Ftm Applications ofElectridly tt. 

"-' hero ; but a few of the more proi 

The new arrangement of Franklin's diacoveiy by Sir Snow 

ro ; but a few of the more prominent instances must be 

w nlTEHdy been mentioned. The firing 

" '■'" "'■" gen t in blasti^ i 

lisal recovery d 'I 
roperty, and the execution of vast enginoerin^ works, Hopes. | 
' iiigly excited that the electro- mngiietic ourront may be so 
act as a moiHng power for machinery, and in lieu ofateam, 

ID rirerB, hsTe been Impelled by electro-magnotiam, but at 
. great a cost for adaption. As the moving power of cloclra, eleo- 
ity is employed with great buccosb, for indicating exactly the same 
-.mljor of places diBtant from each other. Electro-metal- 

m, or the working in metalB by electrical agency, was first iltustrated 
ProfesBor Jacobi of Ht. Petersburg and Mr. Spencer of Uvorpoo^ 

i the precipitation of the predoua metals from the solution led to 
jtro gilding aad plating, in placo of tho usnal procssa of gilding and 
ting. By this process watch-springs are electro-gilded, to prevent 
action; and the great metnl dome of St. Isaac's Cathedral at BL 
enbnre, which weiglis nearly 2000 tons, hna been clectm-^ded 
b STllba. of ducat gold. To Mr. Spencer we also owe the application 




The Electro-magnetic Light. 

I lbs mnltiplyinR' ooplei of wnrlta of Art — in the dMin 
type, ■ vahiable impraToment aJsa niioij BtereatT^ie for printing aur&BH 
FlatM are el«hsd and malliplied by eleotrieity. The uses of elecUidt 
tm a curative tuent, or as n moana Df ph^ological inreAtigatioo. w 
Tery BtrikinK. The elentro-loniuious eTperimsntfl have led to Ihe in 
troduflWon of the Eleolrio Liijht for publio pun>o«os ; but ita oo " 
Bjeatly i-e»triot» ita popnlar gorvies. Thia wonderful iUominatinB poW 
hai Men adapted tn ligbthoiues : mA in 1659 Hie upper SouV "' 
land lighthmwe. near Dorer. was lighted by the elEOtrd-magostl 
by Profemor Holmoa. Tbe eleetrioity is not eyoted by n voltaio batlaTj 
but is the result of ma^eto-electrlo induction ; the currsnt b«ng at 
tained by abniit 83 revolutions per minnte. Tbe li^ht in visible lor % 
milea, and oaa be eeen from the topa of the lighthouses OD the « 


in EouUiid 

U He* York, 71 

first feniiie, 68. 
It AtLemptcil m 

I'l Stmn UodeLi, IK. 

(ibed M Anatomy iy Fun 
xfltf ia telescopic ubBftrva- 
dent. 43j BDil Bluk Art. U. 

bcn-playor, the, Er^fiO. 
jitar and Louii Pliilippe, 51. 

n^ncfr Euguie, 141, 
Iiil Bnieu Head. M, ;e ; 
J of, 7B, 

liit birtli End bnvltwid, HI ; 
and «U>, 93 ; thnnr-ma- 

oi,77jBtOifiird,7a; Pom 
r., f7 ; tiK TdcKope, lu | 

loK^by, Ita falue, 94. 
nt, ^^Wdinn^, 70; the; Luiia,eG-, 

Blond, CirculutiunorihclSli itsCailH, 

LvpotheBlE of, m : [la Ceonc, lU. 
RontetupB'E DptioU Gla», IGS. 

Ujdraiilic i'resB, 26 

Bridge, tbcM , 

Bricl|{Swi1«r Canal, llie. £», 
Brindlev. lanet, and Caaul 

aSB-MO; Wamni 

firiOBChi'B BnlLoon "^ 

elins, 66 
I the AntonuitQa 


BmnEl, Sir 1„ Block MaiAimnT and 
TliiuuiiiTuiiD(:l,2liG-!BB: hl> Cinmlir 
Saus. 269, 2e7; worlutiDpi at BUIo- 

Brniid. I K,. Sailwur Worki and Iran 
Steui..>hipi, aUB-SlHi birth and ida- 
ratuD, SUS I death,313 : Dock! bf. SOS, 

61U; Gml 

3 Tunn 


Tannal iJmnK-belt, 
■ay BriiECI, SlD. 
Bode U%\A I'a&.VA. 

General Index. 


Uraul, by Mc. Gnirita Hid- 

Cdedoniu Caul Wnrka. SW. 

Cvnem OlMCon iorentAi bj Leciaarda 

OuwB, U., ha AaWnntii. 43, 
Cuial KulfmUiHi in Euglaod. 2«3-9W. 

cum by Hutcock nnd 

b; Ui4 Marquji 

lo Carringe. 7*. 

CliiKim IL wagen vtlb the Royel Ss- 

Clurlci tnd BAhertt Chcpron^ati] 65. 
Cheliu, Silk BBTden it, X39. 

Choi, Cured, J<din Iiniubo'^ 331. 
China. Gu-%htiiHc in, SdS I OuniM)iid« 

in. sn. £1 iMigoot fcnoirn fa, T- 
Chou-dHRip uiaFii'e-dLinip diBOOTcreil, 

Cbnuuiiiiiit«r, tin flnt Untine, 117. 
CirculmiDn of tlie Blood, 131-iei. 
"CireBliKir." Iho ofiiHiel, ISi. 
Claytan. Dr., iui Gat KnerinKDti, 363. 
OwB-ni Bnt Bud, SS9| Snt nud in 

Conl-niiii " ' " " 

Compaai, Diamrrry of tl;B. ft, 1( 
Cotum, «rl< oie erf. S34i in Er 
in tho Middle \ges.3Si: u 

nirnire.tii«.aio-!eii: aa- 

fllenu. 2iaj iriiwnghl'8 
^Eie, ill ; Calteo-printin^ 

1 Hiill-in-the-wriod, m U.^u. 
cl.217l Kaj- ■ ■" 

LoDS, aod Wjittt, JoliB, al7 ; Pert «r 
R,.BniCToniuUai,319: P«l>.i)ie.iil 
Caliw-printinK. ess. aUi Spinning Mb 
shlnerr. 33i -. gptnaiDe-malo. Dnnt.- 
ton'i, 91B: SpiiQiinc by RoUii^ tUi 
ValiiE or UooiUiutiirs. 31S. 
Brampton, SamoEl. Ids 7uiily. SIS. 

UoEuerre and 



mmii, IK, I 

,_.,, laSMt 

lamp. tm-iiO 1 Binb nnd Bnykoelrt 
3M; Chemicnl Prim. 3»; Dalli A 
SWi Honaun lo, 210 ; Hodd Salltt- 
Ininp, Ouvv'1,347; and Fior. Fuidu. 
!Mi at tlie Rimil InWiLnluB. Wi 

1.1, 101. 

ling MacHine. 51. 

nd^aiiBiy, 183. 

kndnj and Dii(;, An; ddole of, S50 ; sa 
Diiillg.Mi OptiEilGlim-mafcinr.lM. 
iIUd. Mr., uul ^ilk Uulliire, «33. 

-lied, 103. 
itiop Wilkii 

Drk Knltten' Sucielv, 233. 
, Prlnling inlrqdaced into, 16. 

IitKhtoiug i^a ElectiidU, 239; li( 
gwe, SeS, E40. 
•■-Ter'ii Optical Gins, 167. 


j^Mtcaiof tlieOTTerj."AeKiQntof, IH 
WdtDD, Robert, and Steam Mavuntigi 
S81, 28i, 

;0>i.ui, Oveitlirav of, 133. 

.ftlUlHi'i Blioilacu, 149 i ItluBntSnm 

ol tbe HoiTsiii, IIBl bit firit Tele 

Hope, 147 : •he Inientiou af tbe Tele 

uope, 149-14B I and Uie Fumii, 3e. 


■rnerin'i BaDoon Aueuti, 69, TO. 

ai, Ooal, Fioou of niBhiirE, 3G6. 

— - ClioralBtrjotlhE. 243,243. 

t1itin|{iu Chiiu,SSS; Culuo-miU^ 
in £ngliiiuJ, SMji Frogtwd ol 

UUcv, te., b 

tbc DiHne-lxll, si, «1. 
HaiupUin'a Fuaclmte De 
H-mjiDO, JoUn, wi 

Appojalui tor WaLldof 
■ " Ilia unproved Diring- 
uodcr Water, nnu 



tbe Blood. 120-12$. 
Heliiihulti,Fia(., on tbeAii-gnn, 

AaloniaOi, 61, 
Hnnri li. aod Falliii Uie Fottt 

," 73. 

CliesB-pkyer, 67-69: liit Aulomiiti, 

61 6S; repgiia VanewBon'e Auloma- 

lon llaek, 44. 
Hudibna and Rnpeit'i Drops, 99. 
Hutlon, WlUiaai, hii Acamut of LonilM'a 

Sllk-niUI, 230, 231. i 

n>dni^u BnJloDii, HrUToyiKc In, BE. 
Hydngen Gat dliejvered, m. 
UjdniBtuies, Woudera sf, IS. 

General Index, 


'grVucliuUan.lM-131 ; Qnntt 

' t aiittun «!. 130. 
llr. S , ud Qu-Lighting, m. 
Jnl.Dli'i JtaLlnun-fiita. 1*. 
JuUniui udSUV CalMr^ 237. 

K*l.«Bl>»DDPIl, Sl[ D. flrtlHlcI'fc 17S, 


plljrer. U-it: hli HpoiUiig Aaloioa- 

Srcker uid thn BDEil^K-''^™l>°t> 'O^- 
XiM, ElECIric, liy Fraskliu nil l)c 

Bdbu. SSS-Sil. 

Lull. Cuosl'i, SEl. 

LuuS ThsinUe BdtwHi, M. 
Le Bar. the Frencb Honilugiil. IIS, 
Lu, WiUlun, uid lbs Slockine (luoe. 

Ldbnlti-i < 

il. 172. 


lex ArtlficuJ, 3S7. 
lu. Bddyitoue, boili 

~^ js. sas. 

IdffhtDuu ExpehBcnla by J>i 

SI NdptDDO. 

, S4Di . 

HuTli't, Ul. 
LimlB, Aniflrisl, bj Tin Petmen. £9. 
Idptnibeti uid Ibe TsIbkiiie, 116, 14 

Lonibe, Ji^d, hii joumey to Ficdaim 
SU; Iiiii Silk-raiU, E2T. 930. S3l ; f 
Tboaiu Lambe'i. u>d llie Silli Main 
Cacbm. 131. 
" LoBdui Bbicli" Vne, aiS, 
London llrH lil u-itli Qu, IW. 
London and OiLAvd cmapoted, 7^ 
LiHM^UdB at Rca, Ducovtiy lO, 119. 

Lcnviher. Sir J., anil Gaa-ligbiiiii:. Sii 
LuDaldl, Int AcrDuml in Kn|;liiDd, fli 

«: TnulUigtii 
i_ or Ihc Eart 

Uagnet, Pruierljca i 
iSa, T- 

SorfMe,ll*i Liiii 

11; HointUB, 1; KuxUc, \.bE, ( 
WifMi, the, S. 
Maillu^t'a AntomaU,4a. 
Afu, Model. E>vi>ndiDg, aS- 
UuJDCr'a CkiiaiBai, Uk of '."'> >- 

Henon CuIIesc, Oifard. ■■ cajli BMI 

nf Science, 'Je. 
Ueuouuto GBEmiDK and Frinca b- 

peel, W. 9e 
MictoKOiie. iBvenlian of tta, 17117*1 

eiUndn) Uic or. 174^ 


irdumfldeaa M^^^^H 

lie Avouuk n^^^l 

B>llaofl,7S. ^^^H 

lOO in 1888. 70. ^^^ 

artiB^e, 307. i I 

MaaniCopperBdlaofl,?!. „ 
UoD^Uoi. thi AEniD«u,m,l 
Uan^Uei BbUdod in 1S88. 70. 
MiwR't Slcsm-cartiBKe, 307. i 

Muriand, SirSiniKl. bn lnvaitiiiiia.M- 

Monref. Aceoaal ot^^/int 

Chtaa-ntajer. B7. 

*'-lliern Garden, Si. Janiei'lPirXltt 
rdocli'i'' •■ ■ 

Uurddcli'i Gu-llEhling. 3U, «S1 

HapiEM'a " floMa," or - Boda." M,l»; 
JtnTiua|;MirrDn.&9^ hiaFU«lJBf*tt 
Henry &u;g>, 90; LofaiiUiiii^ Ui 
Miichine In daalroylnz Tado, Ki 
eadiuii under Water. M: Salt Valium 
90; Secret luTentisnt, 87-90. 

Mauaa Salliiou, Gceen'a. 7(1. 

" Ktturc ibbura a Vacaun," 91. 

Nai-igalinB of IbE Air. SU-74, 

HauUloa. Ibe Sabnurine, 43. 

Keiitnne. naoel, diBcarered, 17»U1. 

Kewcomai't Atmoapbenc EniuA Bit 

Notion at CaBibridB- '="■ <■'■ -*• 

^'nid^ti to *l 

Ibe, invented. 114. 

T tlie Fotlcr, Stwj of, ]ffi.U6i 

nicB, by Maeliel, 49. 
Fapin'a DigeMer.l97< liiiSl- 

frnprntementa, US. 
Fanoeliiu, Ston of. 34-88 ; 

discDvEriei, BE. 
Pamcliute deKMta, 72, 7S. i 

Parker'! Oreat Bnmjns Lcn^ 178. 
FniumiUwn, Lrad Itoue'i Tcteaonmili 

ISO. 1E7. 
Paaeal'B Antbrnetical Machine, laW .; 

General Index. 

SIS; Binl>1niSter«»n>ne, 31S; Talbut 
KH.niHlTillmt^n, Sie.SlT; Yonng 

T^r. OB Vtrfi SaSetj-iajBB, 348. 
-•- "Jiptisti. sua the TelHcapE, 1«. 
[ VuiB, WmlgwDDd's copiu cif 

MducFfl. S29. 

iuvention nf, 97- 

'antiat Uochhic, lb& ]B, Ifl: Hoc'i 
Ainenisn. 1D> Vertiral. 1», 
rrtnthiB from MwbIiIe Tjiioa, 13; Pmhm 

BBcient. U 17. 
Rrinting.T«riatiM of, 12 ; slio invenled, 

[)BIIICB-Tiua," Sir S. Morlsnd'i , 103 . 

tsuii CUTLI and the Uarquii a[ 

WQrcBHer. 106, 111. 

BllectiiiE Telescope, Lord Roue's Great, 


HonwntBZHi Fhbuloua inreutioiii of, 


mile, Jofan. kii Gmkvaln it Fly- 

Bonlh, Uli: Cuuli. Dwlii. nid 

fdAm, STD, 27s, 37S; iunmv« Ue 

XIMD;bel1,«Ii mlU-irorka. ili. 

■bcrli Bud HuUiD'a Hml<d-Air Balkmi, 

mnei, IBS, 17 
Diiiiig-btfi, 11, 

Eul^r, liii KeflicUiig Tele- 
iBfed by tbe 

jLDTXBfl, Un Aenjiaiita. & 
tfety-Iitinip. 5h Daij. 
tteU-nivc intentid by Papii, 197. 
S^— Captain, ■ -' ""= "^ 

■tbitmiag atabUihcd In Engliind,aa». 

SpfiHldng Uiichiiifl, Amcricrin, BO; thfl 
fHskniita. Bl; pilnciplB of, U. 

SpmlinE Trampet, Morkna*^ 109, KB. 

SpecUcle Gkusa and theTEL»0Dp^ lU. 

SpedariBs, inrention of, 7B, 

SpffiDla tot TelHcopa, GrindbiE ud 
Poliihins, 1ST. 

Spluun; uid WEarlx^ inttquity of, US. 

fllnlfordthirAFoItBies. Iscnnu of, 190. 

Stsnbope printing-prMi, 18. 

StBtuM. anrient untoiiuiUc, H. 

SUuoloo, Mr., Iiii sHDnnt of Ills &B- 

Stcnm-bint, tlie Fini Fnctical, ZH-SBl: 
AOennnd Dickens's, 275; Boll's C-iB si, 
SB3: Bmnah'i Propella', 377: Char- 
'-"- IiHaitiii. 279; Chineie p]iddlB' 

wlieel, ST4: D 
Dndd, Georee 

. aiMi ■ 


Horse-In- trascl. STfii Hulls, Jona- 

3S3; MiliorasdTiiililr'iEiiKriniint^ 
378; KipolwD L and Fullon, HI; 
Ocean Sfesmen. !S4i FAddle-irtiMl, 
ssciBut,ST4: Faphi-i,S7«,nS! Bun. 
■cy'i paddle wlieeb, ST4; SavaiiniA, 
S84; SiLioiT's, S7Si SiiqB.Mr.,lila«. 
coimt of Pdlloa, Sal ; SjmJngtoD'B 
Stenm-hiut EnnaB. 377 ; SJmngtno'B 
EiperimeBti, i77: ayminpoB'i fate, 
Sm-, WasborouBli. Mittliew, »78 ! 

Bmfr. tbr KtBwMy En- 

^ar,eOI>4n: binliirf.S*)! rtora- 
_^ii^SV3; tivirrpool una ILuidieitcr 
IlBe,lH.»T: lAnnHiCiTe. DvtJa^iHi, 
m, m 1 LononoUTs impnmd. id? : 
loBBHXin.KUUiigviutb, 3M: Hnr. 
dMIe EielDrr, MM: jtocitd prfn: cd- 
riW!,M7,SWi Ria«!.biiBe«&ot9»; 

te*, IH I BuInT WgHnnriom. 9^8 ; 
neiiindii»kd.»fi! BUtiK* of. 3». 
Stakouim, Kiibiirt, ud KiOw^ Worki. 
»(ij07: BaH]sarth«6«ina.SU9T 
Mrth and tdiuatian of, SOO.SDl : Biyii, 
nHit,nid BodM eneinH, SOI I Cun- 
nTfuiA BriliiiimiBndf»3CH.IMi 
destkot»l7: Ibncnl in Vstiuliiflcr 
AMin. 107: lB>miiUau oT Orll Eo- 
Butn.aOB; Sll>1iTTiuiiiol,3l)i)Ii>n- 
dan Bad KTDlnKliini RhiIwiit. Jul ; 
tUI* Ssath AmBricD. SOI: VinoriH 
and Hlgh-terel Brid«cl, SS i Tutonn 

I Lemiculir Btcrco- 
•OHW, SiS: EncKa. Galrn, gnil Fart^ 
SW; Leoiurdodt Vinci, sail Wheit- 
Mmu, Praf. 3S1. 

BtdckiDi-fninn m'Oltiiin of the, SSS. 

Slockliic--aven- Hull, pirtore in, S3E. 

Submimne Oi>cnlinDB Ht Glugow, 36. 

SjnicoiiG, Sie^ of, S. 

Tklhcofe Glui. IiDnnvEMiniti <ii,15« ; 
TEloimpe, Harilfrt irapravfd, UV: 
In.cntioB nf tlie, ItS-l (0 : Nf -rtonion, 

ISa'; SitW.Hcrtch'Ji'i.ieUM; lord 
Rome's, dMcribed, 188-170. 

Xelfnnl, TlMrau. and tlie Metini Sniper- 
ildn-lindee. 367-271)', BridEH limit 
tiv, 367; a Slienlitrf-liuy. Sa?! hia 
Stnlne in WeBtmrrisler Ailiey, 370. 

Tttedt nnmlli anil -Tiiaiiini Tunnel. SfH. 
n> Cottn. Wedgn 

Wilkiiu, Billion, on Fljiuf, «L< n 

'Willin'i Sneakiii-niidiliii, BO. 

Windsor Cullc>riian Ranert is. 71. 

WlnsoT, hii 6ai-1t^Ilng, sis, SU. 

Woneiter. lbs MvqBiii of, hii CinMf 
nflncnliBin. 104-111 : hliBriniA- 
---'=—'"' ^t«in-™pne,110,llli 


WoBon, Biibop, OB Gu-li^iliv, XI. 

Watt, Junn, ud the StBffl-oinKi in- 
""^ ' -'thmflUalUAehiii^Wf iMrft 
lBcnilini.S03i Copybinn^ 


uuiH, m: h- 

GluEow WateT-Korki 
MKorery.SOl.SOS- ■ 
Ttcwcomini'i Eh^i 

Snlptnn Copyfnir-mHlii 
""-'■-"-'■ Bid BoBliDa, 

sot; SleuB-CBKin'eFatoBiMWiMl 
SleuB NarlgitloD, 306; EuhoI- 
planet Wbcelt, SM; Tilt-h»DiBer,9Mt 
Tribntei tiy Araea, Amotl, Bna^m, 
Juffrey, nnd Wurdnronli, !)0S. M; 
" ' n Weifhla and Memtmi, IMi 


Wedffwood. Jr 
190) hii'-C 


; ps:';